Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 424

Search results for: legislation

424 Digital Privacy Legislation Awareness

Authors: Henry Foulds, Magda Huisman, Gunther R. Drevin

Abstract:

Privacy is regarded as a fundamental human right and it is clear that the study of digital privacy is an important field. Digital privacy is influenced by new and constantly evolving technologies and this continuous change makes it hard to create legislation to protect people’s privacy from being exploited by misuse of these technologies.

This study aims to benefit digital privacy legislation efforts by evaluating the awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation among computer science students. The chosen fixed variables for the population are study year and gamer classification.

The use of location based services in mobile applications and games are a concern for digital privacy. For this reason the study focused on computer science students as they have a high likelihood to use and develop this type of software. Surveys were used to evaluate awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation.

The results of the study show that privacy legislation and awareness of privacy legislation are important to people. The perception of the importance of privacy legislation increases with academic experience. Awareness of privacy legislation increases from non-gamers to pro gamers. 

Keywords: digital privacy, legislation awareness, gaming, privacy legislation

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423 Modern Problems of Russian Sport Legislation

Authors: Yurlov Sergey

Abstract:

The author examines modern problems of Russian sport legislation and whether it need to be changed in order to allow all sportsmen to participate, train and have another sportsmen’s rights as Russian law mandates. The article provides an overview of Russian sport legislation problems, provides examples of foreign countries. In addition, the author suggests solutions for existing legal problems.

Keywords: amendment, legal problem, right, sport

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422 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia

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The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: international conventions, national legislation, space faring nations, space law

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421 The Readiness of Bodies Corporate in South Africa for Third Generation Sectional Title Legislation: An Accountancy Perspective

Authors: Leandi Steenkamp

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After being in effect since the late 1970s, first generation sectional title legislation in South Africa was completely overhauled in recent years into what is now commonly referred to as third generation sectional title legislation. The original Sectional Titles Act was split into three separate statutes, namely the Sectional Titles Schemes Management Act No. 8 of 2011, the Sectional Titles Amendment Act No. 33 of 2013 and the Community Schemes Ombud Service Act No. 9 of 2011, with various Regulations detailing how the different acts should be applied in practice. Even though some of the changes effected by the new legislation is simply technical adjustments and replications of the original first generation legislation, the new acts introduce a number of significant changes that will have an effect on accountancy and financial management aspects of sectional title schemes in future. No academic research has been undertaken on third generation sectional title legislation in South Africa from an accountancy and financial management perspective as yet. The aim of this paper is threefold: Firstly, to discuss the findings of a literature review on the new third generation sectional title legislation, with specific reference to accountancy-related aspects. Secondly, the empirical findings of accountancy-related aspects from the results of a quantitative study on a sample of bodies corporate will be discussed. The sample of bodies corporate was selected from four different municipal areas in South Africa. Specific reference will be made to the readiness of bodies corporate regarding the provisions of the new legislation. Thirdly, practical recommendations will be made on how bodies corporate can prepare for the new legislative aspects, and further research opportunities in this regard will be discussed.

Keywords: accountancy, body corporate, sectional title, third generation sectional title legislation

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420 Slovenian Spatial Legislation over Time and Its Issues

Authors: Andreja Benko

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Article presents a short overview of the architects’ profession over time with outlined work of the architectural theoreticians. In the continuation is described a former affiliation of Slovenia as well as the spatial planning documents that were in use until the Slovenia joint Yugoslavia (last part in 1919). This legislation from former Austro-Hungarian monarchy was valid almost until 1950 in some parts of Yugoslavia even longer. Upon that will be mentioned some valid Slovenian spatial documents which will be compared with the German legislation. Analysed will be the number of architect and spatial planners in Slovenia and also their number upon certain region in Slovenia. Based on that will be given also the number from statistical office of Slovenia of the number of buildings between years 2007 and 2012, and described also the collapse of the major construction companies in Slovenia and consequences of that. At the end will be outlined the morality and ethics by spatial interventions and lack of the architectural law in Slovenia as well as the problematic of minimal collaboration between the Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning with the profession.

