Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 67

Search results for: eucalyptus

67 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Six Eucalyptus Species

Authors: Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, Rasha M. Bashatwah


Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidants, essential (volatile) oil, Eucalyptus

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66 Dyeing Cotton with Dyes Extracted from Eucalyptus and Mango Trees

Authors: Tamrat Tesfaye, Bruce Sithole, K. Shabaridharan


The use of natural dyes to replace synthetic dyes has been advocated for to circumvent the environmental problems associated with synthetic dyes. This paper is a preliminary study on the use of natural dyes extracted from eucalyptus and mango trees. Dyes extracted from eucalyptus bark gave more colourized material than the dyes extracted from eucalyptus leaves and mango pills and leaves. Additionally, the extracts exhibited a deeper colour shade. Cotton fiber dyed using the same dye but with different mordants resulted in fabric that exhibited different colours. It appears that natural dyes from these plants could be effective dyes for use on cotton fabrics especially considering that the dyes exhibited excellent colour fastness.

Keywords: natural dyes, mango, eucalyptus, cotton, mordants, colour fastness

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65 Effect of the Accelerated Carbonation in Fibercement Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Pulp and Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: Viviane da Costa Correia, Sergio Francisco Santos, Holmer Savastano Junior


The main purpose of this work was verify the influence of the accelerated carbonation in the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites, reinforced with micro and nanofibers and composites with microfibers. The composites were produced by the slurry vacuum dewatering method, followed by pressing. It was produced using two formulations: 8% of eucalyptus pulp + 1% of the nanofibrillated cellulose and 9% of eucalyptus pulp, both were subjected to accelerated carbonation. The results showed that the accelerated carbonation contributed to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites and of the composites reinforced with microfibers (eucalyptus pulp).

Keywords: carbonation, cement composites, nanofibrillated cellulose, eucalyptus pulp

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64 Eucalyptus camendulensis and Its Drying Effect on Water and Essential Oil Content

Authors: Mehani Mouna, Segni Ladjel


Medicinal and aromatic plants are promising and are characterized by the biosynthesis of odorous molecules that make up the so-called essential oils (EO), which have long been known for their antiseptic and therapeutic activity in folk medicine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of drying in the shade on the water content and on the content of essential oils extracted from leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis for better quality control of medicinal and aromatic plants. The water content of the Eucalyptus camendulensis plant material decreases during the drying process. It increased from 100 % to 0.006 % for the drying in the shade after ten days. The moisture content is practically constant at the end of the drying period. The drying in the shade increases the concentration of essential oils of Eucalyptus camendulensis. When the leaves of Eucalyptus camendulensis plant are in the shade, the maximum of the essential oil content was obtained on the eighth days; the recorded value was 1.43% ± 0.01%. Beyond these periods, the content continuously drops in before stabilizing. The optimum drying time is between 6 and 9 days.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camendulensis, drying, essential oils, water, content

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63 Insecticidal Effects of Plant Extracts of Thymus daenensis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis on Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

Authors: Afsoon Danesh Afrooz, Sohrab Imani, Ali Ahadiyat, Aref Maroof, Yahya Ostadi


This study has been investigated for finding alternative and safe botanical pesticides instead of chemical insecticides. The effects of plant extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Thymus daenensis were tested against adult of Callosobrochus maculatus F. Experiments were carried out at 27±1°C and 60 ± 5% R. H. under dark condition with adopting a complete randomized block design. Three replicates were set up for five concentrations of each plants extract. LC50 values were determined by SPSS 16.0 software. LC50 values indicated that plant extract of Thymus daenensis with 1.708 (µl/l air) against adult was more effective than the plant extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis with LC50 12.755 (µl/l air). It was found that plant extract of Thymus daenensis in comparison with extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis could be used as a pesticide for control store pests.

