Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 160

Search results for: emulsion

160 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani


In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
159 Pion/Muon Identification in a Nuclear Emulsion Cloud Chamber Using Neural Networks

Authors: Kais Manai


The main part of this work focuses on the study of pion/muon separation at low energy using a nuclear Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC) made of lead and nuclear emulsion films. The work consists of two parts: particle reconstruction algorithm and a Neural Network that assigns to each reconstructed particle the probability to be a muon or a pion. The pion/muon separation algorithm has been optimized by using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the ECC and tested on real data. The algorithm allows to achieve a 60% muon identification efficiency with a pion misidentification smaller than 3%.

Keywords: nuclear emulsion, particle identification, tracking, neural network

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
158 Ultrasonic Techniques to Characterize and Monitor Water-in-Oil Emulsion

Authors: E. A. Alshaafi, A. Prakash


Oil-water emulsions are commonly encountered in various industrial operations and at different stages of crude oil production and processing. Emulsions are often difficult to track and treat and can cause a number of costly problems which need to be avoided. The characteristics of the emulsion phase can vary with crude composition and types of impurities present in oil. The objectives of this study are the development of ultrasonic techniques to track and characterize emulsion phase generated during production and cleaning of crude oil. The position of emulsion layer is monitored with the help of ultrasonic probes suitably placed in the vessel. The sensitivity of the technique and its potential has been demonstrated based on extensive testing with different oil samples. The technique is also being developed to monitor emulsion phase characteristics such as stability, composition, and droplet size distribution. The ultrasonic parameters recorded are changes in acoustic velocity, signal attenuation and its frequency spectrum. Emulsion has been prepared with light mineral oil sample and the effects of various factors including mixing speed, temperature, surfactant, and solid particles concentrations have been investigated. The applied frequency for ultrasonic waves has been varied from 1 to 5 MHz to carry out a sensitivity analysis. Emulsion droplet structure is observed with optical microscopy and stability is examined by tracking the changes in ultrasonic parameters with time. A model based on ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy is being developed and tested to track changes in droplet size distribution with time.

Keywords: ultrasonic techniques, emulsion, characterization, droplet size

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
157 Design Procedure of Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixtures

Authors: Hayder Shanbara, Felicite Ruddock, William Atherton, Ali Al-Rifaie


In highways construction, Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is used predominantly as a paving material from many years. Around 90 percent of the world road network is laid by flexible pavements. However, there are some restrictions on paving hot mix asphalt such as immoderate greenhouse gas emission, rainy season difficulties, fuel and energy consumption and cost. Therefore, Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixture (CBEM) is considered an alternative mix to the HMA. CBEM is the popular type of Cold Mix Asphalt (CMA). It is unheated emulsion, aggregate and filler mixtures, which can be prepared and mixed at ambient temperature. This research presents a simple and more practicable design procedure of CBEM and discusses limitations of this design. CBEM is a mixture of bitumen emulsion and aggregates that mixed and produced at ambient temperature. It is relatively easy to produce, but the design procedure that provided by Asphalt Institute (Manual Series 14 (1989)) pose some issues in its practical application.

Keywords: cold bitumen, emulsion mixture, design procedure, pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
156 Preparation and Characterization of Water-in-Oil Nanoemulsion of 5-Fluorouracil to Enhance Skin Permeation for Treatment of Skin Diseases.

Authors: P. S. Rajinikanth, Shobana Mariappan, Jestin Chellian


The objective of the study was to prepare and characterize a water-in-oil nano emulsion of 5-Fluorouracil (5FU) to enhance the skin penetration. The present study describes a nano emulsion of 5FU using Capyrol PGMC, Transcutol HP and PEG 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The optimized formulations were further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential in order to confirm the stability of the optimized nano emulsions. The in-vitro characterization results showed that the droplets of prepared formulation were ~100 nm with ± 15 zeta potential. In vitro skin permeation studies was conducted in albino mice skin. Significant increase in permeability parameters was also observed in nano emulsion formulations (P<0.05). The steady-state flux (Jss), enhancement ration and permeability coefficient (Kp) for optimized nano emulsion formulation (FU2, FU1, 1:1 S mix were found to be 24.21 ±2.45 μg/cm2/h, 3.28±0.87 & 19.52±1.87 cm/h, respectively), which were significant compared with conventional gel. The in vitro and in vivo skin deposition studies in rat indicated that the amount of drug deposited from the nano emulsion (292.45 µg/cm2) in skin was significant (P<0.05) an increased as compared to a conventional 5FU gel (121.42 µg/cm2). The skin irritation study using rat skin showed that the mean irritation index of the nano emulsion reduced significantly (P<0.05) as compared with conventional gel contain 1% 5FU. The results from this study suggest that a water-in-oil nano emulsion could be safely used to promote skin penetration of 5FU following topical application.

Keywords: nano emulsion, controlled release, 5 fluorouracil, skin penetration, skin irritation

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
155 Application of Liquid Emulsion Membrane Technique for the Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Aliquat 336 as a Carrier

Authors: B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi, B. Guezzen


In the present work, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique was applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) present in aqueous samples. Aliquat 336 (Chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium) was used as carrier to extract cadmium(II). The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of various parameters affected the ELM formation and its stability and testing the performance of the prepared ELM on removal of cadmium by using synthetic solution with different concentrations. Experiments were conducted to optimize pH of the feed solution and it was found that cadmium(II) can be extracted at pH 6.5. The influence of the carrier concentration and treat ratio on the extraction process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimal values are respectively 3% (Aliquat 336) and a ratio (feed: emulsion) equal to 1:1.

