Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 179

Search results for: bioavailability

179 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan


This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, nutritional combinations, synergistic

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
178 Bioavailability of Iron in Some Selected Fiji Foods using In vitro Technique

Authors: Poonam Singh, Surendra Prasad, William Aalbersberg


Iron the most essential trace element in human nutrition. Its deficiency has serious health consequences and is a major public health threat worldwide. The common deficiencies in Fiji population reported are of Fe, Ca and Zn. It has also been reported that 40% of women in Fiji are iron deficient. Therefore, we have been studying the bioavailability of iron in commonly consumed Fiji foods. To study the bioavailability it is essential to assess the iron contents in raw foods. This paper reports the iron contents and its bioavailability in commonly consumed foods by multicultural population of Fiji. The food samples (rice, breads, wheat flour and breakfast cereals) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for total iron and its bioavailability. The white rice had the lowest total iron 0.10±0.03 mg/100g but had high bioavailability of 160.60±0.03%. The brown rice had 0.20±0.03 mg/100g total iron content but 85.00±0.03% bioavailable. The white and brown breads showed the highest iron bioavailability as 428.30±0.11 and 269.35 ±0.02%, respectively. The Weetabix and the rolled oats had the iron contents 2.89±0.27 and 1.24.±0.03 mg/100g with bioavailability of 14.19±0.04 and 12.10±0.03%, respectively. The most commonly consumed normal wheat flour had 0.65±0.00 mg/100g iron while the whole meal and the Roti flours had 2.35±0.20 and 0.62±0.17 mg/100g iron showing bioavailability of 55.38±0.05, 16.67±0.08 and 12.90±0.00%, respectively. The low bioavailability of iron in certain foods may be due to the presence of phytates/oxalates, processing/storage conditions, cooking method or interaction with other minerals present in the food samples.

Keywords: iron, bioavailability, Fiji foods, in vitro technique, human nutrition

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177 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini


Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
176 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El


Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: bioavailability, formulation, lutein, nanotechnology

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175 Development of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of Anticancer Agents Used in AYUSH System of Medicine for Improved Oral Bioavailability Followed by Their Pharmacological Evaluation Using Biotechnological Techniques

Authors: Meenu Mehta, Munish Garg


The use of oral anticancer drugs from AYUSH system of medicine is widely increased among the society due to their low cost, enhanced efficacy, increased patient preference, lack of inconveniences related to infusion and they provide an opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. However, oral delivery of these drugs usually laid down by the limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variation. As most of the cytotoxic agents have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or near the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can negatively affect treatment result. It is estimated that 40% of active substances are poorly soluble in water. The improvement of bio-availability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations. There are several techniques reported in literature. Among all these Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling a reduction in dose. Thus, SEDDS anticancer drugs will have the increased bioavailability and efficacy. These dosage form will provide societal benefit in a cost-effective manner as compared to other oral dosage forms. Present study reflects on the formulation strategies as SEDDS for oral anticancer agents of AYUSH system for enhanced bioavailability with proven efficacy by cancer cell lines.

Keywords: anticancer agents, AYUSH system, bioavailability, SEDDS

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174 Effect of Fermentation on the Bioavailability of Some Fruit Extracts

Authors: Kubra Ozkan, Osman Sagdic


To better understand the benefits of these fresh and fermented fruits on human health, the consequences of human metabolism and the bioavailability must be known. In this study, brine with 10% salt content, sugar, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) was added to fruits (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch) in different formulations. Samples were stored at 20±2˚C for their fermentation for 21 days. The effects of in vitro digestion were determined on the bioactive compounds in fresh and fermented fruits ((Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of post gastric (PG), IN (with small intestinal absorbers) and OUT (without small intestine absorbers) samples obtained as gastric and intestinal digestion in vitro were measured. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant capacity was tested by the CUPRAC methods, the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total flavonoid content (TFC) determined by Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) method. While the antioxidant capacity of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 2.21±0.05 mg TEAC/g, 4.39±0.02mg TEAC/g; these values for fermented fruits were found 2.37±0.08mg TEAC/g, 5.38±0.07mg TEAC/g respectively. While the total phenolic contents of fresh fruits namely, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.51±0.01mg GAE/g, 5.56±0.01mg GAE/g; these values for fermented fruits were found as 0.52±0.01mg GAE/g, 6.81±0.03mg GAE/g, respectively. While the total flavonoid amounts of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.19±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.68±0.02mg CAE/g, these values for fermented fruits were found 0.20±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.93±0.02mg CAE/g, respectively. This study showed that phenolic, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of the samples were increased during the fermantation process. As a result of digestion, the amounts of bioactive components decreased in the stomach and intestinal environment. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 40.89% and 43.28%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 4.27% and 3.82%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 5.32% and 19.98%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 2.22% and 1.53%, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 33.06% and 33.51, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 14.50% and 15.31%, respectively. Fermentation process; Prunus amygdalus Batsch decreased bioavailability while Prunus domestica increased bioavailability. When two fruits are compared; Prunus domestica bioavailability is more than Prunus amygdalus Batsch.