Keywords: architect, history, legislation, Slovenia

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419 Rethinking the Constitutionality of Statutes: Rights-Compliant Interpretation in India and the UK

Authors: Chintan Chandrachud

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When primary legislation is challenged for breaching fundamental rights, many courts around the world adopt interpretive techniques to avoid finding such legislation incompatible or invalid. In the UK, these techniques find sanction in section 3 of the Human Rights Act 1998, which directs courts to interpret legislation in a manner which is compatible with European Convention rights, ‘so far as it is possible to do so’. In India, courts begin with the interpretive presumption that Parliament intended to comply with fundamental rights under the Constitution of 1949. In comparing rights-compliant interpretation of primary legislation under the Human Rights Act and the Indian Constitution, this paper makes two arguments. First, that in the absence of a section 3-type mandate, Indian courts have a smaller range of interpretive tools at their disposal in interpreting primary legislation in a way which complies with fundamental rights. For example, whereas British courts frequently read words into statutes, Indian courts consider this an inapposite interpretive technique. The second argument flows naturally from the first. Given that Indian courts have a smaller interpretive toolbox, one would imagine that ceteris paribus, Indian courts’ power to strike down legislation would be triggered earlier than the declaration of incompatibility is in the UK. However, this is not borne out in practice. Faced with primary legislation which appears to violate fundamental rights, Indian courts often reluctantly uphold the constitutionality of statutes (rather than striking them down), as opposed to British courts, which make declarations of incompatibility. The explanation for this seeming asymmetry hinges on the difference between the ‘strike down’ power and the declaration of incompatibility. Whereas the former results in the disapplication of a statute, the latter throws the ball back into Parliament’s court, if only formally.

Keywords: constitutional law, judicial review, constitution of India, UK Human Rights Act

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418 Management of Urban Watering: A Study of Appliance of Technologies and Legislation in Goiania, Brazil

Authors: Vinicius Marzall, Jussanã Milograna

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The urban drainwatering remains a major challenge for most of the Brazilian cities. Not so different of the most part, Goiania, a state capital located in Midwest of the country has few legislations about the subject matter and only one registered solution of compensative techniques for drainwater. This paper clam to show some solutions which are adopted in other Brazilian cities with consolidated legislation, suggesting technics about detention tanks in a building sit. This study analyzed and compared the legislation of Curitiba, Porto Alegre e Sao Paulo, with the actual legislation and politics of Goiania. After this, were created models with adopted data for dimensioning the size of detention tanks using the envelope curve method considering synthetic series for intense precipitations and building sits between 250 m² and 600 m², with an impermeabilization tax of 50%. The results showed great differences between the legislation of Goiania and the documentation of the others cities analyzed, like the number of techniques for drainwatering applied to the reality of the cities, educational actions to awareness the population about care the water courses and political management by having a specified funds for drainwater subjects, for example. Besides, the use of detention tank showed itself practicable, have seen that the occupation of the tank is minor than 3% of the building sit, whatever the size of the terrain, granting the exit flow to pre-occupational taxes in extreme rainfall events. Also, was developed a linear equation to measure the detention tank based in the size of the building sit in Goiania, making simpler the calculation and implementation for non-specialized people.

Keywords: clean technology, legislation, rainwater management, urban drainwater

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417 Criminal Protection Objectivity of the Child's Right to Life and Physical and Psychological Safety

Authors: Hezha Hewa, Taher Sur

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Nowadays, child affairs is a matter of both national and international interests. This issue is regarded a vital topic for various scientific fields across ages, and for all the communities without exception. However, the nature of child caring may vary due to the verities in science perspectives. So, considering child's affairs from different perspectives is helpful to have a complementary image about this matter. The purpose behind selecting this topic is to keep a balance between the victim on the one hand, and the guardian and the offender on the other hand, (i.e.) to avoid any kind of excessiveness either in the protection of the child and its rights not in the punishment of the offender. This is achieved through considering various legal materials in the Iraqi legislation and in the comparative legislations that are concerned with the child's issue and the extent to which the child makes use of these rights. The scope of this study involves the crimes that are considered as aggressions against the child's right to life, and the crimes that are dangerous to their physical and psychological safety. So, this study comprehensively considers the intentional murder of child, child murder to avoid disgrace, child kidnapping, child abandonment, physical abuse for the sake of punishment or not, child circumcision, verbal violence, and abstaining from leaving a child with a person who has the right of custody. This study ends with the most significant concluding points that have been derived throughout this study, which are: Unlike the Iraqi legislation, the Egyptian legislation defines the child in the Article 2 of the Child Law No. 12 of 1996 amended by the Law No. 126 of 2008 that the child is a person who does not exceed 18 years of age. Some legislation does not provide special criminal protection for child intentional murder, as in the Iraqi and the Egyptian legislation. However, some others have provided special criminal protection for a child, as in French and Syrian legislations. Child kidnapping is regarded as one of the most dangerous crimes that affects the child and the family as well, as it may expose the child's life to danger or to death. The most significant recommendations from the researcher are: The Iraqi legislation is recommended to take the necessary measures to establish a particular legislation for the child by including all the legal provisions that are associated with this weak creature, and make use of the Egyptian legislator’s experience as a pioneer in this respect. Both the Iraqi legislation and the Egyptian legislation are recommended to enact special laws to protect a child from the crimes of intentional murder, as the crime of child murder is currently subjected to the same provisions consider for adult murder.

