Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1242

Search results for: molecularly imprinted polymer

1242 Synthesis and Characterization of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer as a New Adsorbent for the Removal of Pyridine from Organic Medium

Authors: Opeyemi Elujulo, Aderonke Okoya, Kehinde Awokoya


Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for the adsorption of pyridine (PYD) was obtained from PYD (the template), styrene (the functional monomer), divinyl benzene (the crosslinker), benzoyl peroxide (the initiator), and water (the porogen). When the template was removed by solvent extraction, imprinted binding sites were left in the polymer material that are capable of selectively rebinding the target molecule. The material was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Batch adsorption experiments were performed to study the adsorption of the material in terms of adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamic parameters. The results showed that the imprinted polymer exhibited higher affinity for PYD compared to non-imprinted polymer (NIP).

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, bulk polymerization, environmental pollutant, adsorption

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1241 Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer: Synthesis, Characterization and Removal of Selected Acidic Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

Authors: Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Luke Chimuka


Removal of organics from wastewater offers a better water quality, therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the elimination of selected organics from water. A multi-template MIP for the adsorption of naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac was synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. A MIP was synthesized at 70°C by employing 2-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, toluene and 1,1’-azobis-(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) as functional monomer, cross-linker, porogen and initiator, respectively. Thermogravimetric characterization indicated that the polymer backbone collapses at 250°C and scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous and roughness nature of the MIP after elution of templates. The performance of the MIP in aqueous solutions was evaluated by optimizing several adsorption parameters. The optimized adsorption conditions were 50 mg of MIP, extraction time of 10 min, a sample pH of 4.6 and the initial concentration of 30 mg/L. The imprinting factors obtained for naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1.25, 1.42, and 2.01, respectively. The order of selectivity for the MIP was; diclofenac > ibuprofen > naproxen. MIP showed great swelling in water with an initial swelling rate of 2.62 g/(g min). The synthesized MIP proved to be able to adsorb naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac from contaminated deionized water, wastewater influent and effluent.

Keywords: adsorption, molecularly imprinted polymer, multi template, pharmaceuticals

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1240 Fabrication of a New Electrochemical Sensor Based on New Nanostructured Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole for Selective and Sensitive Determination of Morphine

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Arash Ghoorchian, Maryam Shanesaz, Reza Naderi


Morphine (MO), the most effective painkiller, is considered the reference by which analgesics are assessed. It is very necessary for the biomedical applications to detect and maintain the MO concentrations in the blood and urine with in safe ranges. To date, there are many expensive techniques for detecting MO. Recently, many electrochemical sensors for direct determination of MO were constructed. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is a polymeric material, which has a built-in functionality for the recognition of a particular chemical substance with its complementary cavity.This paper reports a sensor for MO using a combination of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and differential-pulse voltammetry (DPV). Electropolymerization of MO doped polypyrrole yielded poor quality, but a well-doped, nanostructure and increased impregnation has been obtained in the pH=12. Above a pH of 11, MO is in the anionic forms. The effect of various experimental parameters including pH, scan rate and accumulation time on the voltammetric response of MO was investigated. At the optimum conditions, the concentration of MO was determined using DPV in a linear range of 7.07 × 10−6 to 2.1 × 10−4 mol L−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.999, and a detection limit of 13.3 × 10-8 mol L−1, respectively. The effect of common interferences on the current response of MO namely ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) is studied. The modified electrode can be used for the determination of MO spiked into urine samples, and excellent recovery results were obtained. The nanostructured polypyrrole films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and furrier transforms infrared (FTIR).

Keywords: morphine detection, sensor, polypyrrole, nanostructure, molecularly imprinted polymer

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1239 Consequence of Multi-Templating of Closely Related Structural Analogues on a Chitosan-Methacryllic Acid Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Matrix-Thermal and Chromatographic Traits

Authors: O.Ofoegbu, S. Roongnapa, A.N. Eboatu


Most polluted environments, most challengingly, aerosol types, contain a cocktail of different toxicants. Multi-templating of matrices have been the recent target by researchers in a bid to solving complex mixed-toxicant challenges using single or common remediation systems. This investigation looks at the effect of such multi-templated system vis-a-vis the synthesis by non-covalent interaction, of a molecularly imprinted polymer architecture using nicotine and its structural analogue Phenylalanine amide individually and, in the blend, (50:50), as template materials in a Chitosan-Methacrylic acid functional monomer matrix. The temperature for polymerization is 60OC and time for polymerization, 12hrs (water bath heating), 4mins for (microwave heating). The characteristic thermal properties of the molecularly imprinted materials are investigated using Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) profiling, while the absorption and separation efficiencies based on the relative retention times and peak areas of templates were studied amongst other properties. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results obtained, show the creation of heterogeneous nanocavities, regardless, the introduction of Caffeine a close structural analogue presented near-zero perfusion. This confirms the selectivity and specificity of the templated polymers despite its dual-templated nature. The STA results presented the materials as having decomposition temperatures above 250OC and a relative loss in mass of less than19% over a period within 50mins of heating. Consequent to this outcome, multi-templated systems can be fabricated to sequester specifically and selectively targeted toxicants in a mixed toxicant populated system effectively.

Keywords: chitosan, dual-templated, methacrylic acid, mixed-toxicants, molecularly-imprinted-polymer

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1238 Adsorption and Selective Determination Ametryne in Food Sample Using of Magnetically Separable Molecular Imprinted Polymers

Authors: Sajjad Hussain, Sabir Khan, Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor


This work demonstrates the synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for determination of a selected pesticide (ametryne) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Computational simulation can assist the choice of the most suitable monomer for the synthesis of polymers. The (MMIPs) were polymerized at the surface of [email protected] magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using 2-vinylpyradine as functional monomer, ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) is a cross-linking agent and 2,2-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) used as radical initiator. Magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymer (MNIPs) was also prepared under the same conditions without analyte. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Pseudo first order and pseudo second order model were applied to study kinetics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process followed the pseudo first order kinetic model. Adsorption equilibrium data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the sorption equilibrium process was well described by Langmuir isotherm mode. The selectivity coefficients (α) of MMIPs for ametryne with respect to atrazine, ciprofloxacin and folic acid were 4.28, 12.32, and 14.53 respectively. The spiked recoveries ranged between 91.33 and 106.80% were obtained. The results showed high affinity and selectivity of MMIPs for pesticide ametryne in the food samples.