Keywords: bioactivity, bioavailability, fermented, fruit, nutrition

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173 Effect of Lime Stabilization on E. coli Destruction and Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Sewage Sludge for Agricultural Utilization

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, A. Pera, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa


The addition of lime as Ca(OH)2 to sewage sludge to destroy pathogens (Escherichia coli), was evaluated also in relation to heavy metal bioavailability. The obtained results show that the use of calcium hydroxide at the dose of 3% effectively destroyed pathogens ensuring the stability at high pH values over long period and the duration of the sewage sludge stabilization. In general, lime addition decreased the total extractability of heavy metals indicating a reduced bioavailability of these elements. This is particularly important for a safe utilization in agricultural soils to reduce the possible transfer of heavy metals to the food chain.

Keywords: biological sludge, Ca(OH)2, copper, pathogens, sanitation, zinc

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172 Nano-emulsion/Nano-suspension as Precursors for Oral Dissolvable Film to Enhance Bioavalabilty for Poor-water Solubility Drugs

Authors: Yuan Yang, Mickey Lam


Oral dissolvable films have been considered as a unique alternative approach to conventional oral dosage forms. The films could be administrated via the gastrointestinal tract as conventional dosages or through sublingual/buccal mucosa membranes, which could enhance drug bioavailability by avoiding the first-pass effect and improving permeability due to high blood flow and lymphatic circulation. This work has described a state-of-art technic using nano-emulsion/nano-suspension as a precursor for the film to enhance the bioavailability of BCS class II drugs. The drug molecules are consequentially processed through the emulsification, gelation, and film-casting processes. The gelation process is critical to stabilizing the nano-emulsion for the film-casting as well as controlling the drug release process. Furthermore, the size of the nanoparticle on the film has a strong correlation with the size of the micelles in the precursor and the condition of the gelation process. It has been discovered that nanoparticle from 200 nm to 300 nm has shown the highest permeability for sublingual administration. In one example shown in work, the bioavailability of a low solubilize drug has been increased from 10% to 24% via sublingual administration of the film. The increasing of the bioavailability was thought to be associated with the enhancement of the diffusion process of the drug in the saliva layer above the mucosa membrane and the fact that the presents of the emulsifier help lose the rigid junction of the mucosa cells.

Keywords: oral dissolvable film, nano-suspension, nano-emulsion, bioavailability

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171 Fabrication and Characterization of Folic Acid-Grafted-Thiomer Enveloped Liposomes for Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Docetaxel

Authors: Farhan Sohail, Gul Shahnaz Irshad Hussain, Shoaib Sarwar, Ibrahim Javed, Zajif Hussain, Akhtar Nadhman


The present study was aimed to develop a hybrid nanocarrier (NC) system with enhanced membrane permeability, bioavailability and targeted delivery of Docetaxel (DTX) in breast cancer. Hybrid NC’s based on folic acid (FA) grafted thiolated chitosan (TCS) enveloped liposomes were prepared with DTX and evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo for their enhanced permeability and bioavailability. Physicochemical characterization of NC’s including particle size, morphology, zeta potential, FTIR, DSC, PXRD, encapsulation efficiency and drug release from NC’s was determined in vitro. Permeation enhancement and p-gp inhibition were performed through everted sac method on freshly excised rat intestine which indicated that permeation was enhanced 5 times as compared to pure DTX and the hybrid NC’s were strongly able to inhibit the p-gp activity as well. In-vitro cytotoxicity and tumor targeting was done using MDA-MB-231 cell line. The stability study of the formulations performed for 3 months showed the improved stability of FA-TCS enveloped liposomes in terms of its particles size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency as compared to TCS NP’s and liposomes. The pharmacokinetic study was performed in vivo using rabbits. The oral bioavailability and AUC0-96 was increased 10.07 folds with hybrid NC’s as compared to positive control. Half-life (t1/2) was increased 4 times (58.76 hrs) as compared to positive control (17.72 hrs). Conclusively, it is suggested that FA-TCS enveloped liposomes have strong potential to enhance permeability and bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs after oral administration and tumor targeting.

Keywords: docetaxel, coated liposome, permeation enhancement, oral bioavailability

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170 Nanoprecipitation with Ultrasonication for Enhancement of Oral Bioavailability of Fursemide: Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics Study in Rat Model

Authors: Malay K. Das, Bhanu P. Sahu


Furosemide is a weakly acidic diuretic indicated for treatment of edema and hypertension. It has very poor solubility but high permeability through stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Due to its limited solubility it has poor and variable oral bioavailability of 10-90%. The aim of this study was to enhance the oral bioavailability of furosemide by preparation of nanosuspensions. The nanosuspensions were prepared by nanoprecipitation with sonication using DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) as a solvent and water as an antisolvent (NA). The prepared nanosuspensions were sterically stabilized with polyvinyl acetate (PVA).These were characterized for particle size, ζ potential, polydispersity index, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and release behavior. The effect of nanoprecipitation on oral bioavailability of furosemide nanosuspension was studied by in vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption study in rats and compared to pure drug. The stable nanosuspension was obtained with average size range of the precipitated nanoparticles between 150-300 nm and was found to be homogenous showing a narrow polydispersity index of 0.3±0.1. DSC and XRD studies indicated that the crystalline furosemide drug was converted to amorphous form upon precipitation into nanoparticles. The release profiles of nanosuspension formulation showed up to 81.2% release in 4 h. The in vivo studies on rats revealed a significant increase in the oral absorption of furosemide in the nanosuspension compared to pure drug. The AUC0→24 and Cmax values of nanosuspension were approximately 1.38 and 1.68-fold greater than that of pure drug, respectively. Furosemide nanosuspension showed 20.06±0.02 % decrease in systolic blood pressure compared to 13.37±0.02 % in plain furosemide suspension, respectively. The improved oral bioavailability and pharmacodynamics effect of furosemide may be due to the improved dissolution of furosemide in simulated gastric fluid which results in enhanced oral systemic absorption of furosemide from stomach region where it has better permeability.

