Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 336

Search results for: sediment

336 Potential Impact of Climate Change on Suspended Sediment Changes in Mekong River Basin

Authors: Zuliziana Suif, Nordila Ahmad, Sengheng Hul

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on suspended sediment changes in the Mekong River Basin. In this study, the distributed process-based sediment transport model is used to examine the potential impact of future climate on suspended sediment dynamic changes in the Mekong River Basin. To this end, climate scenarios from two General Circulation Model (GCMs) were considered in the scenario analysis. The simulation results show that the sediment load and concentration shows 0.64% to 69% increase in the near future (2041-2050) and 2.5% to 95% in the far future (2090- 2099). As the projected climate change impact on sediment varies remarkably between the different climate models, the uncertainty should be taken into account in sediment management. Overall, the changes in sediment load and concentration can have a great implication for related sediment management.

Keywords: climate change, suspended sediment, Mekong River Basin, GCMs

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
335 Impact of Coal Mining on River Sediment Quality in the Sydney Basin, Australia

Authors: A. Ali, V. Strezov, P. Davies, I. Wright, T. Kan

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The environmental impacts arising from mining activities affect the air, water, and soil quality. Impacts may result in unexpected and adverse environmental outcomes. This study reports on the impact of coal production on sediment in Sydney region of Australia. The sediment samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from three mines were taken, and 80 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against sediment quality based on presence of metals. The study revealed the increment of metal content in the sediment downstream of the reference locations. In many cases, the sediment was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV). The major outliers to the guidelines were nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn).

Keywords: coal mine, environmental impact, produced water, sediment quality guidelines value (SQGV)

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
334 Estimation of Sediment Transport into a Reservoir Dam

Authors: Kiyoumars Roushangar, Saeid Sadaghian

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Although accurate sediment load prediction is very important in planning, designing, operating and maintenance of water resources structures, the transport mechanism is complex, and the deterministic transport models are based on simplifying assumptions often lead to large prediction errors. In this research, firstly, two intelligent ANN methods, Radial Basis and General Regression Neural Networks, are adopted to model of total sediment load transport into Madani Dam reservoir (north of Iran) using the measured data and then applicability of the sediment transport methods developed by Engelund and Hansen, Ackers and White, Yang, and Toffaleti for predicting of sediment load discharge are evaluated. Based on comparison of the results, it is found that the GRNN model gives better estimates than the sediment rating curve and mentioned classic methods.

Keywords: sediment transport, dam reservoir, RBF, GRNN, prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
333 Estimation of Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield for ONG River Using GIS

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Behera, Kanhu Charan Patra

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A GIS-based method has been applied for the determination of soil erosion and sediment yield in a small watershed in Ong River basin, Odisha, India. The method involves spatial disintegration of the catchment into homogenous grid cells to capture the catchment heterogeneity. The gross soil erosion in each cell was calculated using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) by carefully determining its various parameters. The concept of sediment delivery ratio is used to route surface erosion from each of the discretized cells to the catchment outlet. The process of sediment delivery from grid cells to the catchment outlet is represented by the topographical characteristics of the cells. The effect of DEM resolution on sediment yield is analyzed using two different resolutions of DEM. The spatial discretization of the catchment and derivation of the physical parameters related to erosion in the cell are performed through GIS techniques.

Keywords: DEM, GIS, sediment delivery ratio, sediment yield, soil erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
332 Modeling Sediment Yield Using the SWAT Model: A Case Study of Upper Ankara River Basin, Turkey

Authors: Umit Duru

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The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was tested for prediction of water balance and sediment yield in the Ankara gauged basin, Turkey. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and applicability of the SWAT in this region of Turkey. Thirteen years of monthly stream flow, and suspended sediment, data were used for calibration and validation. This research assessed model performance based on differences between observed and predicted suspended sediment yield during calibration (1987-1996) and validation (1982-1984) periods. Statistical comparisons of suspended sediment produced values for NSE (Nash Sutcliffe efficiency), RE (relative error), and R² (coefficient of determination), of 0.81, -1.55, and 0.93, respectively, during the calibration period, and NSE, RE (%), and R² of 0.77, -2.61, and 0.87, respectively, during the validation period. Based on the analyses, SWAT satisfactorily simulated observed hydrology and sediment yields and can be used as a tool in decision making for water resources planning and management in the basin.