Keywords: cadmium, carrier, emulsion liquid membrane, surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
154 Characteristics of Oil-In-Water Emulsion Stabilized with Pregelatinized Waxy Rice Starch

Authors: R. Yulianingsih, S. Gohtani


Characteristics of pregelatinized waxy rice starch (PWR) gelatinized at different temperatures (65, 75, and 85 °C, abbreviated as PWR 65, 75 and 85 respectively) and their emulsion-stabilizing properties at different starch concentrations (3, 5, 7, and 9%) were studied. The yield stress and consistency index value of PWR solution increased with an increase in starch concentration. The pseudoplasticity of PWR 65 solution increased and that for both PWR 75 and 85 solution decreased with an increase in starch concentration. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profiles analyzed by Kratky Plot indicated that PWR 65 is natively unfolded particles while PWR 75 and 85 are the globular particles. The characteristics of emulsions stabilized with PWR were influenced by the temperature of gelatinization process and starch concentration. Elevated concentration of starch decreased the value of yield stress and increased the consistency index. PWR 65 produce stable emulsion to creaming at starch concentrations more than 5%, while PWR 85 is able to produce stable emulsion to both creaming and coalescence of droplets.

Keywords: emulsion, gelatinization temperature, rheology, small-angle X-ray scattering, waxy rice starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
153 Microfluidized Fiber Based Oleogels for Encapsulation of Lycopene

Authors: Behic Mert


This study reports a facile approach to structure soft solids from microfluidizer lycopene-rich plant based structure and oil. First carotenoid-rich plant material (pumpkin was used in this study) processed with high-pressure microfluidizer to release lycopene molecules, then an emulsion was formed by mixing processed plant material and oil. While, in emulsion state lipid soluble carotenoid molecules were allowed to dissolve in the oil phase, the fiber material of plant material provided the network which was required for emulsion stabilization. Additional hydrocolloids (gelatin, xhantan, and pectin) up to 0.5% were also used to reinforce the emulsion stability and their impact on final product properties were evaluated via rheological, textural and oxidation studies. Finally, water was removed from emulsion phase by drying in a tray dryer at 40°C for 36 hours, and subsequent shearing resulted in soft solid (ole gel) structures. The microstructure of these systems was revealed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Effect of hydrocolloids on total lycopene and surface lycopene contents were also evaluated. The surface lycopene was lowest in gelatin containing oleo gels and highest in pectin-containing oleo gels. This study outlines the novel emulsion-based structuring method that can be used to encapsulate lycopene without the need of separate extraction of them.

Keywords: lycopene, encapsulation, fiber, oleo gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
152 Enhancement Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Separation of Edible Oil from Oil-Water Emulsion

Authors: Olfat A. Fadali, Mohamed S. Mahmoud, Omnia H. Abdelraheem, Shimaa G. Mohammed


The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the removal of edible oil from oil-in-water emulsion by means of electrocoagulation was investigated in rectangular batch electrochemical cell with DC current. Iron (Fe) plate anodes and stainless steel cathodes were employed as electrodes. The effect of different magnetic field intensities (1.9, 3.9 and 5.2 tesla), three different positions of EMF (below, perpendicular and parallel to the electrocoagulation cell), as well as operating time; had been investigated. The application of electromagnetic field (5.2 tesla) raises percentage of oil removal from 72.4% for traditional electrocoagulation to 90.8% after 20 min.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, electromagnetic field, Oil-water emulsion, edible oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
151 Surfactant-Free O/W-Emulsion as Drug Delivery System

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, J.-P. Krause, S. Bürk


Most of the drugs used for pharmaceutical purposes are poorly water-soluble drugs. About 40% of all newly discovered drugs are lipophilic and the numbers of lipophilic drugs seem to increase more and more. Drug delivery systems such as nanoparticles, micelles or liposomes are applied to improve their solubility and thus their bioavailability. Besides various techniques of solubilization, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to incorporate lipophilic drugs into the oil phase. To stabilize emulsions surface active substances (surfactants) are generally used. An alternative method to avoid the application of surfactants was of great interest. One possibility is to develop O/W-emulsion without any addition of surface active agents or the so called “surfactant-free emulsion or SFE”. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize SFE as a drug carrier by varying the production conditions. Lidocaine base was used as a model drug. The injection method was developed. Effects of ultrasound as well as of temperature on the properties of the emulsion were studied. Particle sizes and release were determined. The long-term stability up to 30 days was performed. The results showed that the surfactant-free O/W emulsions with pharmaceutical oil as drug carrier can be produced.