Keywords: furosemide, nanosuspension, bioavailability enhancement, nanoprecipitation, oral drug delivery

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169 Bioavailability Enhancement of Ficus religiosa Extract by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Karunanithi Priyanka, Ramoji Kosuru, Raju Prasad Sharma


Herbal drugs are well known for their mixed pharmacological activities with the benefit of no harmful side effects. The use of herbal drugs is limited because of their higher dose requirement, frequent drug administration, poor bioavailability of phytochemicals and delayed onset of action. Ficus religiosa, a potent anti-oxidant plant useful in the treatment of diabetes and cancer was selected for the study. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of Ficus religiosa extract was developed for the enhancement in oral bioavailability of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, principal components present in the extract. Hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method was used to develop extract loaded SLN. Developed extract loaded SLN were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and kinetics, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractrometry and stability studies. Entrapment efficiency of optimized extract loaded SLN was found to be 68.46 % (56.13 % of stigmasterol and 12.33 % of β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside, respectively). RP HPLC method development was done for simultaneous estimation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract in rat plasma. Bioavailability studies were carried out for extract in suspension form and optimized extract loaded SLN. AUC of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 6.7-folds by 9.2-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Also, Cmax of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 4.3-folds by 3.9-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Mean residence times (MRT) for stigmasterol were found to be 12.3 ± 0.67 hours from extract and 7.4 ± 2.1 hours from SLN and for β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, 10.49 ± 2.9 hours from extract and 6.4 ± 0.3 hours from SLN. Hence, it was concluded that SLN enhanced the bioavailability and reduced the MRT of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract which in turn may lead to reduction in dose of Ficus religiosa extract, prolonged duration of action and also enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords: Ficus religiosa, phytosterolins, bioavailability, solid lipid nanoparticles, stigmasterol and β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside

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168 Rooibos Extract Antioxidants: In vitro Models to Assess Their Bioavailability

Authors: Ntokozo Dambuza, Maryna Van De Venter, Trevor Koekemoer


Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases and consequently antioxidant therapy has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic strategy. Regardless of the quantities ingested, antioxidants need to reach the diseased tissues at concentrations sufficient to combat oxidative stress. Bioavailability is thus a defining criterion for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants. In addition, therapeutic antioxidants must possess biologically relevant characteristics which can target the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for disease related oxidative stress. While many chemical antioxidant assays are available to quantify antioxidant capacity, they relate poorly to the biological environment and provide no information as to the bioavailability. The present comparative study thus aims to characterise green and fermented rooibos extracts, well recognized for their exceptional antioxidant capacity, in terms of antioxidant bioavailability and efficacy in a disease relevant cellular setting. Chinese green tea antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Chemical antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH and ORAC) confirmed the potent antioxidant capacity of both green and fermented rooibos, with green rooibos possessing antioxidant activity superior to that of fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea. Bioavailability was assessed using the PAMPA assay and the results indicate that green and fermented rooibos have a permeation coefficient of 5.7 x 10-6 and 6.9 x 10-6 cm/s, respectively. Chinese green tea permeability coefficient was 8.5 x 10-6 cm/s. These values were comparable to those of rifampicin, which is known to have a high permeability across intestinal epithelium with a permeability coefficient of 5 x 10 -6 cm/s. To assess the antioxidant efficacy in a cellular context, U937 and red blood cells were pre-treated with rooibos and Chinese green tea extracts in the presence of a dye DCFH-DA and then exposed to oxidative stress. Green rooibos exhibited highest activity with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml and 70 μg/ml, when U937 and red blood cells were exposed oxidative stress, respectively. Fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea had IC50 values of 61 μg/ml and 57 μg/ml for U937, respectively, and 221 μg/ml and 405 μg/ml for red blood cells, respectively. These results indicate that fermented and green rooibos extracts were able to permeate the U937 cells and red blood cell membrane and inhibited oxidation of DCFH-DA to a fluorescent DCF within the cells.