Keywords: child, criminal, penal, law, safety

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416 The Idea of Making of Corporate Social Responsibility Compulsory in India

Authors: Jagannath Mohanty, Shiv Nath Sinha

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India is the first country in the world, where spending on Corporate Social Responsibily (CSR) has been made mandatory. Predominantly Indian enterprises have been philanthrophic for hundreds of years, where giving back to the society is the religious duty of the rich. Therefore Indian businesses have been voluntarily spending on CSR activities, while several businesses kept spending on non business activities a significant number of entrepreneurs abstained from social spending, leading Government of India to take the lesgislative route by mandating 2% spend of net profit on CSR activities failing which companeis will be dealt legally. While the legislation on suface appers progressive and pro social, yet the consequences of making a rather volutary action a legally binding act is yet to be seen. This paper examines the possible social impact of the legislation and potential response of the corporate to a legislation of this kind.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility (CSR), companies act 2013, corporate citizenship, social spending

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415 Labour Migration in Russia in the Context of Russia’s National Security Problem

Authors: A. V. Dolzhikova

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The article deals with the problems of labour migration in the Russian Federation in the context of Russia's national security, provides the typology of migrants residing in the territory of the Russian Federation and analyzes the risk factors. The author considers the structure of migration flows and the terms of legal, economic and socio-cultural adaptation of migrants in the Russian Federation. In this connection, the status of the Russian migration legislation, the concept of the comprehensive exam in Russian as a foreign language, history of Russia and the basics of the Russian Federation legislation for foreign citizens which was introduced in Russia on January 1, 2015, are analyzed. The article discloses its role as the adaptation strategy and the factor of Russia's migration security.

Keywords: comprehensive exam, migration policy, migration legislation, Russia's national security

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414 Public Participation and Decision-Making towards Planning Legislation: A Case for GCC Countries

Authors: Saad Saeed Althiabi

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There is great progress in formulating and executing legislative policies in GCC, however, the public participation in formulating and in major decision making still remains weak. Drawing attention on the international law of public participation in construction and natural resource management, this paper aims in creating a feasible legislative framework for extensive public participation in the industries such as construction and oil and gas decision-making that GCC can implement. This paper would address the conflicts associated with the management and creation of legislation and ensuring public participation for the creation of a practical framework. A feasible legislative framework must take into account the various factors that shape the effectiveness of participation and the elements that promote the objectives of participation. It is premised on the ground that viewing to international prescriptions might help to reveal gaps in domestic laws, as well as alternatives to overcome them.

Keywords: legislative policies, public participation, planning legislation, GCC countries, international law

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413 Criminalization of Wicked Statements with Legal Consequences in the Criminal Law of the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Sergiu Cernomoreț

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The legislation of the Republic of Moldova, as in fact the legislation of any other state, during its entire history was known to the institution of legal and criminal protection of declarations producing legal consequences. The achievements of scientific and legislative concepts in this field cannot be underestimated or questioned. The evolution of criminal law and the establishment of the examined regulations are directly related to certain epochs of the evolution of the statehood of the Republic of Moldova, to the formation of the juridical-national culture, and to the legal system of the state. In the literature, most authors do not define statements in general but establish definitions for them depending on the procedural quality of the person making statements. Thus, in the literature, we will find more often the definitions given: the statements of the witness, the injured party, the suspect, the accused, the defendant, and less often a definition given to the statements to the general, as a means of proof. In addition, we can say that in our case, which is producing legal consequences, it can take different forms depending on the context and the legal framework in which it is made.

Keywords: statement, justice, legislation, criminal law, criminal liability

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412 The Clash between Environmental and Heritage Laws: An Australian Case Study

Authors: Andrew R. Beatty

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The exploitation of Australia’s vast mineral wealth is regulated by a matrix of planning, environment and heritage legislation, and despite the desire for a ‘balance’ between economic, environmental and heritage values, Aboriginal objects and places are often detrimentally impacted by mining approvals. The Australian experience is not novel. There are other cases of clashes between the rights of traditional landowners and businesses seeking to exploit mineral or other resources on or beneath those lands, including in the United States, Canada, and Brazil. How one reconciles the rights of traditional owners with those of resource companies is an ongoing legal problem of general interest. In Australia, planning and environmental approvals for resource projects are ordinarily issued by State or Territory governments. Federal legislation such as the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Heritage Protection Act 1984 (Cth) is intended to act as a safety net when State or Territory legislation is incapable of protecting Indigenous objects or places in the context of approvals for resource projects. This paper will analyse the context and effectiveness of legislation enacted to protect Indigenous heritage in the planning process. In particular, the paper will analyse how the statutory objects of such legislation need to be weighed against the statutory objects of competing legislation designed to facilitate and control resource exploitation. Using a current claim in the Federal Court of Australia for the protection of a culturally significant landscape as a case study, this paper will examine the challenges faced in ascribing value to cultural heritage within the wider context of environmental and planning laws. Our findings will reveal that there is an inherent difficulty in defining and weighing competing economic, environmental and heritage considerations. An alternative framework will be proposed to guide regulators towards making decisions that result in better protection of Indigenous heritage in the context of resource management.