Keywords: emulsion, lidocaine, Miglyol, size, surfactant, light scattering, release, injection, ultrasound, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
150 Polymer Advancement with Poly(High Internal Phase Emulsion) Poly(S/DVB) Modified via Layer-by-Layer for CO2 Adsorption

Authors: Saifon Chongthub


The purpose of this research is to synthesize adsorbent foam for CO2 adsorption. The polymer was prepared from poly High Internal Phase Emulsion (PolyHIPE) using styrene as monomer and divinylbenzene as comonomer. Its morphology was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). To further increased CO2 adsorption of the prepared polyHIPE, the layer by layer (LbL) technique was applied, which alternated polyelectrolyte injection between layers of Poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and Poly(diallyldimetyl-ammonium chloride)(PDADMAC) as primary layer, and layers of PSS and polyetyleneimine (PEI) as secondary layer.

Keywords: high internal phase emulsion, polyHIPE, surface modification, layer by layer technique, CO2 adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
149 Thermal Characterization of Graphene Oxide-Epoxy Nanocomposites Produced by Aqueous Emulsion

Authors: H. A. Brandão Cordeiro, M. G. Bocardo, N. C. Penteado, V. T. de Moraes, S. M. Giampietri Lebrão, G. W. Lebrão


The present study desired to obtain a nanocomposite of epoxy resin reinforced with graphene oxide (OG), for aerospace application, produced by aqueous emulsion. It was obtained proof bodies with 0.00 wt%, 0.10 wt%, 0.25 wt% and 0.50 wt% in weight of nanoparticles, to check the influence of it in the final quality of the obtained product. The validation of the results was done by the application thermal characterization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was seen that the nanocomposite reinforced with 0.10 wt% of OG showed the best results, the average glass transition temperature, at 2 °C, compared to the pure resin.

Keywords: aqueous emulsion, graphene, nanocomposites, thermal characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
148 Detailed Analysis of Mechanism of Crude Oil and Surfactant Emulsion

Authors: Riddhiman Sherlekar, Umang Paladia, Rachit Desai, Yash Patel


A number of surfactants which exhibit ultra-low interfacial tension and an excellent microemulsion phase behavior with crude oils of low to medium gravity are not sufficiently soluble at optimum salinity to produce stable aqueous solutions. Such solutions often show phase separation after a few days at reservoir temperature, which does not suffice the purpose and the time is short when compared to the residence time in a reservoir for a surfactant flood. The addition of polymer often exacerbates the problem although the poor stability of the surfactant at high salinity remains a pivotal issue. Surfactants such as SDS, Ctab with large hydrophobes produce lowest IFT, but are often not sufficiently water soluble at desired salinity. Hydrophilic co-solvents and/or co-surfactants are needed to make the surfactant-polymer solution stable at the desired salinity. This study focuses on contrasting the effect of addition of a co-solvent in stability of a surfactant –oil emulsion. The idea is to use a co-surfactant to increase stability of an emulsion. Stability of the emulsion is enhanced because of creation of micro-emulsion which is verified both visually and with the help of particle size analyzer at varying concentration of salinity, surfactant and co-surfactant. A lab-experimental method description is provided and the method is described in detail to permit readers to emulate all results. The stability of the oil-water emulsion is visualized with respect to time, temperature, salinity of the brine and concentration of the surfactant. Nonionic surfactant TX-100 when used as a co-surfactant increases the stability of the oil-water emulsion. The stability of the prepared emulsion is checked by observing the particle size distribution. For stable emulsion in volume% vs particle size curve, the peak should be obtained for particle size of 5-50 nm while for the unstable emulsion a bigger sized particles are observed. The UV-Visible spectroscopy is also used to visualize the fraction of oil that plays important role in the formation of micelles in stable emulsion. This is important as the study will help us to decide applicability of the surfactant based EOR method for a reservoir that contains a specific type of crude. The use of nonionic surfactant as a co-surfactant would also increase the efficiency of surfactant EOR. With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that EOR technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in years to come. Taking this into consideration, the work focuses on the optimization of the secondary recovery(Water flooding) with the help of surfactant and/or co-surfactants by creating desired conditions in the reservoir.

Keywords: co-surfactant, enhanced oil recovery, micro-emulsion, surfactant flooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
147 Chemical Demulsification for Treating Crude Oil Emulsion

Authors: Miran Sabah Ibrahim, Nahit Aktas


The utilization of emulsifiers is highly important in the process of breaking emulsions. This examination employed five commercial demulsifiers in various temperatures for evaluating the separation efficiency. Furthermore, two different crude oils (Khurmala and Demir Dagh crude oil) were utilized for preparing emulsion. The outcomes revealed that the application commercial demulsifiers for Khurmala crude oil at 55°C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) the separation efficiency were (78, 80.6, 78, 86 and 90 %) respectively. However, at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) separation efficiency were (87, 85, 91.3, 94 and 97 %) respectively. Nonetheless, utilizing Demir Dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) resulted in the separation efficiency of (63.3, 66.6, 65, 73 and 76.6 %) respectively, and at 65 °C and 100 ppm (KD-3100, KD-3200, FD-6144, FD-6210 and RI35Q) were (77, 76.6, 80, 82 and 85 %) respectively. The combinations of FD-6144 and RI35Q at 55°C and ratio of (1:1) and (1:3) for Khurmala crude oil led to (96 and 90.6 %) efficiency respectively. However, the efficiency decreased to (98.6 and 93.3 %) respectively at 65 °C. The same combinations applied on Demir Dagh Crude oil and the results were (78 and 63.3 %) at 55 °C and (86.6 and 71 %) at 65 °C. Three different brine concentrations (NaCl) (0.5, 2 and 3.5 %) were prepared and utilized. It was found that the optimum NaCl concentration was at 3.5 % NaCl concentration for both khurmala and Demir dagh crude oil at 55 °C and 65 °C.