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, pesticides, magnetic nanoparticles, adsorption

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1237 Use of Magnetically Separable Molecular Imprinted Polymers for Determination of Pesticides in Food Samples

Authors: Sabir Khan, Sajjad Hussain, Ademar Wong, Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor


The present work aims to develop magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for determination of a selected pesticide (ametryne) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Computational simulation can assist the choice of the most suitable monomer for the synthesis of polymers. The (MMIPs) were polymerized at the surface of [email protected] magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using 2-vinylpyradine as functional monomer, ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) is a cross-linking agent and 2,2-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) used as radical initiator. Magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymer (MNIPs) was also prepared under the same conditions without analyte. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Pseudo first-order and pseudo second order model were applied to study kinetics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Adsorption equilibrium data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the sorption equilibrium process was well described by Langmuir isotherm mode. The selectivity coefficients (α) of MMIPs for ametryne with respect to atrazine, ciprofloxacin and folic acid were 4.28, 12.32 and 14.53 respectively. The spiked recoveries ranged between 91.33 and 106.80% were obtained. The results showed high affinity and selectivity of MMIPs for pesticide ametryne in the food samples.

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymer, pesticides, magnetic nanoparticles, adsorption

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1236 A Sensitive Approach on Trace Analysis of Methylparaben in Wastewater and Cosmetic Products Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

Authors: Soukaina Motia, Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Alassane Diouf, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari


Parabens are the antimicrobial molecules largely used in cosmetic products as a preservative agent. Among them, the methylparaben (MP) is the most frequently used ingredient in cosmetic preparations. Nevertheless, their potential dangers led to the development of sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples. Firstly, a sensitive and selective molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) based on screen-printed gold electrode (Au-SPE), assembled on a polymeric layer of carboxylated poly(vinyl-chloride) (PVC-COOH), was developed. After the template removal, the obtained material was able to rebind MP and discriminate it among other interfering species such as glucose, sucrose, and citric acid. The behavior of molecular imprinted sensor was characterized by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Then, the biosensor was found to have a linear detection range from 0.1 pg.mL-1 to 1 ng.mL-1 and a low limit of detection of 0.12 fg.mL-1 and 5.18 pg.mL-1 by DPV and EIS, respectively. For applications, this biosensor was employed to determine MP content in four wastewaters in Meknes city and two cosmetic products (shower gel and shampoo). The operational reproducibility and stability of this biosensor were also studied. Secondly, another MIP biosensor based on tungsten trioxide (WO3) functionalized by gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) assembled on a polymeric layer of PVC-COOH was developed. The main goal was to increase the sensitivity of the biosensor. The developed MIP biosensor was successfully applied for the MP determination in wastewater samples and cosmetic products.

Keywords: cosmetic products, methylparaben, molecularly imprinted polymer, wastewater

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1235 Efficiency of a Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Selective Removal of Chlorpyrifos from Water Samples

Authors: Oya A. Urucu, Aslı B. Çiğil, Hatice Birtane, Ece K. Yetimoğlu, Memet Vezir Kahraman


Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide which can be found in environmental water samples. The efficiency and reuse of a molecularly imprinted polymer (chlorpyrifos - MIP) were investigated for the selective removal of chlorpyrifos residues. MIP was prepared with UV curing thiol-ene polymerization technology by using multifunctional thiol and ene monomers. The thiol-ene curing reaction is a radical induced process, however unlike other photoinitiated polymerization processes, this polymerization process is a free-radical reaction that proceeds by a step-growth mechanism, involving two main steps; a free-radical addition followed by a chain transfer reaction. It assures a very rapidly formation of a uniform crosslinked network with low shrinkage, reduced oxygen inhibition during curing and excellent adhesion. In this study, thiol-ene based UV-curable polymeric materials were prepared by mixing pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate), glyoxal bis diallyl acetal, polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and photoinitiator. Chlorpyrifos was added at a definite ratio to the prepared formulation. Chemical structure and thermal properties were characterized by FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The pesticide analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The influences of some analytical parameters such as pH, sample volume, amounts of analyte concentration were studied for the quantitative recoveries of the analyte. The proposed MIP method was applied to the determination of chlorpyrifos in river and tap water samples. The use of the MIP provided a selective and easy solution for removing chlorpyrifos from the water.

Keywords: molecularly imprinted polymers, selective removal, thilol-ene, uv-curable polymer

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1234 Synthesis of Ion Imprinted Polymer for Removal of Chromium(III) Ion in Environmental Samples

Authors: Elham Moniri, Zohre Moradi


In this study, ion imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The morphology imprinted polymer was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Then, the effects of various parameters on Cr(III) sorption such as pH, contact time were investigated. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cr(III) was 6. The sorption capacity of imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde for Cr(III) were 4 mg.g−1. A Cr(III) removal of 97-98% was obtained. The profile of Cr(III) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Cr(III) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: chromium ion, environmental sample, elimination, imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde, polymeric sorbent

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1233 Molecularly Imprinted Polymer and Computational Study of (E)-2-Cyano-3-(Dimethylamino)-N-(2,4-Dioxo-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydropyrimidin-5-Yl)Acrylam-Ide and Its Applications in Industrial Applications

Authors: Asmaa M. Fahim


In this investigation, the (E)-2-cyano-3-(dimethylamino)-N-(2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-5-yl)acrylam-ide (4) which used TAM as a template which interacts with Methacrylic Acid (MAA) monomer, in the presence of CH₃CN as progen. The TAM-MMA complex interactions are dependent on stable hydrogen bonding interaction between the carboxylic acid group of TAM(Template) and the hydroxyl group of MMA(methyl methacrylate) with minimal interference of porogen CH₃CN. The physical computational studies were used to optimize their structures and frequency calculations. The binding energies between TAM with different monomers showed the most stable molar ratio of 1:4, which was confirmed through experimental analysis. The optimized polymers were investigated in industrial applications.