Keywords: callosobruchus maculatus, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, insecticidal effects, Thymus daenensis

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62 Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis on a Few Bacteria and Fungi

Authors: M. Mehani, N. Salhi, T. Valeria, S. Ladjel


Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) is a tree of the genus Eucalyptus widely distributed in Algeria and in the world. The value of its aromatic secondary metabolites offers new perspectives in the pharmaceutical industry. This strategy can contribute to the sustainable development of our country. Preliminary tests performed on the essential oil of Eucalyptus camendulensis showed that this oil has antibacterial activity vis-à-vis the bacterial strains (Enterococcus feacalis, Enterobacter cloaceai, Proteus microsilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungic (Fusarium sporotrichioide and Fusarium graminearum). The culture medium used was nutrient broth Muller Hinton. The interaction between the bacteria and the essential oil is expressed by a zone of inhibition with diameters of MIC indirectly expression of. And we used the PDA medium to determine the fungal activity. The extraction of the aromatic fraction (essentially oil- hydrolat) of the fresh aerian part of the Eucalyptus camendulensis was performed by hydrodistillation. The average essential oil yield is 0.99%. The antimicrobial and fungal study of the essential oil and hydrosol showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of pathogens.

Keywords: essential oil, Eucalyptus camendulensis, bacteria and fungi, red river gum

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61 Wash Fastness of Textile Fibers Dyed with Natural Dye from Eucalyptus Wood Steaming Waste

Authors: Ticiane Rossi, Maurício C. Araújo, José O. Brito, Harold S. Freeman


Natural dyes are gaining interest due their expected low risk to human health and to the environment. In this study, the wash fastness of a natural coloring matter from the liquid waste produced in the steam treatment of eucalyptus wood in textile fabrics was investigated. Specifically, eucalyptus wood extract was used to dye cotton, nylon and wool in an exhaust dyeing process without the addition of the traditional mordanting agents and then submitted to wash fastness analysis. The resulting dyed fabrics were evaluated for color fastness. It was found that wash fastness of dyed fabrics was very good to cotton and excellent to nylon and wool.

Keywords: eucalyptus, natural dye, textile fibers, wash fastness

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60 Carbon Sequestering and Structural Capabilities of Eucalyptus Cloeziana

Authors: Holly Sandberg, Christina McCoy, Khaled Mansy


Eucalyptus Cloeziana, commonly known as Gympie Messmate, is a fast-growing hardwood native to Australia. Its quick growth makes it advantageous for carbon sequestering, while its strength class lends itself to structural applications. Market research shows that the demand for timber is growing, especially mass timber. An environmental product declaration, or EPD, for eucalyptus Cloeziana in the Australian market has been evaluated and compared to the EPD’s of steel and Douglas fir of the same region. An EPD follows a product throughout its life cycle, stating values for global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential. This paper highlights the market potential, as well as the environmental benefits and challenges to using Gympie Messmate as a structural building material. In addition, a case study is performed to compare steel, Douglas fir, and eucalyptus in terms of embodied carbon and structural weight within a single structural bay. Comparisons among the three materials highlight both the differences in structural capabilities as well as environmental impact.

Keywords: eucalyptus, timber, construction, structural, material

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59 Allelopathic Effects of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. gomphocephala on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Barley

Authors: Sallah S. El-Ammari, Mona. S. Hasan


This research is aimed to study allelopathic effects of two wind breakers Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E.gomphocephala on germination and growth of barley using aqueous extracts of leaves at 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% concentrations for treatment of barley caryopsis in petri dishes incubated in growth chamber. Distilled water was used in the experiment as a control. Seed germination was recorded on daily basis for five days. After ten days measurements of root length, shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot were taken. With the exception of 0.5% E. gomphocephala extract effect on length and dry weight of barley root, all the tested extract concentrations for both eucalyptus species significantly decreased the percent and speed of germination, root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot of barley compared to the control. For both species the allelopathic effect was significantly increasing with the increase of the extract concentration. Although, higher allelopathic effect was shown by E. camaldulensis, the results indicating that both eucalyptus species should not be recommended as wind breakers for barley fields.

Keywords: allelopathy, eucalyptus, barley, Libya

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58 Efficacy and Safety of Eucalyptus for Relief Cough Symptom: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Ladda Her, Juntip Kanjanasilp, Ratree Sawangjit, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk


Cough is the common symptom of the respiratory tract infections or non-infections; the duration of cough indicates a classification and severity of disease. Herbal medicines can be used as the alternative to drugs for relief of cough symptoms from acute and chronic disease. Eucalyptus was used for reducing cough with evidences suggesting it has an active role in reduction of airway inflammation. The present study aims to evaluate efficacy and safety of eucalyptus for relief of cough symptom in respiratory disease. Method: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, CINAHL, Springer, Science direct, ProQuest, and THAILIS databases. From its inception until 01/02/2019 for randomized control trials. We follow for the efficacy and safety of eucalyptus for reducing cough. Methodological quality was evaluated by using the Cochrane risk of bias tool; two reviewers in our team screened eligibility and extracted data. Result: Six studies were included for the review and five studies were included in the meta-analysis, there were 1.911 persons including children (n: 1) and adult (n: 5) studies; for study in children and adult were between 1 and 80 years old, respectively. Eucalyptus was used as mono herb (n: 2) and in combination with other herbs form (n: 4). All of the studies with eucalyptus were compared for efficacy and safety with placebo or standard treatment, Eucalyptus dosage form in studies included capsules, spray, and syrup. Heterogeneity was 32.44 used random effect model (I² = 1.2%, χ² = 1.01; P-value = 0.314). The efficacy of eucalyptus was showed a reduced cough symptom statistically significant (n = 402, RR: 1.40, 95%CI [1.19, 1.65], P-value < 0.0001) when compared with placebo. Adverse events (AEs) were reported mild to moderate intensity with mostly gastrointestinal symptom. The methodological quality of the included trials was overall poor. Conclusion: Eucalyptus appears to be beneficial and safe for relieving in respiratory diseases focus on cough frequency. The evidence was inconclusive due to limited quality trial. Well-designed trials for evaluating the effectiveness in humans, the effectiveness for reducing cough symptom in human is needed. Eucalyptus had safety as monotherapy or in combination with other herbs.

Keywords: cough, eucalyptus, cineole, herbal medicine, systematic review, meta-analysis

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57 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds and Ethanolic Extracts

Authors: I. Sani, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai, A. Abdulhamid


Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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56 Eucalyptus camaldulensis: Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of the Leaves, Stem-Bark, Root, Fruits, and Seeds

Authors: I. Sani, A. Abdulhamid, F. Bello, Isah M. Fakai


Phytochemicals are active secondary plant metabolites responsible for most of the claimed medicinal activities of plants. Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one of those plants that possess these phytochemicals and claimed to possess medicinal activities on various ailments. The phytochemicals constituents of various parts of this plant were investigated using standard methods of phytochemicals screening in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Qualitative screening revealed that tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and anthraquinones were present in aqueous extract of all the parts of the plant, whereas alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were absent. On the other hand, tannins and steroids were present in the ethanolic extract of all the parts of the plant, while saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenoids were present only in some parts of the plant. However, glycosides and anthraquinone were absent in all the ethanolic extracts. The quantitative screening revealed large amount of saponins in both aqueous and ethanolic extracts across the various parts of the plant. Whereas small amount of tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids were found only in the ethanolic extract of some parts of the plant. The presence of these phytochemicals in Eucalyptus camaldulensis could therefore justify the applications of the plant in management and curing of various ailments as claimed traditionally.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, phytochemical Screening, aqueous extract, ethanolic extract

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55 Susceptibility of Different Clones of Eucalyptus Species against Gall Wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle in Punjab, India

Authors: Ashwinder K. Dhaliwal, G. P. S. Dhillon


Eucalyptus is one of the most important forest tree species that can tolerate and grow well on degraded and unfertile soils which are not suitable for other tree species. Besides this, these trees have a short rotation and good economic value. However, the gall inducing wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher and La Salle has been reported from many countries throughout the world. The spread of L. invasa is of huge economic concern as more than 20,000 ha of young Eucalyptus trees have already been affected in southern states of India. The host plant resistance being the first line of defense against insect pests demands the screening of different germplasm source against L. invasa. Keeping this in view, fourteen different clones of Eucalyptus spp. were evaluated for their susceptibility to L. invasa from a replicated clonal trial planted at Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. The degree of gall infestation was recorded from three plants of each clone in each replication. Three branches selected from the lower, middle and upper canopy of the trees were selected for recording the total number of galls induced by L. invasa. The statistical analysis was done as per the procedure laid down for completely randomised block design (CRBD), analysis of variance (ANOVA), critical difference (CD) and variance components using Proc GLM (SAS software 9.3, SAS Institute Ltd. U.S.A). All possible treatment means were compared with Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT) at 1 % probability level. The results showed that the clones C-9, C-45 and C-42 were completely free from the infestation of L. invasa. However, there was minor infestation of L. invasa on C-2135, C-413, C-407, C-35, C-72 and C-37 clones. The clone C-6 was severely infested by L. invasa followed by C-11, C-12, F-316 and C-25 clones. The information generated by this study will be helpful for future breeding and use in afforestation programmes.