Keywords: demulsifier, emulsion, breaking emulsion, emulsifying agent (surfactant)

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
146 Development of Essential Oil-Loaded Gelatin Hydrogels for Use as Antibacterial Wound Dressing

Authors: Piyachat Chuysinuan, Nitirat Chimnoi, Arthit Makarasen, Nanthawan Reuk-Ngam, Pitt Supaphol, Supanna Techasakul


In this work, biomaterial wound dressings was developed based on gelatin containing herbal substances (essential oil), a substance from the plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng (Crofton weed) that used as traditional wound healers. Gelatin hydrogel was prepared from a 10 wt-% gelatin solution. The oil in water (o/w) emulsion Eupatorium adenophorum of essential oil were prepared and used Pluronic F68 as a surfactant. The 10, 20, and 30 % v/v emulsion were mixed with gelatin solution and cast into film. These hydrogels were tested for their gel fraction, swelling and weight loss behavior. With an increase in the emulsion concentration the emulsion-loaded in hydrogels, the gel fraction were decreased due to the crosslink density, while the swelling and weight loss behavior were increased with an increasing in the emulsion content. The potential to use the emulsion-containing gelatin hydrogels as wound dressing was assessed on investigation the release characteristics of the as-loaded hydrogels. The E. adenophorum essential oil was first identified the chemical composition by using GC-MS analysis. The principal components of the oil were p-cymene (16.23%), bornyl acetate (11.84%), and amorpha-4, 7(11)-diene (10.51%). The hydrogel wound dressing containing essential oil was then characterized for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative in order to elucidate their potential for use as antibacterial wound dressings by using agar disk diffusion methods. The result showed that E. adenophorum essential oil and the emulsion-loaded gelatin hydrogel inhibited the growth of the test pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and increased with increasing the initial amount of essential oil in the hydrogels which confirmed their application as antibacterial wound dressings. Furthermore, the potential use of these wound dressings was further assessed in terms of the indirect cytotoxicity, in vitro attachment and proliferation of dermal human fibroblasts cultured in the hydrogel wound dressings.

Keywords: hydrogel, antibacterial wound dressing, Eupatorium adenophorum essential oil, gelatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
145 Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Properties of Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mix

Authors: Sampada Katekar, Namdeo Hedaoo


Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mixtures (CBEMs) are generally produced by mixing unheated aggregate, binder and filler at ambient temperature. Cold bituminous emulsion mixtures have several environmental and cost-effective benefits. But CBEMs offer poor early life properties too and they require long curing time to achieve maximum strength. The main focus of this study is to overcome inferiority of CBEMs by incorporating Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In this study, RHA and OPC are substituted for conventional mineral filler in an increased percentage from 0 to 3% with an increment of 1%. Marshall stability, retained stability and tensile strength tests were conducted to evaluate the enhancement in performance of CBEMs. The experimental results have shown that Marshall stability and tensile strength of CBEMs increased significantly by replacing the conventional mineral filler with RHA and OPC. The addition of RHA and OPC in CBEMs result in a reduction in moisture induced damages. However, stability and tensile strength values of RHA modified CBEMs are higher than that of OPC modified CBEMs.

Keywords: cold bituminous emulsion mixtures, Marshall stability test, ordinary Portland cement, rice husk ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
144 Micro/Nano-Sized Emulsions Exhibit Antifungal Activity against Cucumber Downy Mildew

Authors: Kai-Fen Tu, Jenn-Wen Huang, Yao-Tung Lin


Cucumber is a major economic crop in the world. The global production of cucumber in 2017 was more than 71 million tonnes. Nonetheless, downy mildew, caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis, is a devastating and common disease on cucumber in around 80 countries and causes severe economic losses. The long-term usage of fungicide also leads to the occurrence of fungicide resistance and decreases host resistance. In this study, six types of oil (neem oil, moringa oil, soybean oil, cinnamon oil, clove oil, and camellia oil) were selected to synthesize micro/nano-sized emulsions, and the disease control efficacy of micro/nano-sized emulsions were evaluated. Moreover, oil concentrations (0.125% - 1%) and droplet size of emulsion were studied. Results showed cinnamon-type emulsion had the best efficacy among these oils. The disease control efficacy of these emulsions increased as the oil concentration increased. Both disease incidence and disease severity were measured by detached leaf and pot experiment, respectively. For the droplet size effect, results showed that the 114 nm of droplet size synthesized by 0.25% cinnamon oil emulsion had the lowest disease incidence (6.67%) and lowest disease severity (33.33%). The release of zoospore was inhibited (5.33%), and the sporangia germination was damaged. These results suggest that cinnamon oil emulsion will be a valuable and environmentally friendly alternative to control cucumber downy mildew. The economic loss caused by plant disease could also be reduced.