Keywords: molecular imprinted polymer, computational studies, SEM, spectral analysis, industrial applications

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1232 Synthesis of Highly Sensitive Molecular Imprinted Sensor for Selective Determination of Doxycycline in Honey Samples

Authors: Nadia El Alami El Hassani, Soukaina Motia, Benachir Bouchikhi, Nezha El Bari


Doxycycline (DXy) is a cycline antibiotic, most frequently prescribed to treat bacterial infections in veterinary medicine. However, its broad antimicrobial activity and low cost, lead to an intensive use, which can seriously affect human health. Therefore, its spread in the food products has to be monitored. The scope of this work was to synthetize a sensitive and very selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for DXy detection in honey samples. Firstly, the synthesis of this biosensor was performed by casting a layer of carboxylate polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) on the working surface of a gold screen-printed electrode (Au-SPE) in order to bind covalently the analyte under mild conditions. Secondly, DXy as a template molecule was bounded to the activated carboxylic groups, and the formation of MIP was performed by a biocompatible polymer by the mean of polyacrylamide matrix. Then, DXy was detected by measurements of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A non-imprinted polymer (NIP) prepared in the same conditions and without the use of template molecule was also performed. We have noticed that the elaborated biosensor exhibits a high sensitivity and a linear behavior between the regenerated current and the logarithmic concentrations of DXy from 0.1 pg.mL−1 to 1000 pg.mL−1. This technic was successfully applied to determine DXy residues in honey samples with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 pg.mL−1 and an excellent selectivity when compared to the results of oxytetracycline (OXy) as analogous interfering compound. The proposed method is cheap, sensitive, selective, simple, and is applied successfully to detect DXy in honey with the recoveries of 87% and 95%. Considering these advantages, this system provides a further perspective for food quality control in industrial fields.

Keywords: doxycycline, electrochemical sensor, food control, gold nanoparticles, honey, molecular imprinted polymer

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1231 Generating a Multiplex Sensing Platform for the Accurate Diagnosis of Sepsis

Authors: N. Demertzis, J. L. Bowen


Sepsis is a complex and rapidly evolving condition, resulting from uncontrolled prolonged activation of host immune system due to pathogenic insult. The aim of this study is the development of a multiplex electrochemical sensing platform, capable of detecting both pathogen associated and host immune markers to enable the rapid and definitive diagnosis of sepsis. A combination of aptamers and molecular imprinting approaches have been employed to generate sensing systems for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), c-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Gold working electrodes were mechanically polished and electrochemically cleaned with 0.1 M sulphuric acid using cyclic voltammetry (CV). Following activation, a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was generated, by incubating the electrodes with a thiolated anti-LPS aptamer / dithiodibutiric acid (DTBA) mixture (1:20). 3-aminophenylboronic acid (3-APBA) in combination with the anti-LPS aptamer was used for the development of the hybrid molecularly imprinted sensor (apta-MIP). Aptasensors, targeting PCT and CRP were also fabricated, following the same approach as in the case of LPS, with mercaptohexanol (MCH) replacing DTBA. In the case of the CRP aptasensor, the SAM was formed following incubation of a 1:1 aptamer: MCH mixture. However, in the case of PCT, the SAM was formed with the aptamer itself, with subsequent backfilling with 1 μM MCH. The binding performance of all systems has been evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The apta-MIP’s polymer thickness is controlled by varying the number of electropolymerisation cycles. In the ideal number of polymerisation cycles, the polymer must cover the electrode surface and create a binding pocket around LPS and its aptamer binding site. Less polymerisation cycles will create a hybrid system which resembles an aptasensor, while more cycles will be able to cover the complex and demonstrate a bulk polymer-like behaviour. Both aptasensor and apta-MIP were challenged with LPS and compared to conventional imprinted (absence of aptamer from the binding site, polymer formed in presence of LPS) and non-imprinted polymers (NIPS, absence of LPS whilst hybrid polymer is formed). A stable LPS aptasensor, capable of detecting down to 5 pg/ml of LPS was generated. The apparent Kd of the system was estimated at 17 pM, with a Bmax of approximately 50 pM. The aptasensor demonstrated high specificity to LPS. The apta-MIP demonstrated superior recognition properties with a limit of detection of 1 fg/ml and a Bmax of 100 pg/ml. The CRP and PCT aptasensors were both able to detect down to 5 pg/ml. Whilst full binding performance is currently being evaluated, there is none of the sensors demonstrate cross-reactivity towards LPS, CRP or PCT. In conclusion, stable aptasensors capable of detecting LPS, PCT and CRP at low concentrations have been generated. The realisation of a multiplex panel such as described herein, will effectively contribute to the rapid, personalised diagnosis of sepsis.

Keywords: aptamer, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, molecularly imprinted polymers, sepsis

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1230 Determination of Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies on Quartz Crystal Microbalance Based Nanosensors

Authors: Y. Saylan, F. Yılmaz, A. Denizli


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which is the most common autoimmune disorder of the body's own immune system attacking healthy cells. RA has both articular and systemic effects.Until now romatiod factor (RF) assay is used the most commonly diagnosed RA but it is not specific. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are IgG autoantibodies which recognize citrullinated peptides and offer improved specificity in early diagnosis of RA compared to RF. Anti-CCP antibodies have specificity for the diagnosis of RA from 91 to 98% and the sensitivity rate of 41-68%. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) are materials that are easy to prepare, less expensive, stable have a talent for molecular recognition and also can be manufactured in large quantities with good reproducibility. Molecular recognition-based adsorption techniques have received much attention in several fields because of their high selectivity for target molecules. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is an effective, simple, inexpensive approach mass changes that can be converted into an electrical signal. The applications for specific determination of chemical substances or biomolecules, crystal electrodes, cover by the thin films for bind or adsorption of molecules. In this study, we have focused our attention on combining of molecular imprinting into nanofilms and QCM nanosensor approaches and producing QCM nanosensor for anti-CCP, chosen as a model protein, using anti-CCP imprinted nanofilms. For this aim, anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements and ellipsometry. The non-imprinted nanosensor was also prepared to evaluate the selectivity of the imprinted nanosensor. Anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor was tested for real-time detection of anti-CCP from aqueous solution. The kinetic and affinity studies were determined by using anti-CCP solutions with different concentrations. The responses related with mass shifts (Δm) and frequency shifts (Δf) were used to evaluate adsorption properties and to calculate binding (Ka) and dissociation (Kd) constants. To show the selectivity of the anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor, competitive adsorption of anti-CCP and IgM was investigated.The results indicate that anti-CCP imprinted QCM nanosensor has a higher adsorption capabilities for anti-CCP than for IgM, due to selective cavities in the polymer structure.