Keywords: rooibos, antioxidants, permeability, bioavailability

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167 Modulated Bioavailability of an Anti HIV Drug through a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

Authors: Sunit Kumar Sahoo, Prakash Chandra Senapati


The main drawback to design drug delivery systems with BCS class II drugs is their low bioavailabilty due to their inherent low permeability characteristics. So the present investigation aspire to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of BCS class II anti HIV drug efavirenz (EFZ) using mixtures of non-ionic surfactant mixtures with the main objective to improve the oral bioavailability of said drug. Results obtained from solubility studies of EFZ in various expients utilized for construction of the pseudo ternary phase diagram containing surfactant mixtures. Surfactants in 1:1 combination are used with different co-surfactants in different ratio to delineate the area of monophasic region of the pseudo ternary phase diagram. The formulations which offered positive results in different thermodynamic stability studies were considered for percentage transmittance and turbidity analysis. The various characterization studies like the TEM analysis of post diluted SNEDDS formulations r confirmed the size in nanometric range (below 50 nm) and FT-IR studies confirmed the intactness of the drug the in the preconcentrate. The in vitro dissolution profile of SNEDDS showed that 80% drug was released within 30 min in case of optimized SNEDDS while it was approximately 18.3 % in the case of plain drug powder.. The Pharmacokinetic study using rat model revealed a 2.63 fold increase in AUC (0-∞) in comparison to plain EFZ suspension. The designed delivery system illustrated the confidence in creating a formulation of EFZ with enhanced bioavailability for better HIV treatment.

Keywords: efavirenz, self-nanoemulsifying, surfactant mixture, bioavailability

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166 Utilization of Sorghum and White Bean Flour for the Production of Gluten Free and Iron Rich Cookies

Authors: Tahra Elobeid, Emmerich Berghofer


The aim of this study is to find innovative approaches for the production of iron rich foods using natural iron sources. The vehicle used for fortification was sorghum whereas the iron fortificant was white bean. Fortified sorghum cookies were produced from five different mixtures; iron content, iron bioavailability, cookie texture and acceptability were measured. Cookies were prepared from the three fortified flours; 90% sorghum + 10% white bean (S9WB1), 75% sorghum + 25% white bean (S3WB1), 50% sorghum + 50% white bean (S1WB1) and 100% sorghum and 100% white bean. The functional properties gave good results in all the formulations. Statistical analysis of the iron content in the five different cookies showed that there was significant difference at the 95% confidence level (ANOVA). The iron content in all the recipes including the 100% sorghum improved, the increase ranging from 112% in 100% sorghum cookies to 476% in 100% white bean cookies. This shows that the increase in the amount of white bean used for fortification leads to the improvement of the iron content of cookies. The bioavailability of iron ranged from 21.3% in 100% sorghum to 28.6% in 100% white bean cookies. In the 100% sorghum cookies the iron bioavailability increased with reference to raw sorghum due to the addition of eggs. Bioavailability of iron in raw sorghum is 16.2%, therefore the percentage increase ranged from 5.1% to 28.6%. The cookies prepared from 10% white bean (S9WB1) scored the lowest 3.7 in terms of acceptability. They were the least preferred due to their somewhat soft texture. The 30% white bean cookies (S3WB1) gave results comparable to the 50% (S1WB1) and 100% white bean cookies. Cookies prepared with high percentage of white bean (50% and 100% white bean) gave the best results. Therefore cookie formulations from sorghum and white bean are successful in improving the iron status of anaemic individuals.

Keywords: sorghum, white bean, iron content, bioavailable iron, cookies

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165 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu


The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: availability, crude oil contamination, EDTA, maize, metals

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164 Speciation and Bioavailability of Heavy Metals in Greenhouse Soils

Authors: Bulent Topcuoglu


Repeated amendments of organic matter and intensive use of fertilizers, metal-enriched chemicals and biocides may cause soil and environmental pollution in greenhouses. Specially, the impact of heavy metal pollution of soils on food metal content and underground water quality has become a public concern. Due to potential toxicity of heavy metals to human life and environment, determining the chemical form of heavy metals in greenhouse soils is an important approach of chemical characterization and can provide useful information on its mobility and bioavailability. A sequential extraction procedure was used to estimate the availability of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb and Cr) in greenhouse soils of Antalya Aksu. Zn was predominantly associated with Fe-Mn oxide fraction, major portion of Cd associated with carbonate and organic matter fraction, a major portion of (>65 %) Ni and Cr were largely associated with Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions and Pb was largely associated with organic matter and Fe-Mn oxide fractions. Results of the present study suggest that the mobility and bioavailability of metals probably increase in the following order: Cr < Pb < Ni < Cd < Zn. Among the elements studied, Zn and Cd appeared to be the most readily soluble and potentially bioavailable metals and these metals may carry a potential risk for metal transfer in food chain and contamination to ground water.

Keywords: metal speciation, metal mobility, greenhouse soils, biosystems engineering

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163 Formulation and Evaluation of Silibilin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Priya Patel, Paresh Patel, Mihir Raval


Silibinin, a flavanone as an antimicrotubular agent used in the treatment of cancer, was encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using the spray-drying technique. The effects of various experimental parameters were optimized by box-behnken experimental design. Production yield, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution study along with characterization by scanning electron microscopy, DSC, FTIR followed by bioavailability study. Particle size and zeta potential were evaluated by using zetatrac particle size analyzer. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the drug release. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 149 nm indicate nanosize range. The small size of the nanoparticle resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. Entrapment efficiency was found between 89.35% and 98.36%. Zeta potential shows good stability index of nanoparticle formulation. The in vitro release studies indicated the silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles provide controlled drug release over a period of 32 h. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of silibinin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 8.85-fold, compared to silibinin suspension as control hence, this investigation demonstrated the potential of the experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. These results describe an effective strategy of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a promising approach against the cancer.