Keywords: environmental law, heritage law, indigenous rights, mining

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411 The Contribution of the Lomé Charter to Combating Trafficking in Persons at Sea: Nigerian and South African Legal Perspective

Authors: Obinna Emmanuel Nkomadu

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A major maritime problem in the African continent is the widespread proliferation of threats to maritime security, and one of which is the traffic in persons (TIP) at sea, which victims are sometimes assaulted, injured, killed, and in many cases go missing. The South African and Nigerian law on TIP at sea is the Prevention and Combating of Trafficking in Persons Act and the Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition) Enforcement and Administration Act, respectively. These legislation prohibits TIP at sea but does not provides effective and efficient national coordination structures and international cooperation measures against traffickers who engage on human trafficking on the African maritime domain. As a result of the limitations on the maritime security laws of most African States and the maritime security threats on the continent, the African Union in 2016 adopted the African Charter on Maritime Security and Safety and Development in Africa (Lome Charter). The Lomé Charter provides mechanisms for national and international cooperation on maritime security threats, including TIP at sea. However, the Charter is yet to come into force due to the number of States required to accede or ratify the Charter. This paper identifies gaps on existing instruments on TIP at sea by those States and justify on South Africa and Nigeria should adopt the Charter. The justification flow from analysing relevant international law instruments, as well as legislation on human trafficking.

Keywords: cooperation against trafficking in persons at sea, lomé charter, maritime security, Nigerian legislation on trafficking in persons, South African legislation on trafficking in person, and trafficking in persons at sea

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410 Review of State Anti-Trafficking Laws in the United States of America and Their Success in Combating Human Trafficking and Protecting the Victims

Authors: Andrea Marcela Morales Reyes

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In the year 2000, the federal government of the United States of America enacted anti-trafficking legislation to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect the victims. Since then, all 50 states have followed the federal government's example by enacting state-level anti-trafficking legislation. In order to fight human trafficking in the United States, it is paramount that this legislation is not only comprehensively enacted but also enforced. This study reviewed the anti-trafficking laws enacted in each of the 50 states and investigated the success of such laws by reporting the number of trafficking related prosecutions, cases identified, and victims protected. This study reviewed human trafficking reports issued by nonprofits, and state and federal level agencies. An increase in the number of cases investigated since the state laws have been passed reflects a moderate success in the fight against human trafficking in the U.S. This review also found that although every state has passed anti-trafficking legislation, many still lack a comprehensive approach to combat human trafficking; some states lack key provisions to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect it victims. This, along with the lack of enforcement of the anti-trafficking plans included in each of the state legislations, has meant that the human trafficking cases investigated in fiscal year 2016 are not near the estimated numbers; which in turn suggests that this crime is still greatly unaccounted for. This study concludes that although important steps have been taken at the national and state level to combat human trafficking, the identification and prosecution of human trafficking cases still proves challenging in the United States.

Keywords: enforcement of laws, human trafficking, anti-trafficking legislation, United States

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409 Artificial Intelligence as a User of Copyrighted Work: Descriptive Study

Authors: Dominika Collett

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AI applications, such as machine learning, require access to a vast amount of data in the training phase, which can often be the subject of copyright protection. During later usage, the various content with which the application works can be recorded or made available on the basis of which it produces the resulting output. The EU has recently adopted new legislation to secure machine access to protected works under the DSM Directive; but, the issue of machine use of copyright works is not clearly addressed. However, such clarity is needed regarding the increasing importance of AI and its development. Therefore, this paper provides a basic background of the technology used in the development of applications in the field of computer creativity. The second part of the paper then will focus on a legal analysis of machine use of the authors' works from the perspective of existing European and Czech legislation. The main results of the paper discuss the potential collision of existing legislation in regards to machine use of works with special focus on exceptions and limitations. The legal regulation of machine use of copyright work will impact the development of AI technology.