Keywords: anti-CCP, molecular imprinting, nanosensor, rheumatoid arthritis, QCM

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1229 The Fabrication of Stress Sensing Based on Artificial Antibodies to Cortisol by Molecular Imprinted Polymer

Authors: Supannika Klangphukhiew, Roongnapa Srichana, Rina Patramanon


Cortisol has been used as a well-known commercial stress biomarker. A homeostasis response to psychological stress is indicated by an increased level of cortisol produced in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Chronic psychological stress contributing to the high level of cortisol relates to several health problems. In this study, the cortisol biosensor was fabricated that mimicked the natural receptors. The artificial antibodies were prepared using molecular imprinted polymer technique that can imitate the performance of natural anti-cortisol antibody with high stability. Cortisol-molecular imprinted polymer (cortisol-MIP) was obtained using the multi-step swelling and polymerization protocol with cortisol as a target molecule combining methacrylic acid:acrylamide (2:1) with bisacryloyl-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-ethylenediamine and ethylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine as cross-linkers. Cortisol-MIP was integrated to the sensor. It was coated on the disposable screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for portable electrochemical analysis. The physical properties of Cortisol-MIP were characterized by means of electron microscope techniques. The binding characteristics were evaluated via covalent patterns changing in FTIR spectra which were related to voltammetry response. The performance of cortisol-MIP modified SPCE was investigated in terms of detection range, high selectivity with a detection limit of 1.28 ng/ml. The disposable cortisol biosensor represented an application of MIP technique to recognize steroids according to their structures with feasibility and cost-effectiveness that can be developed to use in point-of-care.

Keywords: stress biomarker, cortisol, molecular imprinted polymer, screen-printed carbon electrode

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1228 Chromatographic Preparation and Performance on Zinc Ion Imprinted Monolithic Column and Its Adsorption Property

Authors: X. Han, S. Duan, C. Liu, C. Zhou, W. Zhu, L. Kong


The ionic imprinting technique refers to the three-dimensional rigid structure with the fixed pore sizes, which was formed by the binding interactions of ions and functional monomers and used ions as the template, it has a high level of recognition to the ionic template. The preparation of monolithic column by the in-situ polymerization need to put the compound of template, functional monomers, cross-linking agent and initiating agent into the solution, dissolve it and inject to the column tube, and then the compound will have a polymerization reaction at a certain temperature, after the synthetic reaction, we washed out the unread template and solution. The monolithic columns are easy to prepare, low consumption and cost-effective with fast mass transfer, besides, they have many chemical functions. But the monolithic columns have some problems in the practical application, such as low-efficiency, quantitative analysis cannot be performed accurately because of the peak shape is wide and has tailing phenomena; the choice of polymerization systems is limited and the lack of theoretical foundations. Thus the optimization of components and preparation methods is an important research direction. During the preparation of ionic imprinted monolithic columns, pore-forming agent can make the polymer generate the porous structure, which can influence the physical properties of polymer, what’ s more, it can directly decide the stability and selectivity of polymerization reaction. The compounds generated in the pre-polymerization reaction could directly decide the identification and screening capabilities of imprinted polymer; thus the choice of pore-forming agent is quite critical in the preparation of imprinted monolithic columns. This article mainly focuses on the research that when using different pore-forming agents, the impact of zinc ion imprinted monolithic column on the enrichment performance of zinc ion.

Keywords: high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ionic imprinting, monolithic column, pore-forming agent

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1227 Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles (MIP NPs) as Non-Animal Antibodies Substitutes for Detection of Viruses

Authors: Alessandro Poma, Kal Karim, Sergey Piletsky, Giuseppe Battaglia


The recent increasing emergency threat to public health of infectious influenza diseases has prompted interest in the detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) H5N1 in humans as well as animals. A variety of technologies for diagnosing AIV infection have been developed. However, various disadvantages (costs, lengthy analyses, and need for high-containment facilities) make these methods less than ideal in their practical application. Molecularly Imprinted Polymeric Nanoparticles (MIP NPs) are suitable to overcome these limitations by having high affinity, selectivity, versatility, scalability and cost-effectiveness with the versatility of post-modification (labeling – fluorescent, magnetic, optical) opening the way to the potential introduction of improved diagnostic tests capable of providing rapid differential diagnosis. Here we present our first results in the production and testing of MIP NPs for the detection of AIV H5N1. Recent developments in the solid-phase synthesis of MIP NPs mean that for the first time a reliable supply of ‘soluble’ synthetic antibodies can be made available for testing as potential biological or diagnostic active molecules. The MIP NPs have the potential to detect viruses that are widely circulating in farm animals and indeed humans. Early and accurate identification of the infectious agent will expedite appropriate control measures. Thus, diagnosis at an early stage of infection of a herd or flock or individual maximizes the efficiency with which containment, prevention and possibly treatment strategies can be implemented. More importantly, substantiating the practicability’s of these novel reagents should lead to an initial reduction and eventually to a potential total replacement of animals, both large and small, to raise such specific serological materials.