Keywords: calibration, GIS, sediment yield, SWAT, validation

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
331 Hydrological Modelling to Identify Critical Erosion Areas in Gheshlagh Dam Basin

Authors: Golaleh Ghaffari

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A basin sediment yield refers to the amount of sediment exported by a basin over a period of time, which will enter a reservoir located at the downstream limit of the basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2008) was used to hydrology and sediment transport modeling at daily and monthly time steps within the Gheshlagh dam basin in north-west of Iran. The SWAT model and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to evaluate basin hydrology and sediment yield using historical flow and sediment data and to identify and prioritize critical sub-basins based on sediment transport. The results of this study indicated that simulated daily discharge and sediment values matched the observed values satisfactorily. The model predicted that mean annual basin precipitation for the total study period (413 mm) was partitioned in to evapotranspiration (36%), percolation/groundwater recharge (21%) and stream water (25%), yielding 18% surface runoff. Potential source areas of erosion were also identified with the model. The range of the annual contributing erosive zones varied spatially from 0.1 to 103 t/ha according to the slope and land use at the basin scale. Also the fifteen sub basins create the 60% of the total sediment yield between the all (102) sub basins. The results of the study indicated that SWAT can be a useful tool for assessing hydrology and sediment yield response of the watersheds in the region.

Keywords: erosion, Gheshlagh dam, sediment yield, SWAT

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
330 Numerical Modeling of Waves and Currents by Using a Hydro-Sedimentary Model

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Hocine Dahmani

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Over recent years much progress has been achieved in the fields of numerical modeling shoreline processes: waves, currents, waves and current. However, there are still some problems in the existing models to link the on the first, the hydrodynamics of waves and currents and secondly, the sediment transport processes and due to the variability in time, space and interaction and the simultaneous action of wave-current near the shore. This paper is the establishment of a numerical modeling to forecast the sediment transport from development scenarios of harbor structure. It is established on the basis of a numerical simulation of a water-sediment model via a 2D model using a set of codes calculation MIKE 21-DHI software. This is to examine the effect of the sediment transport drivers following the dominant incident wave in the direction to pass input harbor work under different variants planning studies to find the technical and economic limitations to the sediment transport and protection of the harbor structure optimum solution.

Keywords: swell, current, radiation, stress, mesh, mike21, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
329 Ecological Effects of Oil Spill on Water and Sediment from Two Riverine Communities in Warri

Authors: Doris Fovwe Ogeleka, L. E. Tudararo-Aherobo, F. E. Okieimen

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The ecological effects of oil spill in the environment were studied in Warri riverine areas of Ubeji and Jeddo, Delta State. In the two communities, water and sediment samples were analysed for organics (polyaromatic hydrocarbon; total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)) and heavy metals (lead, copper, zinc, iron and chromium). The American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods were employed for the laboratory test. The results indicated that after a long period of oil spill (above one year), there were still significant concentrations (p<0.05) of organics indicating hydrocarbon pollution. Mean concentrations recorded for TPH in Ubeji and Jeddo waters were 23.60 ± 1.18 mg/L and 29.96 ± 0.14 mg/L respectively while total PAHs was 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/L and 0.008 ± 0.001 mg/L. Mean concentrations of TPH in the sediment was 48.83 ± 1.49 ppm and 1093 ± 74 ppm in the above order while total PAHs was 0.012 ± 0.002 ppm and 0.026 ± 0.004 ppm. Low concentrations were recorded for most of the heavy metals in the water and sediment. The observed concentrations of hydrocarbons in the study areas should provide the impetus for regulatory surveillance of oil discharged intentionally/unintentionally into the Warri riverine waters and sediment since hydrocarbon released into the environment sorb to the sediment particles where they cause harm to organisms in the sediment and overlying waters.

Keywords: crude oil, PAHs, TPH, oil spillage, water, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
328 Analysis of Bed Load Sediment Transport Mataram-Babarsari Irrigation Canal

Authors: Agatha Padma Laksitaningtyas, Sumiyati Gunawan

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Mataram Irrigation Canal has 31,2 km length, is the main irrigation canal in Special Region Province of Yogyakarta, connecting Progo River on the west side and Opak River on the east side. It has an important role as the main water carrier distribution for various purposes such as agriculture, fishery, and plantation which should be free from sediment material. Bed Load Sediment is the basic sediment that will make the sediment process on the irrigation canal. Sediment process is a simultaneous event that can make deposition sediment at the base of irrigation canal and can make the height of elevation water change, it will affect the availability of water to be used for irrigation functions. To predict the amount of drowning sediments in the irrigation canal using two methods: Meyer-Peter and Muller’s Method which is an energy approach method and Einstein Method which is a probabilistic approach. Speed measurement using floating method and using current meters. The channel geometry is measured directly in the field. The basic sediment of the channel is taken in the field by taking three samples from three different points. The result of the research shows that by using the formula Meyer -Peter Muller get the result of 60,75799 kg/s, whereas with Einsten’s Method get result of 13,06461 kg/s. the results may serve as a reference for dredging the sediments on the channel so as not to disrupt the flow of water in irrigation canal.