Keywords: copyright, artificial intelligence, legal use, infringement, Czech law, EU law, text and data mining

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408 Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Climate-Induced Migration in Brazil: Legislation, Policies and Practice

Authors: Heloisa H. Miura, Luiza M. Pallone

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In Brazil, people forced to move due to environmental causes, called 'environmental migrants', have always been neglected by public policies and legislation. Meanwhile, the numbers of climate-induced migration within and to Brazil continues to increase. The operating Immigration Law, implemented in 1980 under the Brazilian military regime, is widely considered to be out of date, once it does not offer legal protection to migrants who do not fit the definition of a refugee and are not allowed to stay regularly in the country. Aiming to reformulate Brazil’s legislation and policies on the matter, a new Migration Bill (PL 2516/2015) is currently being discussed in the Senate and is expected to define a more humanized approach to migration. Although the present draft foresees an expansion of the legal protection to different types of migrants, it still hesitates to include climate-induced displacements in its premises and to establish a migration management strategy. By introducing a human rights-based approach, this paper aims to provide a new multidisciplinary perspective to the protection of environmental migrants in Brazil.

Keywords: environmental migrants, human mobility, climate change, migration policy

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407 Foreign Elements In The Methodologies of USUL Fiqh: Analysing The Orientalist Thought

Authors: Ariyanti Mustapha

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The development of Islamic jurisprudence since the first century of hijra has fascinated many orientalists to explore the historiography of Islamic legislation. The practice of uÎËl fiqh began during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad and was continued by the companions as the legal reasoning due to the absence of the legal injunction in the QurÉn and Sunnah. The orientalists propagated that the Roman and Jewish legislation were transplanted in Islamic jurisprudence and it was the primary reason for its progression. This article focuses on the analysis of foreign elements transplanted in the uÎËl fiqh as mentioned by Ignaz Goldziher and Joseph Schacht. They insisted the methodology of Sunna and IjtihÉd were authentically from Roman and Jewish legislation, known as Mishnah and Ha-Kol were invented and transplanted as the principles in uÎËl fiqh. The author used qualitative and comparative methods to analyze the orientalists’ views. The result showed that many erroneous facts were propagated by Goldziher and Schacht by claiming the parallels between the principles, methodologies, and fundamental concepts in uÎËl fiqh and Roman Provincial law. They insisted Sunna and IjtihÉd as an invention from the corpus of Jewish Mishnah and Ha-kol and further affirmed by Schacht that Islamic jurisprudence began in the second century of hijra. These judgments are used by the orientalists to prove the inferiority of Islamic jurisprudence. Nevertheless, many evidences has proven that Islamic legislation is capable of developing independently without any foreign transplant.

Keywords: foreign transplant, ijtihad, orientalist, USUL Fiqh

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406 The Feminism of Data Privacy and Protection in Africa

Authors: Olayinka Adeniyi, Melissa Omino

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The field of data privacy and data protection in Africa is still an evolving area, with many African countries yet to enact legislation on the subject. While African Governments are bringing their legislation to speed in this field, how patriarchy pervades every sector of African thought and manifests in society needs to be considered. Moreover, the laws enacted ought to be inclusive, especially towards women. This, in a nutshell, is the essence of data feminism. Data feminism is a new way of thinking about data science and data ethics that is informed by the ideas of intersectional feminism. Feminising data privacy and protection will involve thinking women, considering women in the issues of data privacy and protection, particularly in legislation, as is the case in this paper. The line of thought of women inclusion is not uncommon when even international and regional human rights specific for women only came long after the general human rights. The consideration is that these should have been inserted or rather included in the original general instruments in the first instance. Since legislation on data privacy is coming in this century, having seen the rights and shortcomings of earlier instruments, then the cue should be taken to ensure inclusive wholistic legislation for data privacy and protection in the first instance. Data feminism is arguably an area that has been scantily researched, albeit a needful one. With the spate of increase in the violence against women spiraling in the cyber world, compounding the issue of COVID-19 and the needful response of governments, and the effect of these on women and their rights, fast forward, the research on the feminism of data privacy and protection in Africa becomes inevitable. This paper seeks to answer the questions, what is data feminism in the African context, why is it important in the issue of data privacy and protection legislation; what are the laws, if any, existing on data privacy and protection in Africa, are they women inclusive, if not, why; what are the measures put in place for the privacy and protection of women in Africa, and how can this be made possible. The paper aims to investigate the issue of data privacy and protection in Africa, the legal framework, and the protection or provision that it has for women if any. It further aims to research the importance and necessity of feminizing data privacy and protection, the effect of lack of it, the challenges or bottlenecks in attaining this feat and the possibilities of accessing data privacy and protection for African women. The paper also researches the emerging practices of data privacy and protection of women in other jurisprudences. It approaches the research through the methodology of review of papers, analysis of laws, and reports. It seeks to contribute to the existing literature in the field and is explorative in its suggestion. It suggests a draft of some clauses to make any data privacy and protection legislation women inclusive. It would be useful for policymaking, academic, and public enlightenment.