Keywords: influenza virus, molecular imprinting, nanoparticles, polymers

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1226 A Multi-Templated Fe-Ni-Cu Ion Imprinted Polymer for the Selective and Simultaneous Removal of Toxic Metallic Ions from Wastewater

Authors: Morlu Stevens, Bareki Batlokwa


The use of treated wastewater is widely employed to compensate for the scarcity of safe and uncontaminated freshwater. However, the existence of toxic heavy metal ions in the wastewater pose a health hazard to animals and the environment, hence, the importance for an effective technique to tackle the challenge. A multi-templated ion imprinted sorbent (Fe,Ni,Cu-IIP) for the simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions from waste water was synthesised employing molecular imprinting technology (MIT) via thermal free radical bulk polymerization technique. Methacrylic acid (MAA) was employed as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethylacrylate (EGDMA) as cross-linking agent, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as the initiator, Fe, Ni, Cu ions as template ions, and 1,10-phenanthroline as the complexing agent. The template ions were exhaustively washed off the synthesized polymer by solvent extraction in several washing steps, while periodically increasing solvent (HCl) concentration from 1.0 M to 10.0 M. The physical and chemical properties of the sorbents were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were employed. Optimization of operational parameters such as time, pH and sorbent dosage to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbents were investigated and found to be 15 min, 7.5 and 666.7 mg/L respectively. Selectivity of ion-imprinted polymers and competitive sorption studies between the template and similar ions were carried out and showed good selectivity towards the targeted metal ion by removing 90% - 98% of the templated ions as compared to 58% - 62% of similar ions. The sorbents were further applied for the selective removal of Fe, Ni and Cu from real wastewater samples and recoveries of 92.14 ± 0.16% - 106.09 ± 0.17% and linearities of R2 = 0.9993 - R2 = 0.9997 were achieved.

Keywords: ion imprinting, ion imprinted polymers, heavy metals, wastewater

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1225 Development of Milky Products Leavend by Kefir Grains with Reduced Lactose and Flavored with Tropical Fruit

Authors: A. L. Balieiro, D. S. Silveira, R. A. Santos, L. S. Freitas, O. L. S. De Alsina, A. S. Lima, C. M. F. Soares


The state of Sergipe has been emerging in milk production, mainly in the dairy basin located in the northeast of the state of the Brazil. However, this area concentrates the production of dairy, developing diverse products with higher aggregated value and scent and regional flavours. With this goal the present wok allows the development of dairy drinks with reduced lactose index, using kefir grains flavored with mangaba pulp. Initially, the removal of milk lactose was evaluated in adsorption columns completed with silica particles obtained by molecular impression technique, using sol ? gel method with the presence and absence of lactose biomolecule, molecular imprinted polymer (PIM) or pure matrix (MP), respectively. Then kefir grains were used for the development of dairy drinks flavored with regional fruits (mangaba). The products were analyzed sensorially, evaluated the probiotic potential and the removal of the lactose. Among the products obtained, the one that present best result in the sensorially was to the drink with removal PIM flavored of mangaba, for which around 60% of the testers indicated that would buy the new product.

Keywords: molecular imprinted polymer, milk, lactose, kefir

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1224 Fabrication of Highly Stable Low-Density Self-Assembled Monolayers by Thiolyne Click Reaction

Authors: Leila Safazadeh, Brad Berron


Self-assembled monolayers have tremendous impact in interfacial science, due to the unique opportunity they offer to tailor surface properties. Low-density self-assembled monolayers are an emerging class of monolayers where the environment-interfacing portion of the adsorbate has a greater level of conformational freedom when compared to traditional monolayer chemistries. This greater range of motion and increased spacing between surface-bound molecules offers new opportunities in tailoring adsorption phenomena in sensing systems. In particular, we expect low-density surfaces to offer a unique opportunity to intercalate surface bound ligands into the secondary structure of protiens and other macromolecules. Additionally, as many conventional sensing surfaces are built upon gold surfaces (SPR or QCM), these surfaces must be compatible with gold substrates. Here, we present the first stable method of generating low-density self assembled monolayer surfaces on gold for the analysis of their interactions with protein targets. Our approach is based on the 2:1 addition of thiol-yne chemistry to develop new classes of y-shaped adsorbates on gold, where the environment-interfacing group is spaced laterally from neighboring chemical groups. This technique involves an initial deposition of a crystalline monolayer of 1,10 decanedithiol on the gold substrate, followed by grafting of a low-packed monolayer on through a photoinitiated thiol-yne reaction in presence of light. Orthogonality of the thiol-yne chemistry (commonly referred to as a click chemistry) allows for preparation of low-density monolayers with variety of functional groups. To date, carboxyl, amine, alcohol, and alkyl terminated monolayers have been prepared using this core technology. Results from surface characterization techniques such as FTIR, contact angle goniometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy confirm the proposed low chain-chain interactions of the environment interfacing groups. Reductive desorption measurements suggest a higher stability for the click-LDMs compared to traditional SAMs, along with the equivalent packing density at the substrate interface, which confirms the proposed stability of the monolayer-gold interface. In addition, contact angle measurements change in the presence of an applied potential, supporting our description of a surface structure which allows the alkyl chains to freely orient themselves in response to different environments. We are studying the differences in protein adsorption phenomena between well packed and our loosely packed surfaces, and we expect this data will be ready to present at the GRC meeting. This work aims to contribute biotechnology science in the following manner: Molecularly imprinted polymers are a promising recognition mode with several advantages over natural antibodies in the recognition of small molecules. However, because of their bulk polymer structure, they are poorly suited for the rapid diffusion desired for recognition of proteins and other macromolecules. Molecularly imprinted monolayers are an emerging class of materials where the surface is imprinted, and there is not a bulk material to impede mass transfer. Further, the short distance between the binding site and the signal transduction material improves many modes of detection. My dissertation project is to develop a new chemistry for protein-imprinted self-assembled monolayers on gold, for incorporation into SPR sensors. Our unique contribution is the spatial imprinting of not only physical cues (seen in current imprinted monolayer techniques), but to also incorporate complementary chemical cues. This is accomplished through a photo-click grafting of preassembled ligands around a protein template. This conference is important for my development as a graduate student to broaden my appreciation of the sensor development beyond surface chemistry.