Keywords: bed load, sediment, irrigation, Mataram canal

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
327 Investigating Reservior Sedimentation Control in the Conservation of Water

Authors: Mosupi Ratshaa

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Despite years of diligent study, sedimentation is still undoubtedly the most severe technical problem faced by the dam industry. The problem of sedimentation build-up and its removal should be the focus as an approach to remedy this. The world's reservoirs lose about 1% of their storage capacity yearly to sedimentation, what this means is that 1% of water that could be stored is lost the world-over. The increase in population means that the need for water also increases and, therefore, the loss due to sedimentation is of great concern especially to the conservation of water. When it comes to reservoir sedimentation, the thought of water conservation comes with soil conservation since this increasing sediment that takes the volume meant for water is being lost from dry land. For this reason, reservoir sediment control is focused on reducing sediment entering the reservoir and reducing sediment within the reservoir. There are many problems with sediment control such as the difficulty to predict settling patterns, inability to greatly reduce the sediment volume entering the river flow which increases the reservoirs trap efficiency just to mention a few. Notably reservoirs are habitats for flora and fauna, the process of removing sediment from these reservoirs damages this ecosystem so there is an ethical point to be considered in this section. This paper looks at the methods used to control the sedimentation of reservoirs and their effects to the ecosystem in the aim of reducing water losses due to sedimentation. Various control measures which reduce sediment entering the reservoir such as Sabo dams or Check dams along with measures which emphasize the reduction in built-up settled sediment such as flushing will be reviewed all with the prospect of conservation.

Keywords: sedimentation, conservation, ecosystem, flushing

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
326 Heavy Metal Concentration in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In

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A study was conducted in May to July 2013 with the aim of determination of heavy metal concentration in orchard area. 60 samples were collected and analyzed for Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), and Zinc (Zn) by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of orchards, that use chemical for Cd (1.13 ± 0.26 mg/l), Cu (8.00 ± 1.05 mg/l), Pb (13.16 ± 2.01) and Zn (37.41 ± 3.20 mg/l). The heavy metal concentrations in sediment of the orchards, that do not use chemical for Cd (1.28 ± 0.50 mg/l), Cu (7.60 ± 1.20 mg/l), Pb (29.87 ± 4.88) and Zn (21.79 ± 2.98 mg/l). Statistical analysis between heavy metal in sediment from the orchard, that use chemical and the orchard, that not use chemical were difference statistic significant of 0.5 level of significant for Cd and Pb while no statistically difference for Cu and Zn.

Keywords: heavy metal, orchard, pollution and monitoring, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
325 Determination of Acid Volatile Sulfides–Simultaneously Extracted Metal Relationship and Toxicity in Contaminated Sediment Layer in Mid-Black Sea Coasts

Authors: Arife Simsek, Gulfem Bakan

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Sediment refers to the accumulation of varying amounts of sediment material in natural waters and the formation of bottom sludge. Sediments are the most important sources of pollutants as well as important future sources and carriers of pollutants. The accumulation of pollutants in sediments can cause serious environmental problems for the surrounding areas. Heavy metals (such as Cr, Cd, Al, Pb, Cu, Al, Zn) disrupt the water quality, affect the useful use of sediment, affect the ecosystem and have a toxic effect on the life of the sediment layer. This effect, which accumulates in the aquatic organisms, can enter the human body with the food chain and affect health seriously. Potential metal toxicity can be determined by comparing acid volatile sulfides (AVS) – simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) ratio in anoxic sediments to determine the effect of metals. Determination of the concentration of SEM and AVS is useful in screening sediments for potential toxicity due to the high metal concentration. In the case of SEM/AVS < 0 (anoxic sediment); in terms of AVS biomass production, its toxicity can be controlled. No toxic effects may be observed when SEM / AVS < 0. SEM / AVS > 0 (in the case of oxic sediment); metals with sensitive fraction such as Cu, As, Ag, Zn are stored. In this study, AVS and SEM measurements of sediment samples collected from five different points in the district of Tekkeköy in Samsun province were performed. The SEM - AVS ratio was greater than 0 in all samples. Therefore, it is necessary to test the toxicity against the risks that may occur in the ecosystem.