Keywords: silibinin, cancer, nanoparticles, PLGA, bioavailability

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162 Assessment of Bisphenol A and 17 α-Ethinyl Estradiol Bioavailability in Soils Treated with Biosolids

Authors: I. Ahumada, L. Ascar, C. Pedraza, J. Montecino


It has been found that the addition of biosolids to soil is beneficial to soil health, enriching soil with essential nutrient elements. Although this sludge has properties that allow for the improvement of the physical features and productivity of agricultural and forest soils and the recovery of degraded soils, they also contain trace elements, organic trace and pathogens that can cause damage to the environment. The application of these biosolids to land without the total reclamation and the treated wastewater can transfer these compounds into terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. The general aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of bisphenol A (BPA), and 17 α-ethynyl estradiol (EE2) in a soil-biosolid system using wheat (Triticum aestivum) plant assays and a predictive extraction method using a solution of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to determine if it is a reliable surrogate for this bioassay. Two soils were obtained from the central region of Chile (Lo Prado and Chicauma). Biosolids were obtained from a regional wastewater treatment plant. The soils were amended with biosolids at 90 Mg ha-1. Soils treated with biosolids, spiked with 10 mgkg-1 of the EE2 and 15 mgkg-1 and 30 mgkg-1of BPA were also included. The BPA, and EE2 concentration were determined in biosolids, soils and plant samples through ultrasound assisted extraction, solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry determination (GC/MS). The bioavailable fraction found of each one of soils cultivated with wheat plants was compared with results obtained through a cyclodextrin biosimulator method. The total concentration found in biosolid from a treatment plant was 0.150 ± 0.064 mgkg-1 and 12.8±2.9 mgkg-1 of EE2 and BPA respectively. BPA and EE2 bioavailability is affected by the organic matter content and the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The bioavailability response of both compounds in the two soils varied with the EE2 and BPA concentration. It was observed in the case of EE2, the bioavailability in wheat plant crops contained higher concentrations in the roots than in the shoots. The concentration of EE2 increased with increasing biosolids rate. On the other hand, for BPA, a higher concentration was found in the shoot than the roots of the plants. The predictive capability the HPCD extraction was assessed using a simple linear correlation test, for both compounds in wheat plants. The correlation coefficients for the EE2 obtained from the HPCD extraction with those obtained from the wheat plants were r= 0.99 and p-value ≤ 0.05. On the other hand, in the case of BPA a correlation was not found. Therefore, the methodology was validated with respect to wheat plants bioassays, only in the EE2 case. Acknowledgments: The authors thank FONDECYT 1150502.

Keywords: emerging compounds, bioavailability, biosolids, endocrine disruptors

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161 Development and Evaluation of Simvastatin Based Self Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SNEDDS) for Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Hardeep


The aim of this research work to improve the solubility and bioavailability of Simvastatin using a self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS). Self emulsifying property of various oils including essential oils was evaluated with suitable surfactants and co-surfactants. Validation of a method for accuracy, repeatability, Interday and intraday precision, ruggedness, and robustness were within acceptable limits. The liquid SNEDDS was prepared and optimized using a ternary phase diagram, thermodynamic, centrifugation and cloud point studies. The globule size of optimized formulations was less than 200 nm which could be an acceptable nanoemulsion size range. The mean droplet size, drug loading, PDI and zeta potential were found to be 141.0 nm, 92.22%, 0.23 and -10.13 mV and 153.5nm, 93.89 % ,0.41 and -11.7 mV and 164.26 nm, 95.26% , 0.41 and -10.66mV respectively.

Keywords: simvastatin, self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system, solubility, bioavailability

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160 A Gastro-Intestinal Model for a Rational Design of in vitro Systems to Study Drugs Bioavailability

Authors: Pompa Marcello, Mauro Capocelli, Vincenzo Piemonte


This work focuses on a mathematical model able to describe the gastro-intestinal physiology and providing a rational tool for the design of an artificial gastro-intestinal system. This latter is mainly devoted to analyse the absorption and bioavailability of drugs and nutrients through in vitro tests in order to overcome (or, at least, to partially replace) in vivo trials. The provided model realizes a conjunction ring (with extended prediction capability) between in vivo tests and mechanical-laboratory models emulating the human body. On this basis, no empirical equations controlling the gastric emptying are implemented in this model as frequent in the cited literature and all the sub-unit and the related system of equations are physiologically based. More in detail, the model structure consists of six compartments (stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and blood) interconnected through pipes and valves. Paracetamol, Ketoprofen, Irbesartan and Ketoconazole are considered and analysed in this work as reference drugs. The mathematical model has been validated against in vivo literature data. Results obtained show a very good model reliability and highlight the possibility to realize tailored simulations for different couples patient-drug, including food adsorption dynamics.