Keywords: low-density self-assembled monolayers, thiol-yne click reaction, molecular imprinting

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1223 Alternative Methods for the Detection of Nitrosamines in APIs and Finished Products

Authors: Jordan Bouilloux, Christophe Epinette, Henri Cardona, Anne-Marie Petit, Isabelle Demuynck, Fabrice Cantais, Claire Boursier-Neyret, Philippe Poisson, Syame Khater


Since the recall of various sartan medicines due to nitrosamine impurities in 2018, an emphasis has been implemented to track down those (potentially) genotoxic impurities in both APIs and finished products. By now, in our laboratories, the most commonly used method is liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Despite its extensive usage, LC-MS/MS is not the most adapted method for industry, mainly due to its cost, the requirement for heavy training, and the lack of automation. Therefore, the search for adaptable, fast and easy to implement methods is still ongoing. We are currently exploring three different approaches. Ideally, extraction and detection steps should be combined to minimize costs, time, and errors. The use of headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction, coupled to gas chromatography (HS-SPDE-GC), is a first approach, similar to LC-MS but easier to work with. The simultaneous extraction of various volatile impurities in a complex matrix is achieved using capture fibers varying in polarity. Detection can occur with flame ionization or an MS detector. A second approach involves molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with electrochemical detection methods. Once grafted onto electrodes, MIPs allows the specific and selective capture of a targeted molecule, resulting in a change in signal detection by the electrode, providing a simultaneous extraction and detection technique. Depending on the electroactivity of the considered target, voltammetric- or electrochemical impedance spectroscopic-based methods are employed to recover the signal. A third approach explores biological methods. After obtaining specific antibodies targeting nitrosamines, detection is achieved through a fluorescence polarization-based technique, affording quantification in the ng/mL range. Interestingly, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) appears to be less sensitive for the same model nitrosamine, demonstrating that the path to a generic method for various nitrosamines is still long.

Keywords: antibodies, electroanalysis, ELISA, fluorescence polarization, HS-SPDE-GC-MS, molecularly imprinted polymers, nitrosamines

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1222 Comparison of a Capacitive Sensor Functionalized with Natural or Synthetic Receptors Selective towards Benzo(a)Pyrene

Authors: Natalia V. Beloglazova, Pieterjan Lenain, Martin Hedstrom, Dietmar Knopp, Sarah De Saeger


In recent years polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which represent a hazard to humans and entire ecosystem, have been receiving an increased interest due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting properties. They are formed in all incomplete combustion processes of organic matter and, as a consequence, ubiquitous in the environment. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is on the priority list published by the Environmental Agency (US EPA) as the first PAH to be identified as a carcinogen and has often been used as a marker for PAHs contamination in general. It can be found in different types of water samples, therefore, the European Commission set up a limit value of 10 ng L–1 (10 ppt) for BAP in water intended for human consumption. Generally, different chromatographic techniques are used for PAHs determination, but these assays require pre-concentration of analyte, create large amounts of solvent waste, and are relatively time consuming and difficult to perform on-site. An alternative robust, stand-alone, and preferably cheap solution is needed. For example, a sensing unit which can be submerged in a river to monitor and continuously sample BaP. An affinity sensor based on capacitive transduction was developed. Natural antibodies or their synthetic analogues can be used as ligands. Ideally the sensor should operate independently over a longer period of time, e.g. several weeks or months, therefore the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was discussed. MIPs are synthetic antibodies which are selective for a chosen target molecule. Their robustness allows application in environments for which biological recognition elements are unsuitable or denature. They can be reused multiple times, which is essential to meet the stand-alone requirement. BaP is a highly lipophilic compound and does not contain any functional groups in its structure, thus excluding non-covalent imprinting methods based on ionic interactions. Instead, the MIPs syntheses were based on non-covalent hydrophobic and π-π interactions. Different polymerization strategies were compared and the best results were demonstrated by the MIPs produced using electropolymerization. 4-vinylpyridin (VP) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were used as monomer and cross-linker in the polymerization reaction. The selectivity and recovery of the MIP were compared to a non-imprinted polymer (NIP). Electrodes were functionalized with natural receptor (monoclonal anti-BaP antibody) and with MIPs selective towards BaP. Different sets of electrodes were evaluated and their properties such as sensitivity, selectivity and linear range were determined and compared. It was found that both receptor can reach the cut-off level comparable to the established ML, and despite the fact that the antibody showed the better cross-reactivity and affinity, MIPs were more convenient receptor due to their ability to regenerate and stability in river till 7 days.

Keywords: antibody, benzo(a)pyrene, capacitive sensor, MIPs, river water

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1221 Studying the Bond Strength of Geo-Polymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti


This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: geo-polymer, concrete, bond strength, behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
1220 Advantages of Matrix Solid Phase Dispersive (MSPD) Extraction Associated to MIPS versus MAE Liquid Extraction for the Simultaneous Analysis of PAHs, PCBs and Some Hydroxylated PAHs in Sediments

Authors: F. Portet-Koltalo, Y. Tian, I. Berger, C. Boulanger-Lecomte, A. Benamar, N. Machour