Keywords: AVS-SEM, Black Sea, heavy metal, sediment, toxicity

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324 Durability of a Cementitious Matrix Based on Treated Sediments

Authors: Mahfoud Benzerzour, Mouhamadou Amar, Amine Safhi, Nor-Edine Abriak

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Significant volumes of sediment are annually dredged in France and all over the world. These materials may, in fact, be used beneficially as supplementary cementitious material. This paper studies the durability of a new cement matrix based on marine dredged sediment of Dunkirk-Harbor (north of France). Several techniques are used to characterize the raw sediment such as physical properties, chemical analyses, and mineralogy. The XRD analysis revealed quartz, calcite, kaolinite as main mineral phases. In order to eliminate organic matter and activate some of those minerals, the sediment is calcined at a temperature of 850°C for 1h. Moreover, four blended mortars were formulated by mixing a portland cement (CEM I 52,5 N) and the calcined sediment as partial cement substitute (0%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Reference mortars, based on the blended cement, were then prepared. This re-use cannot be substantiating and efficient without a durability study. In this purpose, the following tests, mercury porosity, accessible water porosity, chloride permeability, freezing and thawing, external sulfate attack, alkali aggregates reaction, compressive and bending strength tests were conducted on those mortars. The results of most of those tests evidenced the fact that the mortar that contains 10% of the treated sediment is efficient and durable as the reference mortar itself. That would infer that the presence of these calcined sediment improves mortar general behavior.

Keywords: sediment, characterization, calcination, substitution, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
323 The Effects of Climate Change and Upstream Dam Development on Sediment Distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta

Authors: Trieu Anh Ngoc, Nguyen Quang Kim

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Located at the downstream of the Mekong Delta, the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is well-known as 'rice bowl' of Vietnam. The Vietnamese Mekong Delta experiences widespread flooding annually where is habitat for about 17 million people. The economy of this region mainly depends on the agricultural productivities. The suspended sediment load in the Mekong River plays an important role in carrying contaminants and nutrients to the delta and changing the geomorphology of the delta river system. In many past decades, flooding and suspended sediment were considered as indispensable factors in agricultural cultivations. Although flooding in the wet season caused serious inundation in paddy field and affected livelihoods, it is an effective facility for flushing acid and saline to this area - alluvial soil heavily contaminated with acid and salt intrusion. In addition, sediment delivery to this delta contained rich-nutrients distributed and deposited on the fields through flooding process. In recent decades, the changing of flow and sediment transport have been strongly and clearly occurring due to upstream dam development and climate change. However, effects of sediment delivery on agricultural cultivations were less attention. This study investigated the impacts of upstream flow on sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Flow fluctuation and sediment distribution were simulated by the Mike 11 model, including hydrodynamics model and advection-dispersion model. Various scenarios were simulated based on anticipated upstream discharges. Our findings indicated that sediment delivery into the Vietnamese Mekong Delta come from not only Tien River but also border of Cambodia floodplains. Sediment distribution in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta is dramatically changed by the distance from the main rivers and the secondary channels. The dam development in the upstream is one of the major factors leading a decrease in sediment discharge as well as sediment deposition. Moreover, sea level rise partially contributed to decrease in sediment transport and change of sediment distribution between upstream and downstream of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta.

Keywords: sediment transport, sea level rise, climate change, Mike Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
322 Formulation of Aggregates Based on Dredged Sand and Sediments

Authors: Nor-Edine Abriak, Ilyas Ennahal, Abdeljalil Zri, Mahfoud Benzerzour

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Nord Pas de Calais is one of the French regions that records a large volume of dredged sediment in harbors and waterways. To ensure navigation within ports and waterways, harbor and river managers are forced to find solutions to remove sediment that contamination levels exceed levels established by regulations. Therefore, this non- submersible sediment must be managed on land and will be subject to the waste regulation. In this paper, some examples of concrete achievements and experiments of reusing dredged sediment in civil engineering and sector will be illustrated. These achievements are alternative solutions to sediment landfilling and guarantee the reuse of this material in a logic of circular economy and ecological transition. It permits to preserve the natural resources increasingly scarce and resolve issues related to the accumulation of sediments in the harbor basins, rivers, dams, and lakes, etc. Examples of beneficial use of dredged material illustrated in this paper are the result of different projects reusing harbor and waterways sediments in several applications. These projects were funded under the national SEDIMATERIAUX approach. Thus the technical and environmental feasibility of the reuse of dredged sediment is demonstrated and verified; the dredged sediment reusing would meet multiple challenges of sustainable development in relation to environmental, economic, social and societal.

Keywords: circular economy, sediment, SEDIMATERIAUX, waterways

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
321 Application of ANN and Fuzzy Logic Algorithms for Runoff and Sediment Yield Modelling of Kal River, India

Authors: Mahesh Kothari, K. D. Gharde

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The ANN and fuzzy logic (FL) models were developed to predict the runoff and sediment yield for catchment of Kal river, India using 21 years (1991 to 2011) rainfall and other hydrological data (evaporation, temperature and streamflow lag by one and two day) and 7 years data for sediment yield modelling. The ANN model performance improved with increasing the input vectors. The fuzzy logic model was performing with R value more than 0.95 during developmental stage and validation stage. The comparatively FL model found to be performing well to ANN in prediction of runoff and sediment yield for Kal river.