Keywords: feminism, women, law, data, Africa

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405 Economic Effects of Maritime Environmental Legislation in the North and Baltic Sea Area: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

Authors: Thea Freese

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Environmental legislation to protect North and Baltic Sea areas from harmful vessel-source emissions has received increased political attention in recent years. Legislative measures are expected to show positive effects on the health of the marine environment and society. At the same time, compliance might increase the costs to industry and have effects on freight rates and volumes shipped with potential negative repercussions on the environment. Building on an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach, this research project will study the economic effects of maritime environmental legislation in two phases. In Phase I, exploratory in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 experts from various stakeholder groups aiming at identifying variables influencing the relationship between environmental legislation, freight rates and volumes shipped. Influencing factors like compliance, enforcement and modal shift were identified and studied. Phase II will comprise of a quantitative study conducted with the aim of verifying the theory build in Phase I and quantifying economic effects of rules on shipping pollution. Research in this field might inform policy-makers about determinants of behaviour of ship operators in the face of the law and might further the development of a comprehensive legal system for marine environmental protection. At the present stage of research, first tentative results from the qualitative phase may be examined and open research questions to be addressed in the quantitative phase as well as possible research designs for phase II may be discussed. Input from other researchers will be highly valuable at this point.

Keywords: clean shipping operations, compliance, maritime environmental legislation, maritime law and economics, mixed methods research, North and Baltic Sea area

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404 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao

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Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: crack, drug policy, minorities, racism, substance abuse

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403 The Impact of Internal Dynamics of Standing Committees on Legislative Productivity in the Korean National Assembly

Authors: Lee Da Hyun

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The purpose of this study is to explore the relation between the internal dynamics of standing committees and legislative productivity of the Korean National Assembly using statistical methods. Studies on legislation in South Korea have been largely revolved around political parties due to the uniqueness of its political context including strong party cohesion and party’s nomination right. However, as standing committees have been at the center of legislatures since the 6th National Assembly, there is a growing need for studying the operation and effectiveness of standing committees in legislation process. Thus, through panel data analysis for the sixteen standing committees across the four terms of the Korean National Assembly-from the 16th to the 19th-this article attempts to reveal that legislators’ bill passing rate is not a sole function of factors pertaining to political party as the existing studies have believed. By measuring the ideological distribution within a committee and the bill passing rate, this article provides differentiated interpretation from established theories of standing committees and presents compelling evidence describing complex interactions and independent operation of the standing committees with the subsequent legislative results.

Keywords: collective decision-making, lawmaking, legislation, political polarization, standing committees

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402 Analysis of Changes Being Done of the Mine Legislation of Turkey: Mining Operation Activity Process

Authors: Taşkın Deniz Yıldız, Mustafa Topaloğlu, Orhan Kural

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The right to operate a fairly long periods of prior periods and after the 3213 Mining Law has been observed to be shortened in Turkey. Permit the realization of business activities (or concession) requested the purchase of the mine operated "found mine" position, as well as the financial and technical capability to have the owner of the right to operate the mines as well as the principle of equality is important in terms of assessing the best way be. In particular, in this context, license fields "negligence" (downsizing) have noted that the current arrangement for all periods. However, in the period after 3213 Mining Act and a permit to operate more effectively within the framework of implementation of negligence is laid down.

Keywords: mining legislation, operation, permit, Turkey

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401 Accounting Legislation, Corporate Governance Codes and Disclosure in Jordan

Authors: Ayman Haddad, Wafaa Sbeiti, Amr Qasem

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The main aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the most influential economic changes and accounting legislation affecting financial reporting and disclosure practices in Jordan. It also provides an overview of disclosure studies conducted in Jordan covering the year(s) between 1986 and 2014. The economic changes in Jordan required conducting economic reform and revising/issuing new regulations and financial market reforms that led to an improvement in disclosure practices. The issuance of Temporary Securities Law and its Directives of Disclosure in 1997, which came into effect in 1998, is considered as the turning point in the improvement of disclosure practice in Jordan. Based on a review of prior disclosure studies, we conclude that disclosure practices have improved overtime. We also observe that that firm size as a factor has always affected the level of disclosure in Jordan and followed by external auditing while liquidity was found to have the least effect. The paper also addresses the disclosure items required in Corporate Governance Codes that exist for listed shareholding companies, banks, and insurance companies. Finally, the paper discusses the quality of accounting education in Jordan since prior studies noted its impact on accounting practice.