Sediments are complex environments which can accumulate a great variety of persistent toxic contaminants such as polychlorobiphenyles (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some of their more toxic degradation metabolites such as hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs). Owing to their composition, fine clayey sediments can be more difficult to extract than soils using conventional solvent extraction processes. So this study aimed to compare the potential of MSPD (matrix solid phase dispersive extraction) to extract PCBs, PAHs and OH-PAHs, in comparison with microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Methodologies: MAE extraction with various solvent mixtures was used to extract PCBs, PAHs and OH-PAHs from sediments in two runs, followed by two GC-MS analyses. MSPD consisted in crushing the dried sediment with dispersive agents, introducing the mixture in cartridges and eluting the target compounds with an appropriate volume of selected solvents. So MSPD combined with cartridges containing MIPs (molecularly imprinted polymers) designed for OH-PAHs was used to extract the three families of target compounds in only one run, followed by parallel analyses in GC-MS for PAHs/PCBs and HPLC-FLD for OH-PAHs. Results: MAE extraction was optimized to extract from clayey sediments, in two runs, PAHs/PCBs in one hand and OH-PAHs in the other hand. Indeed, the best conditions of extractions (mixtures of extracting solvents, temperature) were different if we consider the polarity and the thermodegradability of the different families of target contaminants: PAHs/PCBs were better extracted using an acetone/toluene 50/50 mixture at 130°C whereas OH-PAHs were better extracted using an acetonitrile/toluene 90/10 mixture at 100°C. Moreover, the two consecutive GC-MS analyses contributed to double the total analysis time. A matrix solid phase dispersive (MSPD) extraction procedure was also optimized, with the first objective of increasing the extraction recovery yields of PAHs and PCBs from fine-grained sediment. The crushing time (2-10 min), the nature of the dispersing agents added for purifying and increasing the extraction yields (Florisil, octadecylsilane, 3-chloropropyle, 4-benzylchloride), the nature and the volume of eluting solvents (methylene chloride, hexane, hexane/acetone…) were studied. It appeared that in the best conditions, MSPD was a better extraction method than MAE for PAHs and PCBs, with respectively, mean increases of 8.2% and 71%. This method was also faster, easier and less expensive. But the other advantage of MSPD was that it allowed to introduce easily, just after the first elution process of PAHs/PCBs, a step permitting the selective recovery of OH-PAHs. A cartridge containing MIPs designed for phenols was coupled to the cartridge containing the dispersed sediment, and various eluting solvents, different from those used for PAHs and PCBs, were tested to selectively concentrate and extract OH-PAHs. Thereafter OH-PAHs could be analyzed at the same time than PAHs and PCBs: the OH-PAH extract could be analyzed with HPLC-FLD, whereas the PAHs/PCBs extract was analyzed with GC-MS, adding only few minutes more to the total duration of the analytical process. Conclusion: MSPD associated to MIPs appeared to be an easy, fast and low expensive method, able to extract in one run a complex mixture of toxic apolar and more polar contaminants present in clayey fine-grained sediments, an environmental matrix which is generally difficult to analyze.

Keywords: contaminated fine-grained sediments, matrix solid phase dispersive extraction, microwave assisted extraction, molecularly imprinted polymers, multi-pollutant analysis

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1219 PVDF-HFP Based Nanocomposite Gel Polymer Electrolytes Dispersed with Zro2 for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: R. Sharma, A. Sil, S. Ray


Nanocomposites gel polymer electrolytes are gaining more and more attention among the researchers worldwide due to their possible applications in various electrochemical devices particularly in solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work we have investigated the effect of nanofibers on the electrical properties of PVDF-HFP based gel electrolytes. The nanocomposites polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with 10wt% of ZrO2. By analysis of impedance spectroscopy it has been demonstrated that the incorporation of ZrO2 into PVDF-HFP–(PC+DEC)–LiClO4 gel polymer electrolyte system significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. The enhancement of ionic conductivity seems to be correlated with the fact that the dispersion of ZrO2 to PVDF-HFP prevents polymer chain reorganization due to the high aspect ratio of ZrO2, resulting in reduction in polymer crystallinity, which gives rise to an increase in ionic conductivity. The decrease of crystallinity of PVDF-HFP due the addition of ZrO2 has been confirmed by XRD. The interaction of ZrO2 with various constituents of polymer electrolytes has been studied by FTIR spectroscopy. TEM results show that the fillers (ZrO2) has distributed uniformly in the polymer electrolytes. Moreover, ZrO2 added gel polymer electrolytes offer better thermal stability as compared to that of ZrO2 free electrolytes as confirmed by TGA analysis.

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, ZrO2, ionic conductivity, FTIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
1218 Single-Molecule Analysis of Structure and Dynamics in Polymer Materials by Super-Resolution Technique

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


The physical properties of polymer materials are dependent on the conformation and molecular motion of a polymer chain. Therefore, the structure and dynamic behavior of the single polymer chain have been the most important concerns in the field of polymer physics. However, it has been impossible to directly observe the conformation of the single polymer chain in a bulk medium. In the current work, the novel techniques to study the conformation and dynamics of a single polymer chain are proposed. Since a fluorescence method is extremely sensitive, the fluorescence microscopy enables the direct detection of a single molecule. However, the structure of the polymer chain as large as 100 nm cannot be resolved by conventional fluorescence methods because of the diffraction limit of light. In order to observe the single chains, we developed the labeling method of polymer materials with a photo-switchable dye and the super-resolution microscopy. The real-space conformational analysis of single polymer chains with the spatial resolution of 15-20 nm was achieved. The super-resolution microscopy enables us to obtain the three-dimensional coordinates; therefore, we succeeded the conformational analysis in three dimensions. The direct observation by the nanometric optical microscopy would reveal the detailed information on the molecular processes in the various polymer systems.

Keywords: polymer materials, single molecule, super-resolution techniques, conformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
1217 Effects of Polymer Adsorption and Desorption on Polymer Flooding in Waterflooded Reservoir

Authors: Sukruthai Sapniwat, Falan Srisuriyachai


Polymer Flooding is one of the most well-known methods in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technology which can be implemented after either primary or secondary recovery, resulting in favorable conditions for the displacement mechanism in order to lower the residual oil in the reservoir. Polymer substances can lower the mobility ratio of the whole process by increasing the viscosity of injected water. Therefore, polymer flooding can increase volumetric sweep efficiency, which leads to a better recovery factor. Moreover, polymer adsorption onto rock surface can help decrease reservoir permeability contrast with high heterogeneity. Due to the reduction of the absolute permeability, effective permeability to water, representing flow ability of the injected fluid, is also reduced. Once polymer is adsorbed onto rock surface, polymer molecule can be desorbed when different fluids are injected. This study is performed to evaluate the effects of the adsorption and desorption process of polymer solutions to yield benefits on the oil recovery mechanism. A reservoir model is constructed by reservoir simulation program called STAR® commercialized by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). Various polymer concentrations, starting times of polymer flooding process and polymer injection rates were evaluated with selected values of polymer desorption degrees including 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. The higher the value, the more adsorbed polymer molecules to return back to flowing fluid. According to the results, polymer desorption lowers polymer consumption, especially at low concentrations. Furthermore, starting time of polymer flooding and injection rate affect the oil production. The results show that waterflooding followed by earlier polymer flooding can increase the oil recovery factor while the higher injection rate also enhances the recovery. Polymer concentration is related to polymer consumption due to the two main benefits of polymer flooding control described above. Therefore, polymer slug size should be optimized based on polymer concentration. Polymer desorption causes polymer re-employment that is previously adsorbed onto rock surface, resulting in an increase of sweep efficiency in the further period of polymer flooding process. Even though waterflooding supports polymer injectivity, water cut at the producer can prematurely terminate the oil production. The injection rate decreases polymer adsorption due to decreased retention time of polymer flooding process.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery technology, polymer adsorption and desorption, polymer flooding, reservoir simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1216 Carbon Nanofibers Reinforced P(VdF-HFP) Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Battery Application