Keywords: transferred function, sigmoid, backpropagation, membership function, defuzzification

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
320 Residue and Ecological Risk Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Sediment from CauBay River, Vietnam

Authors: Toan Vu Duc, Son Ha Viet

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This research presents the first comprehensive survey of congener profiles (7 indicator congeners) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sediment samples covering ten sites in CauBay River, Vietnam. Chemical analyses were carried out in gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for tri- to hepta- brominated congeners. Results pointed out a non-homogenous contamination of the sediment with ∑7 PBDE values ranging from 8.93 to 25.64ng g−1, reflecting moderate to low contamination closely in conformity to other Asian aquatic environments. The general order of decreasing congener contribution to the total load was: BDE 47 > 99 > 100 > 154, similar to the distribution pattern worldwide. PBDEs had rare risks in the sediment of studied area. However, due to the propensity of PBDEs to accumulate in various compartments of wildlife and human food webs, evaluation of biological tissues should be undertaken as a high priority.

Keywords: residue, risk assessment, PBDEs, sediment

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
319 Spatio-Temporal Variation of Suspended Sediment Concentration in the near Shore Waters, Southern Karnataka, India

Authors: Ateeth Shetty, K. S. Jayappa, Ratheesh Ramakrishnan, A. S. Rajawat

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Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) was estimated for the period of four months (November, 2013 to February 2014) using Oceansat-2 (Ocean Colour Monitor) satellite images to understand the coastal dynamics and regional sediment transport, especially distribution and budgeting in coastal waters. The coastal zone undergoes continuous changes due to natural processes and anthropogenic activities. The importance of the coastal zone, with respect to safety, ecology, economy and recreation, demands a management strategy in which each of these aspects is taken into account. Monitoring and understanding the sediment dynamics and suspended sediment transport is an important issue for coastal engineering related activities. A study of the transport mechanism of suspended sediments in the near shore environment is essential not only to safeguard marine installations or navigational channels, but also for the coastal structure design, environmental protection and disaster reduction. Such studies also help in assessment of pollutants and other biological activities in the region. An accurate description of the sediment transport, caused by waves and tidal or wave-induced currents, is of great importance in predicting coastal morphological changes. Satellite-derived SSC data have been found to be useful for Indian coasts because of their high spatial (360 m), spectral and temporal resolutions. The present paper outlines the applications of state‐of‐the‐art operational Indian Remote Sensing satellite, Oceansat-2 to study the dynamics of sediment transport.

Keywords: suspended sediment concentration, ocean colour monitor, sediment transport, case – II waters

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
318 Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer

Authors: A. Kasmi, N. E. Abriak, M. Benzerzour, I. Shahrour

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Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.

Keywords: rive sediment, dehydration, flocculation aid or polymer, characteristics, treatments, valorisation, road construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
317 Sediment Patterns from Fluid-Bed Interactions: A Direct Numerical Simulations Study on Fluvial Turbulent Flows

Authors: Nadim Zgheib, Sivaramakrishnan Balachandar

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We present results on the initial formation of ripples from an initially flattened erodible bed. We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of turbulent open channel flow over a fixed sinusoidal bed coupled with hydrodynamic stability analysis. We use the direct forcing immersed boundary method to account for the presence of the sediment bed. The resolved flow provides the bed shear stress and consequently the sediment transport rate, which is needed in the stability analysis of the Exner equation. The approach is different from traditional linear stability analysis in the sense that the phase lag between the bed topology, and the sediment flux is obtained from the DNS. We ran 11 simulations at a fixed shear Reynolds number of 180, but for different sediment bed wavelengths. The analysis allows us to sweep a large range of physical and modelling parameters to predict their effects on linear growth. The Froude number appears to be the critical controlling parameter in the early linear development of ripples, in contrast with the dominant role of particle Reynolds number during the equilibrium stage.

Keywords: direct numerical simulation, immersed boundary method, sediment-bed interactions, turbulent multiphase flow, linear stability analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
316 Comparison of Sediment Rating Curve and Artificial Neural Network in Simulation of Suspended Sediment Load