Keywords: downy mildew, emulsion, oil droplet size, plant protectant

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
143 Development of Biotechnological Emulsion Based on Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) Oil: A Preliminary Study

Authors: Lourena M. Veríssimo, Lucas A. Machado, Renata Rutckeviski, Francisco H. Xavier Júnior, Éverton N. Alencar, Andreza R. V. Morais, Teresa R. F. Dantas, Christian M. Oliveira, Arnóbio A. Silva Júnior, Eryvaldo S. T. Egito


This study aimed to obtain emulsion systems based on bullfrog oil (BO). The BO was extracted at 80ºC and analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The critical Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLBc) Assay of the BO was performed through BO, Tween® 20, Span® 80 and deionized water mixtures using an Ultra-Turrax® and determined using dynamic light scattering, pH, electrical conductivity and creaming rate. Then, a pseudoternary phase diagram (PPD) was constructed by water titration. The GC/MS analysis of BO suggested Methyl Oleate (9.26%) as major compound. The HLBc was 12.1, wherein the correspondent emulsion showed a pH of 4.83±1.29, electrical conductivity of 103.65 µS, creaming rate of 2.51±0.54%, droplet size of 207.07±8.31 nm and polydispersity index of 0.212±0.005. The PPD showed different formulations characterized as O/W emulsions. Thus, the PPD proved to be a useful tool to produce BO emulsions, in which their constituents may vary within the range of the desired system.

Keywords: bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana Shaw) oil, emulsion production, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
142 Effect of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Parameters on the Moringa oleifera Oil Yield and Formation of Emulsion

Authors: Masni Mat Yusoff, Michael H. Gordon, Keshavan Niranjan


The study reports on the effect of aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) parameters on the Moringa oleifera (MO) oil yield and the formation of emulsion at the end of the process. A mixture of protease and cellulase enzymes was used at 3:1 (w/w) ratio. The highest oil yield of 19% (g oil/g sample) was recovered with the use of a mixture of pH 6, 1:4 material/moisture ratio, and incubation temperature, time, and shaking speed of 50 ⁰C, 12.5 hr, and 300 stroke/min, respectively. The use of pH 6 and 8 resulted in grain emulsions, while solid-intact emulsion was observed at pH 4. Upon fixing certain parameters, higher oil yield was extracted with the use of lower material/moisture ratio and higher shaking speed. Longer incubation time of 24 hr resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) similar oil yield with that of 12.5 hr, and an incubation temperature of 50 ⁰C resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher oil yield than that of 60 ⁰C. In overall, each AEE parameter showed significant effects on both the MO oil yields and the emulsions formed. One of the major disadvantages of an AEE process is the formation of emulsions which require further de-emulsification step for higher oil recovery. Therefore, critical studies on the effect of each AEE parameter may assist in minimizing the amount of emulsions formed whilst extracting highest total MO oil yield possible.

Keywords: enzyme, emulsion, Moringa oleifera, oil yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
141 Effect of Resveratrol and Ascorbic Acid on the Stability of Alfa-Tocopherol in Whey Protein Isolate Stabilized O/W Emulsions

Authors: Lei Wang, Yingzhou Ni, Amr M. Bakry, Hao Cheng, Li Liang


Food proteins have been widely used as carrier materials because of their multiple functional properties. In this study, alfa-tocopherol was encapsulated in the oil phase of an oil-in-water emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI). The influence of WPI concentration and resveratrol or ascorbic acid on the decomposition of alfa-tocopherol in the emulsion during storage is discussed. Decomposition decreased as WPI concentrations increased. Decomposition was delayed at ascorbic acid/WPI molar ratios lower than 5 but was promoted at higher ratios. Resveratrol partitioned into the oil-water interface by binding to WPI and its cis-isomer is believed to have contributed most of the protective effect of this polyphenol. These results suggest the possibility of using the emulsifying and ligand-binging properties of WPI to produce carriers for simultaneous encapsulation of alfa-tocopherol and resveratrol in a single emulsion system.

Keywords: stability, alfa-tocopherol, resveratrol, whey protein isolate

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
140 Numerical Investigation of Thermally Triggered Release Kinetics of Double Emulsion for Drug Delivery Using Phase Change Material

Authors: Yong Ren, Yaping Zhang


A numerical model has been developed to investigate the thermally triggered release kinetics for drug delivery using phase change material as shell of microcapsules. Biocompatible material n-Eicosane is used as demonstration. PCM shell of microcapsule will remain in solid form after the drug is taken, so the drug will be encapsulated by the shell, and will not be released until the target body part of lesion is exposed to external heat source, which will thermally trigger the release kinetics, leading to solid-to-liquid phase change. The findings can lead to better understanding on the key effects influencing the phase change process for drug delivery applications. The facile approach to release drug from core/shell structure of microcapsule can be well integrated with organic solvent free fabrication of microcapsules, using double emulsion as template in microfluidic aqueous two phase system.