Keywords: accounting legislation, corporate governance, disclosure practice, Jordan

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400 The Communist Party of China’s Approach to Human Rights and the Death Penalty in China since 1979

Authors: Huang Gui

Abstract:

The issues of human rights and death penalty are always drawing attentions from international scholars, critics and observers, activities and Chinese scholars, and most of them looking at these problems are just doing with such legal or political from a single perspective, but the real relationship between Chinese political regime and legislation is often ignored. In accordance with the Constitution of P.R.C., Communist Party of China (CPC) does not merely play a key role in political field, but in legislation and law enforcement as well. Therefore, the legislation has to implement the party’s theory and outlook, and realize the party’s policies. So is the death penalty system, though it is only concrete punishment system. Considering this point, basic upon the introducing the relationship between CPC and legislation, this paper would like to explore the shifting of CPC’s outlook on human rights and the death penalty system changes in different eras. In Maoist era, the issue of human rights was rejected and deemed as an exclusion zone, and the death penalty was unjustifiably imposed; human rights were politically recognized and accepted in Deng era, but CPC has its own viewpoints on it. CPC emphasized on national security and stability in that era, and the individual human rights weren’t taken correspondingly and reasonably account of. The death penalty was abused and deemed as an important measure to control crime. In post-Deng, human rights were gradually developed and recognized. The term of ‘state respect and protect human rights’ is contained in Constitution of P.R.C., and the individual human rights are gradually valued, but the CPC still focus on state security, development, and stability, the individual right to life hasn’t been enough valued like the right to substance. Although the steps of reforming death penalty are taking, there are still 46 crimes punishable by death. CPC should change its outlook and pay more attention to the right to life, and try to abolish death penalty de facto and de jure.

Keywords: criminal law, communist party of China, death penalty, human rights, China

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399 Ideal Posture in Regulating Legal Regulations in Indonesia

Authors: M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara M Jeffri Arlinandes Chandra, Puwaningdyah Murti Wahyuni, Dewi Mutiara

Abstract:

Indonesia is a state of the law in accordance with article 1 paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (1945 Constitution), namely, 'the State of Indonesia is a state of law'. The consequences of the rule of law are making the law as the main commanding officer or making the law as a basis for carrying out an action taken by the state. The types of regulations and procedures for the formation of legislation in Indonesia are contained in Law Number 12 of 2011 concerning the Formation of Legislation. Various attempts were made to make quality regulations both in the formal hierarchy and material hierarchy such as synchronization and harmonization in the formation of laws and regulations so that there is no conflict between equal and hierarchical laws, but the fact is that there are still many conflicting regulations found between one another. This can be seen clearly in the many laws and regulations that were sued to judicial institutions such as the Constitutional Court (MK) and the Supreme Court (MA). Therefore, it is necessary to have a formulation regarding the governance of the formation of laws and regulations so as to minimize the occurrence of lawsuits to the court so that positive law can be realized which can be used today and for the future (ius constituendum). The research method that will be used in this research is a combination of normative research (library research) supported by empirical data from field research so that it can formulate concepts and answer the challenges being faced. First, the structuring of laws and regulations in Indonesia must start from the inventory of laws and regulations, whether they can be classified based on the type of legislation, what are they set about, the year of manufacture, etc. so that they can be clearly traced to the regulations relating to the formation of laws and regulations. Second, the search and revocation/revocation of laws and regulations that do not exist in the state registration system. Third, the periodic evaluation system is carried out at every level of the hierarchy of laws and regulations. These steps will form an ideal model of laws and regulations in Indonesia both in terms of content and material so that the instructions can be codified and clearly inventoried so that they can be accessed by the wider community as a concrete manifestation of the principle that all people know the law (presumptio iures de iure).

Keywords: legislation, review, evaluation, reconstruction

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398 Heritage Sharing Problems in Land Registry: Case Study of Konya, Turkey

Authors: Tayfun Cay, Sabahattin Akkus

Abstract:

Due to inheritance, urban areas can not be arranged in a planned and programmed manner. As a result of this, the social fabric is disrupted and the hostility is increasing among the people. This contradicts the understanding of the social state. The Turkish Civil Code and the Urban Development Law are effective in sharing heritage in urban areas in Turkey. Within the framework of this legislation; How to make heritage sharing and services in the title deed. In this study, these laws, regulations, and statutes are examined. In the frame of this legislation, land registry problems on inheritance are examined and the province of Konya - Selçuk district, is selected as an application place to solve the problems. In this study, the problems of heritage sharing in the land registry were investigated. The evaluation of the work is done and the results are determined and possible solutions are proposed.