Keywords: gastro-intestinal model, drugs bioavailability, paracetamol, ketoprofen

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159 Bioavailability of Zinc to Wheat Grown in the Calcareous Soils of Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Muhammed Saeed Rasheed


Knowledge of the zinc and phytic acid (PA) concentrations of staple cereal crops are essential when evaluating the nutritional health of national and regional populations. In the present study, a total of 120 farmers’ fields in Iraqi Kurdistan were surveyed for zinc status in soil and wheat grain samples; wheat is the staple carbohydrate source in the region. Soils were analysed for total concentrations of phosphorus (PT) and zinc (ZnT), available P (POlsen) and Zn (ZnDTPA) and for pH. Average values (mg kg-1) ranged between 403-3740 (PT), 42.0-203 (ZnT), 2.13-28.1 (POlsen) and 0.14-5.23 (ZnDTPA); pH was in the range 7.46-8.67. The concentrations of Zn, PA/Zn molar ratio and estimated Zn bioavailability were also determined in wheat grain. The ranges of Zn and PA concentrations (mg kg⁻¹) were 12.3-63.2 and 5400 – 9300, respectively, giving a PA/Zn molar ratio of 15.7-30.6. A trivariate model was used to estimate intake of bioaccessible Zn, employing the following parameter values: (i) maximum Zn absorption = 0.09 (AMAX), (ii) equilibrium dissociation constant of zinc-receptor binding reaction = 0.680 (KP), and (iii) equilibrium dissociation constant of Zn-PA binding reaction = 0.033 (KR). In the model, total daily absorbed Zn (TAZ) (mg d⁻¹) as a function of total daily nutritional PA (mmole d⁻¹) and total daily nutritional Zn (mmole Zn d⁻¹) was estimated assuming an average wheat flour consumption of 300 g day⁻¹ in the region. Consideration of the PA and Zn intake suggest only 21.5±2.9% of grain Zn is bioavailable so that the effective Zn intake from wheat is only 1.84-2.63 mg d-1 for the local population. Overall results suggest available dietary Zn is below recommended levels (11 mg d⁻¹), partly due to low uptake by wheat but also due to the presence of large concentrations of PA in wheat grains. A crop breeding program combined with enhanced agronomic management methods is needed to enhance both Zn uptake and bioavailability in grains of cultivated wheat types.

Keywords: phosphorus, zinc, phytic acid, phytic acid to zinc molar ratio, zinc bioavailability

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158 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh


The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

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157 Formulation, Evaluation and Statistical Optimization of Transdermal Niosomal Gel of Atenolol

Authors: Lakshmi Sirisha Kotikalapudi


Atenolol, the widely used antihypertensive drug is ionisable and degrades in the acidic environment of the GIT lessening the bioavailability. Transdermal route may be selected as an alternative to enhance the bioavailability. Half-life of the drug is 6-7 hours suggesting the requirement of prolonged release of the drug. The present work of transdermal niosomal gel aims to extend release of the drug and increase the bioavailability. Ethanol injection method was used for the preparation of niosomes using span-60 and cholesterol at different molar ratios following central composite design. The prepared niosomes were characterized for size, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Optimized formulation was selected by statistically analyzing the results obtained using the software Stat-Ease Design Expert. The optimized formulation also showed high drug retention inside the vesicles over a period of three months at a temperature of 4 °C indicating stability. Niosomes separated as a pellet were dried and incorporated into the hydrogel prepared using chitosan a natural polymer as a gelling agent. The effect of various chemical permeation enhancers was also studied over the gel formulations. The prepared formulations were characterized for viscosity, pH, drug release using Franz diffusion cells, and skin irritation test as well as in-vivo pharmacological activities. Atenolol niosomal gel preparations showed the prolonged release of the drug and pronounced antihypertensive activity indicating the suitability of niosomal gel for topical and systemic delivery of atenolol.

Keywords: atenolol, chitosan, niosomes, transdermal

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156 Studies on Effect of Nano Size and Surface Coating on Enhancement of Bioavailability and Toxicity of Berberine Chloride; A p-gp Substrate