Keywords: phase change material, drug release kinetics, double emulsion, microfluidics

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
139 Pickering Dry Emulsion System for Dissolution Enhancement of Poorly Water Soluble Drug (Fenofibrate)

Authors: Nitin Jadhav, Pradeep R. Vavia


Poor water soluble drugs are difficult to promote for oral drug delivery as they demonstrate poor and variable bioavailability because of its poor solubility and dissolution in GIT fluid. Nowadays lipid based formulations especially self microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is found as the most effective technique. With all the impressive advantages, the need of high amount of surfactant (50% - 80%) is the major drawback of SMEDDS. High concentration of synthetic surfactant is known for irritation in GIT and also interference with the function of intestinal transporters causes changes in drug absorption. Surfactant may also reduce drug activity and subsequently bioavailability due to the enhanced entrapment of drug in micelles. In chronic treatment these issues are very conspicuous due to the long exposure. In addition the liquid self microemulsifying system also suffers from stability issues. Recently one novel approach of solid stabilized micro and nano emulsion (Pickering emulsion) has very admirable properties such as high stability, absence or very less concentration of surfactant and easily converts into the dry form. So here we are exploring pickering dry emulsion system for dissolution enhancement of anti-lipemic, extremely poorly water soluble drug (Fenofibrate). Oil moiety for emulsion preparation was selected mainly on the basis of higher solubility of drug. Captex 300 was showed higher solubility for fenofibrate, hence selected as oil for emulsion. With Silica (solid stabilizer); Span 20 was selected to improve the wetting property of it. Emulsion formed by Silica and Span20 as stabilizer at the ratio 2.5:1 (silica: span 20) was found very stable at the particle size 410 nm. The prepared emulsion was further preceded for spray drying and formed microcapsule evaluated for in-vitro dissolution study, in-vivo pharmacodynamic study and characterized for DSC, XRD, FTIR, SEM, optical microscopy etc. The in vitro study exhibits significant dissolution enhancement of formulation (85 % in 45 minutes) as compared to plain drug (14 % in 45 minutes). In-vivo study (Triton based hyperlipidaemia model) exhibits significant reduction in triglyceride and cholesterol with formulation as compared to plain drug indicating increasing in fenofibrate bioavailability. DSC and XRD study exhibit loss of crystallinity of drug in microcapsule form. FTIR study exhibit chemical stability of fenofibrate. SEM and optical microscopy study exhibit spherical structure of globule coated with solid particles.

Keywords: captex 300, fenofibrate, pickering dry emulsion, silica, span20, stability, surfactant

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138 Nano-emulsion/Nano-suspension as Precursors for Oral Dissolvable Film to Enhance Bioavalabilty for Poor-water Solubility Drugs

Authors: Yuan Yang, Mickey Lam


Oral dissolvable films have been considered as a unique alternative approach to conventional oral dosage forms. The films could be administrated via the gastrointestinal tract as conventional dosages or through sublingual/buccal mucosa membranes, which could enhance drug bioavailability by avoiding the first-pass effect and improving permeability due to high blood flow and lymphatic circulation. This work has described a state-of-art technic using nano-emulsion/nano-suspension as a precursor for the film to enhance the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. The drug molecules are consequentially processed through the emulsification, gelation, and film-casting processes. The gelation process is critical to stabilizing the nano-emulsion for the film-casting as well as controlling the drug release process. Furthermore, the size of the nanoparticle on the film has a strong correlation with the size of the micelles in the precursor and the condition of the gelation process. It has been discovered that nanoparticle from 200 nm to 300 nm has shown the highest permeability for sublingual administration. In one example shown in work, the bioavailability of a low solubilize drug has been increased from 10% to 24% via sublingual administration of the film. The increasing of the bioavailability was thought to be associated with the enhancement of the diffusion process of the drug in the saliva layer above the mucosa membrane and the fact that the presents of the emulsifier help lose the rigid junction of the mucosa cells.

Keywords: oral dissolvable film, nano-suspension, nano-emulsion, bioavailability

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137 Modified Polysaccharide as Emulsifier in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

Authors: Tatiana Marques Pessanha, Aurora Perez-Gramatges, Regina Sandra Veiga Nascimento


Emulsions are commonly used in applications involving oil/water dispersions, where handling of interfaces becomes a crucial aspect. The use of emulsion technology has greatly evolved in the last decades to suit the most diverse uses, ranging from cosmetic products and biomedical adjuvants to complex industrial fluids. The stability of these emulsions is influenced by factors such as the amount of oil, size of droplets and emulsifiers used. While commercial surfactants are typically used as emulsifiers to reduce interfacial tension, and therefore increase emulsion stability, these organic amphiphilic compounds are often toxic and expensive. A suitable alternative for emulsifiers can be obtained from the chemical modification of polysaccharides. Our group has been working on modification of polysaccharides to be used as additives in a variety of fluid formulations. In particular, we have obtained promising results using chitosan, a natural and biodegradable polymer that can be easily modified due to the presence of amine groups in its chemical structure. In this way, it is possible to increase both the hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, which renders a water-soluble, amphiphilic polymer that can behave as an emulsifier. The aim of this work was the synthesis of chitosan derivatives structurally modified to act as surfactants in stable oil-in-water. The synthesis of chitosan derivatives occurred in two steps, the first being the hydrophobic modification with the insertion of long hydrocarbon chains, while the second step consisted in the cationization of the amino groups. All products were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and carbon magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) to evaluate the cationization and hydrofobization degrees. These modified polysaccharides were used to formulate oil-in water (O:W) emulsions with different oil/water ratios (i.e 25:75, 35:65, 60:40) using mineral paraffinic oil. The formulations were characterized according to the type of emulsion, density and rheology measurements, as well as emulsion stability at high temperatures. All emulsion formulations were stable for at least 30 days, at room temperature (25°C), and in the case of the high oil content emulsion (60:40), the formulation was also stable at temperatures up to 100°C. Emulsion density was in the range of 0.90-0.87 s.g. The rheological study showed a viscoelastic behaviour in all formulations at room temperature, which is in agreement with the high stability showed by the emulsions, since the polymer acts not only reducing interfacial tension, but also forming an elastic membrane at the oil/water interface that guarantees its integrity. The results obtained in this work are a strong evidence of the possibility of using chemically modified polysaccharides as environmentally friendly alternatives to commercial surfactants in the stabilization of oil-in water formulations.