Keywords: land, land registry, heritage sharing, sharing problems of heritage

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397 The Need for a Consistent Regulatory Framework for CRISPR Gene-Editing in the European Union

Authors: Andrew Thayer, Courtney Rondeau, Paraskevi Papadopoulou

Abstract:

The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) gene-editing technologies have generated considerable discussion about the applications and ethics of their use. However, no consistent guidelines for using CRISPR technologies have been developed -nor common legislation passed related to gene editing, especially as it is connected to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the European Union. The recent announcement that the first babies with CRISPR-edited genes were born, along with new studies exploring CRISPR’s applications in treating thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, cancer, and certain forms of blindness, have demonstrated that the technology is developing faster than the policies needed to control it. Therefore, it can be seen that a reasonable and coherent regulatory framework for the use of CRISPR in human somatic and germline cells is necessary to ensure the ethical use of the technology in future years. The European Union serves as a unique region of interconnected countries without a standard set of regulations or legislation for CRISPR gene-editing. We posit that the EU would serve as a suitable model in comparing the legislations of its affiliated countries in order to understand the practicality and effectiveness of adopting majority-approved practices. Additionally, we present a proposed set of guidelines which could serve as a basis in developing a consistent regulatory framework for the EU countries to implement but also act as a good example for other countries to adhere to. Finally, an additional, multidimensional framework of smart solutions is proposed with which all stakeholders are engaged to become better-informed citizens.

Keywords: CRISPR, ethics, regulatory framework, European legislation

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396 Juvenile Justice System in India: Pre and Post Nirbhaya Case

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Parihar

Abstract:

Incidents of serious offenses being committed by children are increasing day by day thereby becoming a matter of great concern. The involvement of a 17-year-old boy in the incident that took place on 16th December 2012 (most commonly known as ‘Nirbhaya Case’)wherein a 23-year-old girl was brutally gang-raped and thrown out of the moving bus, took the entire nation by shock. Previously, the legislation dealing with juvenile delinquency in India considered a child to be juvenile if he/she was below the age of 18 years. As a consequence, the accused who was just six months short of attaining the age of 18 years was convicted for only three years. The primary objective of the study is to understand the gravity as to why the need for distinguishing a child and juvenile arose in this time and to what extent legislations are successful in this regard. It initially explains the history and evolution of juvenile legislation in India and the provisions contained in the Indian Constitution. It then goes on to explain the causes of juvenile delinquency in India. Further, the study focuses on the latest trends that have developed in juvenile delinquency, explaining how the Nirbhaya Case led to the amendments made to the Juvenile Justice Act, 2010. Also, it focuses on the Child Rights and Child Protection and the stand taken by the National Human Rights Commission and the international community. An attempt has been made to settle the debate as to whether the juvenile justice system in India is reformative or punitive. The need for amendment in the Juvenile Justice Act is also highlighted. The outcome of the study suggests that the legislation relating to juvenile delinquency have not been able to achieve the desired results. The age determination method in our system has been given paramount importance. The maximum punishment prescribed, even for heinous crimes, is only three years. Also, the reformative style of punishment is not adequate and more emphasis should be laid on penalization. Finally, the author concludes that the legislation has failed at creating a deterrent effect. It is suggested to strengthen the role of government authorities and to sensitize people in this regard to increase community participation. A non-doctrinal and analytical approach has been adopted and secondary sources of data have been relied upon by the author for conducting the research for the study.

Keywords: child, delinquency, juvenile, Nirbhaya case

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395 Climate Change and Health in Policies

Authors: Corinne Kowalski, Lea de Jong, Rainer Sauerborn, Niamh Herlihy, Anneliese Depoux, Jale Tosun

Abstract:

Climate change is considered one of the biggest threats to human health of the 21st century. The link between climate change and health has received relatively little attention in the media, in research and in policy-making. A long term and broad overview of how health is represented in the legislation on climate change is missing in the legislative literature. It is unknown if or how the argument for health is referred in legal clauses addressing climate change, in national and European legislation. Integrating scientific based evidence into policies regarding the impacts of climate change on health could be a key step to inciting the political and societal changes necessary to decelerate global warming. This may also drive the implementation of new strategies to mitigate the consequences on health systems. To provide an overview of this issue, we are analyzing the Global Climate Legislation Database provided by the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. This institution was established in 2008 at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The database consists of (updated as of 1st January 2015) legislations on climate change in 99 countries around the world. This tool offers relevant information about the state of climate related policies. We will use the database to systematically analyze the 829 identified legislations to identify how health is represented as a relevant aspect of climate change legislation. We are conducting explorative research of national and supranational legislations and anticipate health to be addressed in various forms. The goal is to highlight how often, in what specific terms, which aspects of health or health risks of climate change are mentioned in various legislations. The position and recurrence of the mention of health is also of importance. Data will be extracted with complete quotation of the sentence which mentions health, which will allow for second qualitative stage to analyze which aspects of health are represented and in what context. This study is part of an interdisciplinary project called 4CHealth that confronts results of the research done on scientific, political and press literature to better understand how the knowledge on climate change and health circulates within those different fields and whether and how it is translated to real world change.

Keywords: climate change, explorative research, health, policies

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