Authors: Ahmad Saadiq, Neeraj Sahu

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Sediment, which comprises of solid particles of mineral and organic material are transported by water. In river systems, the amount of sediment transported is controlled by both the transport capacity of the flow and the supply of sediment. The transport of sediment in rivers is important with respect to pollution, channel navigability, reservoir ageing, hydroelectric equipment longevity, fish habitat, river aesthetics and scientific interests. The sediment load transported in a river is a very complex hydrological phenomenon. Hence, sediment transport has attracted the attention of engineers from various aspects, and different methods have been used for its estimation. So, several experimental equations have been submitted by experts. Though the results of these methods have considerable differences with each other and with experimental observations, because the sediment measures have some limits, these equations can be used in estimating sediment load. In this present study, two black box models namely, an SRC (Sediment Rating Curve) and ANN (Artificial Neural Network) are used in the simulation of the suspended sediment load. The study is carried out for Seonath subbasin. Seonath is the biggest tributary of Mahanadi river, and it carries a vast amount of sediment. The data is collected for Jondhra hydrological observation station from India-WRIS (Water Resources Information System) and IMD (Indian Meteorological Department). These data include the discharge, sediment concentration and rainfall for 10 years. In this study, sediment load is estimated from the input parameters (discharge, rainfall, and past sediment) in various combination of simulations. A sediment rating curve used the water discharge to estimate the sediment concentration. This estimated sediment concentration is converted to sediment load. Likewise, for the application of these data in ANN, they are normalised first and then fed in various combinations to yield the sediment load. RMSE (root mean square error) and R² (coefficient of determination) between the observed load and the estimated load are used as evaluating criteria. For an ideal model, RMSE is zero and R² is 1. However, as the models used in this study are black box models, they don’t carry the exact representation of the factors which causes sedimentation. Hence, a model which gives the lowest RMSE and highest R² is the best model in this study. The lowest values of RMSE (based on normalised data) for sediment rating curve, feed forward back propagation, cascade forward back propagation and neural network fitting are 0.043425, 0.00679781, 0.0050089 and 0.0043727 respectively. The corresponding values of R² are 0.8258, 0.9941, 0.9968 and 0.9976. This implies that a neural network fitting model is superior to the other models used in this study. However, a drawback of neural network fitting is that it produces few negative estimates, which is not at all tolerable in the field of estimation of sediment load, and hence this model can’t be crowned as the best model among others, based on this study. A cascade forward back propagation produces results much closer to a neural network model and hence this model is the best model based on the present study.

Keywords: artificial neural network, Root mean squared error, sediment, sediment rating curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
315 Nilsson Model Performance in Estimating Bed Load Sediment, Case Study: Tale Zang Station

Authors: Nader Parsazadeh

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The variety of bed sediment load relationships, insufficient information and data, and the influence of river conditions make the selection of an optimum relationship for a given river extremely difficult. Hence, in order to select the best formulae, the bed load equations should be evaluated. The affecting factors need to be scrutinized, and equations should be verified. Also, re-evaluation may be needed. In this research, sediment bed load of Dez Dam at Tal-e Zang Station has been studied. After reviewing the available references, the most common formulae were selected that included Meir-Peter and Muller, using MS Excel to compute and evaluate data. Then, 52 series of already measured data at the station were re-measured, and the sediment bed load was determined. 1. The calculated bed load obtained by different equations showed a great difference with that of measured data. 2. r difference ratio from 0.5 to 2.00 was 0% for all equations except for Nilsson and Shields equations while it was 61.5 and 59.6% for Nilsson and Shields equations, respectively. 3. By reviewing results and discarding probably erroneous measured data measurements (by human or machine), one may use Nilsson Equation due to its r value higher than 1 as an effective equation for estimating bed load at Tal-e Zang Station in order to predict activities that depend upon bed sediment load estimate to be determined. Also, since only few studies have been conducted so far, these results may be of assistance to the operators and consulting companies.

Keywords: bed load, empirical relation ship, sediment, Tale Zang Station

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
314 Predict Suspended Sediment Concentration Using Artificial Neural Networks Technique: Case Study Oued El Abiod Watershed, Algeria

Authors: Adel Bougamouza, Boualam Remini, Abd El Hadi Ammari, Feteh Sakhraoui

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The assessment of sediments being carried by a river is importance for planning and designing of various water resources projects. In this study, Artificial Neural Network Techniques are used to estimate the daily suspended sediment concentration for the corresponding daily discharge flow in the upstream of Foum El Gherza dam, Biskra, Algeria. The FFNN, GRNN, and RBNN models are established for estimating current suspended sediment values. Some statistics involving RMSE and R2 were used to evaluate the performance of applied models. The comparison of three AI models showed that the RBNN model performed better than the FFNN and GRNN models with R2 = 0.967 and RMSE= 5.313 mg/l. Therefore, the ANN model had capability to improve nonlinear relationships between discharge flow and suspended sediment with reasonable precision.