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Parameswara Rao Vuddanda


The aim of the present study is study the factual benefit of nano size and surface coating of p-gp efflux inhibitor on enhancement of bioavailability of Berberine chloride (BBR); a p-gp substrate. In addition, 28 days sub acute oral toxicity study was also conducted to assess the toxicity of the formulation on chronic administration. BBR loaded polymeric nanoparticles (BBR-NP) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. BBR NP were surface coated (BBR-SCNP) with the 1 % w/v of vitamin E TPGS. For bioavailability study, total five groups (n=6) of rat were treated as follows first; pure BBR, second; physical mixture of BBR, carrier and vitamin E TPGS, third; BBR-NP, fourth; BBR-SCNP and fifth; BBR and verapamil (widely used p-gp inhibitor). Blood was withdrawn at pre-set timing points in 24 hrs study and drug was quantified by HPLC method. In oral chronic toxicity study, total four groups (n=6) were treated as follows first (control); water, second; pure BBR, third; BBR surface coated nanoparticles and fourth; placebo BBR surface coated nanoparticles. Biochemical levels of liver (AST, ALP and ALT) and kidney (serum urea and creatinine) along with their histopathological studies were also examined (0-28 days). The AUC of BBR-SCNP was significantly 3.5 folds higher compared to all other groups. The AUC of BBR-NP was 3.23 and 1.52 folds higher compared to BBR solution and BBR with verapamil group, respectively. The physical mixture treated group showed slightly higher AUC than BBR solution treated group but significantly low compared to other groups. It indicates that encapsulation of BBR in nanosize form can circumvent P-gp efflux effect. BBR-NP showed pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC) which are near to BBR-SCNP. However, the difference in values of T1/2 and clearance indicate that surface coating with vitamin E TPGS not only avoids the P-gp efflux at its absorption site (intestine) but also at organs which are responsible for metabolism and excretion (kidney and liver). It may be the reason for observed decrease in clearance of BBR-SCNP. No toxicity signs were observed either in biochemical or histopathological examination of liver and kidney during toxicity studies. The results indicate that administration of BBR in surface coated nanoformulation would be beneficial for enhancement of its bioavailability and longer retention in systemic circulation. Further, sub acute oral dose toxicity studies for 28 days such as evaluation of intestine, liver and kidney histopathology and biochemical estimations indicated that BBR-SCNP developed were safe for long use.

Keywords: bioavailability, berberine nanoparticles, p-gp efflux inhibitor, nanoprecipitation method

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155 The Metabolite Profiling of Fulvestrant-3 Boronic Acid under Biological Oxidation

Authors: Changde Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Shilong Zheng, Jiawang Liu, Shanchun Guo, Qiu Zhong, Guangdi Wang


Fulvestrant was approved by FDA to treat breast cancer as a selective estrogen receptor downregulator (SERD) with intramuscular injection administration. ZB716, a fulvestarnt-3 boronic acid, is an SERD with comparable anticancer effect to fulvestrant, but could produce good pharmacokinetic properties under oral administration with mice or rat models. To understand why ZB716 produced much better oral bioavailability, it was proposed that the boronic acid blocked the phase II direct biotransformation with the hydroxyl group on the 3 position of the aromatic ring on fulvestrant. In this study, ZB716 or fulvestrant was incubated with human liver microsome and oxidation cofactor NADPH in vitro. Their metabolites after oxidation were profiled with the Q-Exactive, a high-resolution mass spectrometer. The result showed that ZB716 blocked the forming of hydroxyl groups on its benzene ring except for the oxidation of C-B bond forming fulvestrant in its metabolites, and the concentration of fulvestrant with one more hydroxyl group found in the metabolites from incubation with fulvestrant was about 34 fold high as that formed from incubation with ZB716. Compared to fulvestrant, ZB716 is expected to be much difficult to be further bio-transformed into more hydrophilic compounds, to be difficult excreted out of blood system, and to have longer residence time in blood, which can lead to higher oral bioavailability. This study provided evidence to explain the high bioavailability of ZB716 after oral administration from the perspective of its difficulty of oxidation, a phase I biotransformation, on positions on its aromatic ring.

Keywords: biotransformation, fulvestrant, metabolite profiling, ZB716

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154 Nanoparticles Made of Amino Acid Derived Biodegradable Polymers as Promising Drug Delivery Containers

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, Tengiz Kantaria, Temur Kantaria, David Tugushi, Nina Kulikova, Ramaz Katsarava


Polymeric disperse systems such as nanoparticles (NPs) are of high interest for numerous applications in contemporary medicine and nanobiotechnology to a considerable potential for treatment of many human diseases. The important technological advantages of NPs usage as drug carriers (nanocontainers) are their high stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of encapsulation of both hydrophilic or hydrophobic substances, as well as a high variety of possible administration routes, including oral application and inhalation. NPs can also be designed to allow controlled (sustained) drug release from the matrix. These properties of NPs enable improvement of drug bioavailability and might allow drug dosage decrease. The targeted and controlled administration of drugs using NPs might also help to overcome drug resistance, which is one of the major obstacles in the control of epidemics. Various degradable and non-degradable polymers of both natural and synthetic origin have been used for NPs construction. One of the most promising for the design of NPs are amino acid-based biodegradable polymers (AABBPs) which can clear from the body after the fulfillment of their function. The AABBPs are composed of naturally occurring and non-toxic building blocks such as α-amino acids, fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. The particles designed from these polymers are expected to have an improved bioavailability along with a high biocompatibility. The present work deals with a systematic study of the preparation of NPs by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement method using AABBPs. The influence of the nature and concentration of surfactants, concentration of organic phase (polymer solution), and the ratio organic phase/inorganic(water) phase, as well as of some other factors on the size of the fabricated NPs have been studied. It was established that depending on the used conditions the NPs size could be tuned within 40-330 nm. At the next step of this research was carried out an evaluation of biocompability and bioavailability of the synthesized NPs using a stable human cell culture line – A549. It was established that the obtained NPs are not only biocompatible but they stimulate the cell growth.