Keywords: eucalyptus clones, gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, screening, susceptibility

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54 Quality Assessment of the Essential Oil from Eucalyptus globulus Labill of Blida (Algeria) Origin

Authors: M. A. Ferhat, M. N. Boukhatem, F. Chemat


Eucalyptus essential oil is extracted from Eucalyptus globulus of the Myrtaceae family and is also known as Tasmanian blue gum or blue gum. Despite the reputation earned by aromatic and medicinal plants of Algeria. The objectives of this study were: (i) the extraction of the essential oil from the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Myrtaceae grown in Algeria, and the quantification of the yield thereof, (ii) the identification and quantification of the compounds in the essential oil obtained, and (iii) the determination of physical and chemical properties of EGEO. The chemical constituents of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil (EGEO) of Blida origin has not previously been investigated. Thus, the present study has been conducted for the determination of chemical constituents and different physico-chemical properties of the EGEO. Chemical composition of the EGEO, grown in Algeria, was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The chemical components were identified on the basis of Retention Time and comparing with mass spectral database of standard compounds. Relative amounts of detected compounds were calculated on the basis of GC peak areas. Fresh leaves of E. globulus on steam distillation yielded 0.96% (v/w) of essential oil whereas the analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 11 constituents, 1.8 cineole (85.8%), α-pinene (7.2%), and β-myrcene (1.5%) being the main components. Other notable compounds identified in the oil were β-pinene, limonene, α-phellandrene, γ-terpinene, linalool, pinocarveol, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol. The physical properties such as specific gravity, refractive index and optical rotation and the chemical properties such as saponification value, acid number and iodine number of the EGEO were examined. The oil extracted has been analyzed to have 1.4602-1.4623 refractive index value, 0.918-0.919 specific gravity (, +9 - +10 optical rotation that satisfy the standards stipulated by European Pharmacopeia. All the physical and chemical parameters were in the range indicated by the ISO standards. Our findings will help to access the quality of the Eucalyptus oil which is important in the production of high value essential oils that will help to improve the economic condition of the community as well as the nation.

Keywords: chemical composition, essential oil, eucalyptol, gas chromatography

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53 Eucalyptus camaldulensis Leaves Attacked by the Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa: A Phyto-Volatile Constituents Study

Authors: Maged El-Sayed Mohamed


Eucalyptus camaldulensis is one on the most well-known species of the genus Eucalyptus in the Middle east, its importance relay on the high production of its unique volatile constituents which exhibits many medicinal and pharmacological activities. The gall-forming wasp (Leptocybe invasa) has recently come into sight as the main pest attacking E. camaldulensis and causing severe injury. The wasp lays its eggs in the petiole and midrib of leaves and stems of young shoots of E. camaldulensis, which leads to gall formation. Gall formation by L. invasa damages growing shoot and leaves of Eucalyptus, resulting in abscission of leaves and drying. AIM: This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of the gall wasp (Leptocybe invasa) attack on the volatile constitutes of E. camaldulensis. This could help in the control of this wasp through stimulating plant defenses or production of a new allelochemicals or insecticide. The study of volatile constitutes of Eucalyptus before and after attack by the wasp can help the re-use and recycle of the infected Eucalyptus trees for new pharmacological and medicinal activities. Methodology: The fresh gall wasp-attacked and healthy leaves (100 g each) were cut and immediately subjected to hydrodistillation using Clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hours. The volatile fractions isolated were analyzed using Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Kovat’s retention indices (RI) were calculated with respect to a set of co-injected standard hydrocarbons (C10-C28). Compounds were identified by comparing their spectral data and retention indices with Wiley Registry of Mass Spectral Data 10th edition (April 2013), NIST 11 Mass Spectral Library (NIST11/2011/EPA/NIH) and literature data. Results: Fifty-nine components representing 89.13 and 88.60% of the total volatile fraction content respectively were quantitatively analyzed. Twenty-six major compounds at an average concentration greater than 0.1 ± 0.02% have been used for the statistical comparison. From those major components, twenty-one were found in both the attacked and healthy Eucalyptus leaves’ fractions in different concentration and five components, mono terpene p-Mentha-2-4(8) diene and the sesquiterpenes δ-elemene, β-elemene, E-caryophyllene and Bicyclogermacrene, were unique and only produced in the attacked-leaves’ fraction. CONCLUSION: Newly produced components or those commonly found in the volatile fraction and changed in concentration could represent a part of the plant defense mechanisms or might be an element of the plant allelopathic and communication mechanisms. Identification of the components of the gall wasp-damaged leaves can help in their recycling for different physiological, pharmacological and medicinal uses.