Keywords: artificial neural network, Oued Abiod watershed, feedforward network, generalized regression network, radial basis network, sediment concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
313 Grain Size Characteristics and Sediments Distribution in the Eastern Part of Lekki Lagoon

Authors: Mayowa Philips Ibitola, Abe Oluwaseun Banji, Olorunfemi Akinade-Solomon

Abstract:

A total of 20 bottom sediment samples were collected from the Lekki Lagoon during the wet and dry season. The study was carried out to determine the textural characteristics, sediment distribution pattern and energy of transportation within the lagoon system. The sediment grain sizes and depth profiling was analyzed using dry sieving method and MATLAB algorithm for processing. The granulometric reveals fine grained sand both for the wet and dry season with an average mean value of 2.03 ϕ and -2.88 ϕ, respectively. Sediments were moderately sorted with an average inclusive standard deviation of 0.77 ϕ and -0.82 ϕ. Skewness varied from strongly coarse and near symmetrical 0.34- ϕ and 0.09 ϕ. The kurtosis average value was 0.87 ϕ and -1.4 ϕ (platykurtic and leptokurtic). Entirely, the bathymetry shows an average depth of 4.0 m. The deepest and shallowest area has a depth of 11.2 m and 0.5 m, respectively. High concentration of fine sand was observed at deep areas compared to the shallow areas during wet and dry season. Statistical parameter results show that the overall sediments are sorted, and deposited under low energy condition over a long distance. However, sediment distribution and sediment transport pattern of Lekki Lagoon is controlled by a low energy current and the down slope configuration of the bathymetry enhances the sorting and the deposition rate in the Lekki Lagoon.

Keywords: Lekki Lagoon, Marine sediment, bathymetry, grain size distribution

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312 Sediment Trapping by Seagrass Blades under Oscillatory Flow

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Teresa Serra

Abstract:

Seagrass meadows increase the sedimentation within the canopy. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how seagrasses impact the vertical distribution of sediment coming from external sources and reaches the meadow. This study aims to determine the number of particles retained by a seagrass meadow. Based on the hydrodynamics in the vertical direction, a meadow can be separated into different compartments: the blades, the seabed, within the canopy layer, and the above canopy layer. A set of laboratory experiments were conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions and canopy densities with the purpose to mimic the real field conditions. This study demonstrates and quantifies that seagrass meadows decrease the volume of the suspended sediment by two mechanisms: capturing the suspended sediment by the seagrass blades and promoting the particle sedimentation to the seabed. This study also demonstrates that the number of sediment particles trapped by single seagrass blades decreases with canopy density. However, when considering the trapping by the total number of blades, the sediment captured by all the blades of the meadow increases with canopy density. Furthermore, comparing with the bare seabed, this study demonstrated that there is a reduction in the suspended particles within the canopy, which implies an improvement in the water clarity. In addition, the particle sedimentation on the seabed increases with the canopy density compared with the bare seabed, making evident the contribution of the vegetation in enhancing sedimentation.

Keywords: seagrass, sediment capture, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

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311 Review of Theories and Applications of Genetic Programing in Sediment Yield Modeling

Authors: Adesoji Tunbosun Jaiyeola, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

Sediment yield can be considered to be the total sediment load that leaves a drainage basin. The knowledge of the quantity of sediments present in a river at a particular time can lead to better flood capacity in reservoirs and consequently help to control over-bane flooding. Furthermore, as sediment accumulates in the reservoir, it gradually loses its ability to store water for the purposes for which it was built. The development of hydrological models to forecast the quantity of sediment present in a reservoir helps planners and managers of water resources systems, to understand the system better in terms of its problems and alternative ways to address them. The application of artificial intelligence models and technique to such real-life situations have proven to be an effective approach of solving complex problems. This paper makes an extensive review of literature relevant to the theories and applications of evolutionary algorithms, and most especially genetic programming. The successful applications of genetic programming as a soft computing technique were reviewed in sediment modelling and other branches of knowledge. Some fundamental issues such as benchmark, generalization ability, bloat and over-fitting and other open issues relating to the working principles of GP, which needs to be addressed by the GP community were also highlighted. This review aim to give GP theoreticians, researchers and the general community of GP enough research direction, valuable guide and also keep all stakeholders abreast of the issues which need attention during the next decade for the advancement of GP.