Keywords: amino acids, biodegradable polymers, bioavailability, nanoparticles

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153 Development and Characterization Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery Systems of Poorly Soluble Drug Dutasteride

Authors: Rajinikanth Siddalingam, Poonguzhali Subramanian


The present study aims to prepare and evaluate the self-nano emulsifying drug delivery (SNEDDS) system to enhance the dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug dutasteride. The formulation was prepared using capryol PGMC, Cremophor EL, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams with presence and absence of drug were plotted to find out the nano emulsification range and also to evaluate the effect of dutasteride on the emulsification behavior of the phases. Prepared SNEDDS formulations were evaluated for its particle size distribution, nano emulsifying properties, robustness to dilution, self-emulsification time, turbidity measurement, drug content and in-vitro dissolution. The optimized formulations are further evaluated for heating cooling cycle, centrifugation studies, freeze-thaw cycling, particle size distribution and zeta potential were carried out to confirm the stability of the formed SNEDDS formulations. The particle size, zeta potential and polydispersity index of the optimized formulation found to be 35.45 nm, -15.45 and 0.19, respectively. The in vitro results are revealed that the prepared formulation enhanced the dissolution rate of dutasteride significantly as compared with pure drug. The in vivo studies in was conducted using rats and the results are revealed that SNEDDS formulation has enhanced the bioavailability of dutasteride drug significantly as compared with raw drug. Based the results, it was concluded that the dutasteride-loaded SNEDDS shows potential to enhance the dissolution of dutasteride, thus improving the bioavailability and therapeutic effects.

Keywords: self-emulsifying drug delivery system, dutasteride, enhancement of bioavailability, dissolution enhancement

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152 Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Vivianite Nanoparticles

Authors: Shinen B., Bavor J., Dorjkhand B., Suvd B., Maitsetseg B.


A number of remediation techniques are available for the treatment of soils and sediments contaminated by heavy metals. However, some of these techniques are expensive and environmentally disruptive. Nanomaterials are used in the environment as environmental catalysts to convert toxic substances from water, soil, and sediment into environmentally benign compounds. This study was carried out to scrutinize the feasibility of vivianite nanoparticles for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Column experiments were performed in the laboratory to examine nanoparticle sequestration of metal in soil amended with vivianite nanoparticle suspension. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, pH and redox potential on metal leachability and bioavailability of soil amended with nanoparticle suspension was examined and compared with non-amended soils. The vivianite was effective in reducing the leachability of metals in soils. It is suggested that vivianite nanoparticles could be applied for the remediation of contaminated sites polluted by heavy metals due to mining activities, particularly in Mongolia, where mining industries have been developing rapidly in the last decade.

Keywords: bioavailability, heavy metals, nanoparticles, remediation

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151 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Properties and Health Benefits

Authors: C. S. Marques, M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos


The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: tomato, lycopene, bioavailability, functional foods, carotenoids, cancer and antioxidants

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150 In situ Stabilization of Arsenic in Soils with Birnessite and Goethite

Authors: Saeed Bagherifam, Trevor Brown, Chris Fellows, Ravi Naidu


Over the last century, rapid urbanization, industrial emissions, and mining activities have resulted in widespread contamination of the environment by heavy metal(loid)s. Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table, which occurs naturally at low concentrations in soils and the earth’s crust, although concentrations can be significantly elevated in natural systems as a result of dispersion from anthropogenic sources, e.g., mining activities. Bioavailability is the fraction of a contaminant in soils that is available for uptake by plants, food chains, and humans and therefore presents the greatest risk to terrestrial ecosystems. Numerous attempts have been made to establish in situ and ex-situ technologies of remedial action for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. In situ stabilization techniques are based on deactivation or chemical immobilization of metalloid(s) in soil by means of soil amendments, which consequently reduce the bioavailability (for biota) and bioaccessibility (for humans) of metalloids due to the formation of low-solubility products or precipitates. This study investigated the effectiveness of two different types of synthetic manganese and iron oxides (birnessite and goethite) for stabilization of As in a soil spiked with 1000 mg kg⁻¹ of As and treated with 10% dosages of soil amendments. Birnessite was made using HCl and KMnO₄, and goethite was synthesized by the dropwise addition of KOH into Fe(NO₃) solution. The resulting contaminated soils were subjected to a series of chemical extraction studies including sequential extraction (BCR method), single-step extraction with distilled (DI) water, 2M HNO₃ and simplified bioaccessibility extraction tests (SBET) for estimation of bioaccessible fractions of As in two different soil fractions ( < 250 µm and < 2 mm). Concentrations of As in samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that soil with birnessite reduced bioaccessibility of As by up to 92% in both soil fractions. Furthermore, the results of single-step extractions revealed that the application of both birnessite and Goethite reduced DI water and HNO₃ extractable amounts of arsenic by 75, 75, 91, and 57%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the sequential extraction studies showed that both birnessite and goethite dramatically reduced the exchangeable fraction of As in soils. However, the amounts of recalcitrant fractions were higher in birnessite, and Goethite amended soils. The results revealed that the application of both birnessite and goethite significantly reduced bioavailability and the exchangeable fraction of As in contaminated soils, and therefore birnessite and Goethite amendments might be considered as promising adsorbents for stabilization and remediation of As contaminated soils.

Keywords: arsenic, bioavailability, in situ stabilisation, metalloid(s) contaminated soils

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