Keywords: emulsion, polymer, polysaccharide, stability, chemical modification

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136 Utilization of Chicken Skin Based Products as Fat Replacers for Improving the Nutritional Quality, Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Sensory Attributes of Beef Fresh Sausage

Authors: Hussein M. H. Mohamed, Hamdy M. B. Zaki


Fresh sausage is one of the cheapest and delicious meat products that are gaining popularity all over the world. It is considered as a practice of adding value to low-value meat cuts of high fat and connective tissue contents. One of the most important characteristics of fresh sausage is the distinctive marbling appearance between lean and fatty portions, which can be achieved by using animal fat. For achieving the marbling appearance of fresh sausage, a lager amount of fat needs to be used. The use of animal fat may represent a health concern due to its content of saturated fatty acids and trans-fats, which increase the risk of heart diseases. There is a need for reducing the fat content of fresh sausage to obtain a healthy product. However, fat is responsible for the texture, flavor, and juiciness of the product. Therefore, developing reduced-fat products is a challenging process. The main objectives of the current study were to incorporate chicken skin based products (chicken skin emulsion, gelatinized chicken skin, and gelatinized chicken skin emulsion) during the formulation of fresh sausage as fat replacers and to study the effect of these products on the nutritional quality, physicochemical properties, and sensory attributes of the processed product. Three fresh sausage formulae were prepared using chicken skin based fat replacers (chicken skin emulsion, gelatinized chicken skin, and gelatinized chicken skin emulsion) beside one formula prepared using mesenteric beef fat as a control. The proximate composition, fatty acid profiles, Physico-chemical characteristics, and sensory attributes of all formulas were assessed. The results revealed that the use of chicken skin based fat replacers resulted in significant (P < 0.05) reduction of fat contents from 17.67 % in beef mesenteric fat formulated sausage to 5.77, 8.05 and 8.46 in chicken skin emulsion, gelatinized chicken skin, and gelatinized chicken skin emulsion formulated sausages, respectively. Significant reduction in the saturated fatty acid contents and a significant increase in mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated, and omega-3 fatty acids have been observed in all formulae processed with chicken skin based fat replacers. Moreover, significant improvements in the physico-chemical characteristics and non-significant changes in the sensory attributes have been obtained. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the chicken skin based products can be used safely to improve the nutritional quality and physico chemical properties of beef fresh sausages without changing the sensory attributes of the product. This study may encourage meat processors to utilize chicken skin based fat replacers for the production of high quality and healthy beef fresh sausages.

Keywords: chicken skin emulsion, fresh sausage, gelatinized chicken skin, gelatinized chicken skin emulsion

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135 The Effects of Lipid Emulsion, Magnesium Sulphate and Metoprolol in Amitryptiline-Induced Cardiovascular Toxicity in Rats

Authors: Saylav Ejder Bora, Arife Erdogan, Mumin Alper Erdogan, Oytun Erbas, Ismet Parlak


Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate histological, electrical and biochemical effects of metoprolol, lipid emulsion and magnesium sulphate as an alternative method to be used in preventing long QT emergence, that is among the lethal consequences of amitryptiline toxicity. Methods: Thirty Sprague- Dawley male rats were included. Rats were randomly separated into 5 groups. First group was administered saline only while the rest had received amitryptiline 100 mg/kg + saline, 5 mg/kg metoprolol, 20 ml/kg lipid emulsion and 75 mg/kg magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) intraperitoneally. ECG at DI lead, biochemical tests following euthanasia were performed in all groups after 1 hour of administration. Cardiac tissues were removed, sections were prepared and examined. Results: QTc values were significantly shorter in the rest when compared to amitryptiline+ saline group. While lipid emulsion did not affect proBNP and troponin values biochemically as compared to that of the control group, histologically, it was with reduced caspase 3 expression. Though statistically insignificant in the context of biochemical changes, pro-BNP and urea levels were lower in the metoprolol group when compared to controls. Similarly, metoprolol had no statistically significant effect on histological caspase 3 expression in the group that was treated with amitryptiline+metoprolol. On the other hand, there was a statistically significant decrease in Troponin, pro-BNP and urea levels as well as significant decline in histological caspase 3 expression within the MgSO4 group when compared to controls. Conclusion: As still a frequent cause of mortality in emergency units, administration of MgSO4, lipid emulsion and metoprolol might be beneficial in alternative treatment of cardiovascular toxicity caused by tricyclic antidepressant overdose, whether intake would be intentional or accidental.