Keywords: benchmark, bloat, generalization, genetic programming, over-fitting, sediment yield

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310 Sediment Delivery from Hillslope Cultivation in Northwest Vietnam

Authors: Vu Dinh Tuan, Truc Xuyen Nguyen Phan, Nguyen Thi Truc Nhi

Abstract:

Cultivating on hillslopes in Northwest Vietnam induced soil erosion that reduce overall soil fertility, capacity of water bodies and drainage ditches or channels, and enhance the risk of flooding, even obstruct traffics and create 'mud flooding or landslide’. This study aimed at assessing the magnitude of erosion under maize monocropping and perennial teak plantation on a rainstorm basic over two years 2010-2011 using double sediment fences installed at convergent point of catchments (slope inclination of 27-74%). Mean annual soil erosion under maize cultivation was 4.39 kg.m⁻², being far greater than that under teak plantation 1.65 kg.m⁻². Intensive tillage in maize monocropping and clearance of land before sowing was most probably the causes induced such effect as no tillage was performed in teak plantation during monitored period. Larger sediment generated across two land use types in year 2010 (4.11 kg.m⁻²) compared to year 2011 (1.87 kg.m⁻²) was attributed to higher amount and intensity of precipitation in the first year (1448 mm) as compared to the latter year (1299 mm). Reducing tillage and establishing good cover for maize monocropping on steep slopes, therefore, are necessary to reduce soil erosion and control sediment delivery to downstream.

Keywords: maize monocropping, teak plantation, tillage, sediment fence, sediment delivery, soil erosion

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309 Comparative Assessment of a Distributed Model and a Lumped Model for Estimating of Sediments Yielding in Small Urban Areas

Authors: J.Zambrano Nájera, M.Gómez Valentín

Abstract:

Increases in urbanization during XX century, have brought as one major problem the increased of sediment production. Hydraulic erosion is one of the major causes of increasing of sediments in small urban catchments. Such increments in sediment yielding in header urban catchments can caused obstruction of drainage systems, making impossible to capture urban runoff, increasing runoff volumes and thus exacerbating problems of urban flooding. For these reasons, it is more and more important to study of sediment production in urban watershed for properly analyze and solve problems associated to sediments. The study of sediments production has improved with the use of mathematical modeling. For that reason, it is proposed a new physically based model applicable to small header urban watersheds that includes the advantages of distributed physically base models, but with more realistic data requirements. Additionally, in this paper the model proposed is compared with a lumped model, reviewing the results, the advantages and disadvantages between the both of them.

Keywords: erosion, hydrologic modeling, urban runoff, sediment modeling, sediment yielding, urban planning

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308 Estimation of Reservoir Capacity and Sediment Deposition Using Remote Sensing Data

Authors: Odai Ibrahim Mohammed Al Balasmeh, Tapas Karmaker, Richa Babbar

Abstract:

In this study, the reservoir capacity and sediment deposition were estimated using remote sensing data. The satellite images were synchronized with water level and storage capacity to find out the change in sediment deposition due to soil erosion and transport by streamflow. The water bodies spread area was estimated using vegetation indices, e.g., normalize differences vegetation index (NDVI) and normalize differences water index (NDWI). The 3D reservoir bathymetry was modeled by integrated water level, storage capacity, and area. From the models of different time span, the change in reservoir storage capacity was estimated. Another reservoir with known water level, storage capacity, area, and sediment deposition was used to validate the estimation technique. The t-test was used to assess the results between observed and estimated reservoir capacity and sediment deposition.

Keywords: satellite data, normalize differences vegetation index, NDVI, normalize differences water index, NDWI, reservoir capacity, sedimentation, t-test hypothesis

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307 Modeling of Sediment Yield and Streamflow of Watershed Basin in the Philippines Using the Soil Water Assessment Tool Model for Watershed Sustainability

Authors: Warda L. Panondi, Norihiro Izumi

Abstract:

Sedimentation is a significant threat to the sustainability of reservoirs and their watershed. In the Philippines, the Pulangi watershed experienced a high sediment loss mainly due to land conversions and plantations that showed critical erosion rates beyond the tolerable limit of -10 ton/ha/yr in all of its sub-basin. From this event, the prediction of runoff volume and sediment yield is essential to examine using the country's soil conservation techniques realistically. In this research, the Pulangi watershed was modeled using the soil water assessment tool (SWAT) to predict its watershed basin's annual runoff and sediment yield. For the calibration and validation of the model, the SWAT-CUP was utilized. The model was calibrated with monthly discharge data for 1990-1993 and validated for 1994-1997. Simultaneously, the sediment yield was calibrated in 2014 and validated in 2015 because of limited observed datasets. Uncertainty analysis and calculation of efficiency indexes were accomplished through the SUFI-2 algorithm. According to the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), King-Gupta efficiency (KGE), and PBIAS, the calculation of streamflow indicates a good performance for both calibration and validation periods while the sediment yield resulted in a satisfactory performance for both calibration and validation. Therefore, this study was able to identify the most critical sub-basin and severe needs of soil conservation. Furthermore, this study will provide baseline information to prevent floods and landslides and serve as a useful reference for land-use policies and watershed management and sustainability in the Pulangi watershed.

Keywords: Pulangi watershed, sediment yield, streamflow, SWAT model

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