Authors: Anjan Sil, Rajni Sharma, Subrata Ray


The effect of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the electrical properties of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)) based gel polymer electrolytes has been investigated in the present work. The length and diameter ranges of CNFs used in the present work are 5-50 µm and 200-600 nm, respectively. The nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by solution casting technique with varying CNFs content in terms of weight percentage. Electrochemical impedance analysis demonstrates that the reinforcement of carbon nanofibers significantly enhances the ionic conductivity of the polymer electrolyte. The decrease of crystallinity of P(VdF-HFP) due the addition of CNFs has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The interaction of CNFs with various constituents of nanocomposite gel polymer electrolytes has been assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Moreover, CNFs added gel polymer electrolytes offer superior thermal stability as compared to that of CNFs free electrolytes as confirmed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: polymer electrolytes, CNFs, ionic conductivity, TGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
1215 Electromechanical Behaviour of Chitosan Based Electroactive Polymer

Authors: M. Sarikanat, E. Akar, I. Şen, Y. Seki, O. C. Yılmaz, B. O. Gürses, L. Cetin, O. Özdemir, K. Sever


Chitosan is a natural, nontoxic, polyelectrolyte, cheap polymer. In this study, chitosan based electroactive polymer (CBEAP) was fabricated. Electroactive properties of this polymer were investigated at different voltages. It exhibited excellent tip displacement at low voltages (1, 3, 5, 7 V). Tip displacement was increased as the applied voltage increased. Best tip displacement was investigated as 28 mm at 5V. Characterization of CBEAP was investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and tensile testing. CBEAP exhibited desired electroactive properties at low voltages. It is suitable for using in artificial muscle and various robotic applications.

Keywords: chitosan, electroactive polymer, electroactive properties

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1214 Synthesis, Characterization and Anti-Microbial Study of Urethanized Poly Vinyl Alcohol Metal Complexes

Authors: Maha A. Younus, Dhefaf H. Badri, Maha A. Al Abayaji, Taha M. Salih


Polymer metal complexes of poly vinyl alcohol and Cu (II), Ni (II), Mn (II) and Co (III) were prepared from the reaction of PVA with three different percentages of urea. The compound was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Analysis. It has been established that the polymer and its metal complexes showed good activities against nine pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiellapneumonae, Staphylococcusaureus, Staphylococcus Albus, Salmonella Typhoid, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Shigella Dysentery, Proteus Morgani, Brucella Militensis). The polymer metal complexes show activity higher than that of the free polymer. The increasing activities were in the order (polymer < pol-Mn< pol-Co < pol-Ni ˂ pol-Cu). The ability of these compounds to show antimicrobial properties suggests that they can be further evaluated for medicinal and/or environmental applications.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, PVA, polymer-metal complex, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
1213 Evaluation of Sequential Polymer Flooding in Multi-Layered Heterogeneous Reservoir

Authors: Panupong Lohrattanarungrot, Falan Srisuriyachai


Polymer flooding is a well-known technique used for controlling mobility ratio in heterogeneous reservoirs, leading to improvement of sweep efficiency as well as wellbore profile. However, low injectivity of viscous polymer solution attenuates oil recovery rate and consecutively adds extra operating cost. An attempt of this study is to improve injectivity of polymer solution while maintaining recovery factor, enhancing effectiveness of polymer flooding method. This study is performed by using reservoir simulation program to modify conventional single polymer slug into sequential polymer flooding, emphasizing on increasing of injectivity and also reduction of polymer amount. Selection of operating conditions for single slug polymer including pre-injected water, polymer concentration and polymer slug size is firstly performed for a layered-heterogeneous reservoir with Lorenz coefficient (Lk) of 0.32. A selected single slug polymer flooding scheme is modified into sequential polymer flooding with reduction of polymer concentration in two different modes: Constant polymer mass and reduction of polymer mass. Effects of Residual Resistance Factor (RRF) is also evaluated. From simulation results, it is observed that first polymer slug with the highest concentration has the main function to buffer between displacing phase and reservoir oil. Moreover, part of polymer from this slug is also sacrificed for adsorption. Reduction of polymer concentration in the following slug prevents bypassing due to unfavorable mobility ratio. At the same time, following slugs with lower viscosity can be injected easily through formation, improving injectivity of the whole process. A sequential polymer flooding with reduction of polymer mass shows great benefit by reducing total production time and amount of polymer consumed up to 10% without any downside effect. The only advantage of using constant polymer mass is slightly increment of recovery factor (up to 1.4%) while total production time is almost the same. Increasing of residual resistance factor of polymer solution yields a benefit on mobility control by reducing effective permeability to water. Nevertheless, higher adsorption results in low injectivity, extending total production time. Modifying single polymer slug into sequence of reduced polymer concentration yields major benefits on reducing production time as well as polymer mass. With certain design of polymer flooding scheme, recovery factor can even be further increased. This study shows that application of sequential polymer flooding can be certainly applied to reservoir with high value of heterogeneity since it requires nothing complex for real implementation but just a proper design of polymer slug size and concentration.

Keywords: polymer flooding, sequential, heterogeneous reservoir, residual resistance factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 367