Keywords: amitryptiline, cardiovascular toxicity, long QT, Rat Model

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134 Response Surface Modeling of Lactic Acid Extraction by Emulsion Liquid Membrane: Box-Behnken Experimental Design

Authors: A. Thakur, P. S. Panesar, M. S. Saini


Extraction of lactic acid by emulsion liquid membrane technology (ELM) using n-trioctyl amine (TOA) in n-heptane as carrier within the organic membrane along with sodium carbonate as acceptor phase was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). A three level Box-Behnken design was employed for experimental design, analysis of the results and to depict the combined effect of five independent variables, vizlactic acid concentration in aqueous phase (cl), sodium carbonate concentration in stripping phase (cs), carrier concentration in membrane phase (ψ), treat ratio (φ), and batch extraction time (τ) with equal volume of organic and external aqueous phase on lactic acid extraction efficiency. The maximum lactic acid extraction efficiency (ηext) of 98.21%from aqueous phase in a batch reactor using ELM was found at the optimized values for test variables, cl, cs,, ψ, φ and τ as 0.06 [M], 0.18 [M], 4.72 (%,v/v), 1.98 (v/v) and 13.36 min respectively.

Keywords: emulsion liquid membrane, extraction, lactic acid, n-trioctylamine, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
133 Coating of Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Thin Films on Poly(S/EGDMA) HIPE Loaded with Hydroxyapatite as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Kornkanok Noulta, Pornsri Pakeyangkoon, Stephen T. Dubas, Pomthong Malakul, Manit Nithithanakul


In recent years, interest in the development of material for tissue engineering application has increased considerably. Poly(High Internal Phase Emulsion) (PolyHIPE) foam is a material that is good candidate for used in tissue engineering application due to its 3D structure and highly porous with interconnected pore. The PolyHIPE was prepared from poly (styrene/ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) through high internal phase emulsion polymerization technique and loaded with hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve biocompatibility. To further increase hydrophilicity of the obtained polyHIPE, layer-by-layer polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) technique was used. A surface property of polyHIPE was characterized by contact angle measurement. Morphology and pore size was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The cell viability was revealed by the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay technique.

Keywords: polyelectrolyte multilayer thin film, high internal phase emulsion, polyhipe foam, scaffold, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
132 3D-Printing Compressible Macroporous Polymer Using Poly-Pickering-High Internal Phase Emulsions as Micromixer

Authors: Hande Barkan-Ozturk, Angelika Menner, Alexander Bismarck


Microfluidic mixing technology grew rapidly in the past few years due to its many advantages over the macro-scale mixing, especially the ability to use small amounts of internal volume and also very high surface-to-volume ratio. The Reynold number identify whether the mixing is operated by the laminar or turbulence flow. Therefore, mixing with very fast kinetic can be achieved by diminishing the channel dimensions to decrease Reynold number and the laminar flow can be accomplished. Moreover, by using obstacles in the micromixer, the mixing length and the contact area between the species have been increased. Therefore, the channel geometry and its surface property have great importance to reach satisfactory mixing results. Since poly(-merised) High Internal Phase Emulsions (polyHIPEs) have more than 74% porosity and their pores are connected each other with pore throats, which cause high permeability, they are ideal candidate to build a micromixer. The HIPE precursor is commonly produced by using an overhead stirrer to obtain relatively large amount of emulsion in batch process. However, we will demonstrate that a desired amount of emulsion can be prepared continuously with micromixer build from polyHIPE, and such HIPE can subsequently be employed as ink in 3D printing process. In order to produce the micromixer a poly-Pickering(St-co-DVB)HIPE with 80% porosity was prepared with modified silica particles as stabilizer and surfactant Hypermer 2296 to obtain open porous structure and after coating of the surface, the three 1/16' ' PTFE tubes to transfer continuous (CP) and internal phases (IP) and the other is to collect the emulsion were placed. Afterwards, the two phases were injected in the ratio 1:3 CP:IP with syringe dispensers, respectively, and highly viscoelastic H(M)IPE, which can be used as an ink in 3D printing process, was gathered continuously. After the polymerisation of the resultant emulsion, polyH(M)IPE has interconnected porous structure identical to the monolithic polyH(M)IPE indicating that the emulsion can be prepared constantly with poly-Pickering-HIPE as micromixer and it can be used to prepare desired pattern with a 3D printer. Moreover, the morphological properties of the emulsion can be adjustable by changing flow ratio, flow speed and structure of the micromixer.

Keywords: 3D-Printing, emulsification, macroporous polymer, micromixer, polyHIPE

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131 Microanalysis of a New Cementitious System Containing High Calcium Fly Ash and Waste Material by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Authors: Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Felicite Ruddock, Linda Seton


Fast-curing cold bituminous emulsion mixture (CBEM) including active filler from high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and waste material (LJMU-A2) has been developed in this study. This will overcome the difficulties related with the use of hot mix asphalt such as greenhouse gases emissions and problems in keeping the temperature when transporting long distance. The aim of this study is to employ petrographic examinations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for characterizing the hydrates microstructure, in a new binary blended cement filler (BBCF) system. The new BBCF has been used as a replacement to traditional mineral filler in cold bituminous emulsion mixtures (CBEMs), comprises supplementary cementitious materials containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and a waste material (LJMU-A2). SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of hydrates after varying curing ages within the BBCF. The accelerated activation of HCFA by LJMU-A2 within the BBCF was revealed and as a consequence early and later stiffness was developed in novel CBEM.

Keywords: cold bituminous emulsion mixtures, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high calcium fly ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 179