Keywords: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, eucalyptus recycling, gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa, plant defense mechanisms, Terpene fraction

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52 Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract of the Eucalyptus camaldulensis stemming from the Algerian Northeast

Authors: Meksem Nabila, Bordjiba Ouahiba, Meraghni Messaouda, Meksem Amara Leila, Djebar Mohhamed Reda


The problems of protection of the cultures are being more and more important that they interest great number of farmers and scientists because of the excessive use of the organic phytosanitary products of synthesis that causes fatal damages on the environment. To reduce the inconveniences produced by these pesticides, the use of "biopesticides" originated from plants could be an alternative. The aim of this work is the valuation of a botanical species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis from Northeastern Algeria which extracts are supposed to have an antimicrobial activity, similar to pesticides. The extraction of secondary metabolites from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was realized using methanol and water, and measurements of total polyphenols were made by spectrometric method. Determination of the antimicrobial activity of the extracts at issue was realized in vitro on phyto-pathogenic fungal and bacterial stumps. Tests of comparison were included in the essays by using the chemical pesticidal products of synthesis. The obtained results show that the plant contains polyphenols with an efficiency mattering of the order of 22 %. These polyphenols have a strong fungicidal and bactericidal pesticidal activity against various microbial stumps and the values of the zones of inhibition are more important compared with that obtained in the presence of the chemicals of synthesis (fungicide).

Keywords: eucalyptus camaldulensis, biopesticide, polyphenols, antimicrobial activity

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51 Screening of Freezing Tolerance in Eucalyptus Genotypes (Eucalyptus spp.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Ionic Leakage, Proline Accumulation and Stomatal Density

Authors: S. Lahijanian, M. Mobli, B. Baninasab, N. Etemadi


Low temperature extremes are amongst the major stresses that adversely affect the plant growth and productivity. Cold stress causes oxidative stress, physiological, morphological and biochemical changes in plant cells. Generally, low temperatures similar to salinity and drought exert their negative effects mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the plant cells. Changes in climatic condition leading to more frequent extreme conditions will require adapted crop species on a larger scale in order to sustain agricultural production. Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees (and a few shrubs) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of this genus dominate the tree flora of Australia. The eucalyptus genus contains more than 580 species and large number of cultivars, which are native to Australia. Large distribution and diversity of compatible eucalyptus cultivars reflect the fact of ecological flexibility of eucalyptus. Some eucalyptus cultivars can sustain hard environmental conditions like high and low temperature, salinity, high level of PH, drought, chilling and freezing which are intensively effective on crops with tropical and subtropical origin. In this study, we tried to evaluate freezing tolerance of 12 eucalyptus genotypes by means of four different morphological and physiological methods: Chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, proline and stomatal density. The studied cultivars include Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. coccifera, E. darlympleana, E. erythrocorys, E. glaucescens, E. globulus, E. gunnii, E. macrocorpa, E. microtheca, E. rubida, E. tereticornis, and E. urnigera. Except for stomatal density recording, in other methods, plants were exposed to five gradual temperature drops: zero, -5, -10, -15 and -20 degree of centigrade and they remained in these temperatures for at least one hour. Experiment for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence showed that genotypes E. erythrocorys and E. camaldulensis were the most resistant genotypes and E. gunnii and E.coccifera were more sensitive than other genotypes to freezing stress effects. In electrolyte leakage experiment with regard to significant interaction between cultivar and temperature, genotypes E. erythrocorys and E.macrocorpa were shown to be the most tolerant genotypes and E. gunnii, E. urnigera, E. microtheca and E. tereticornis with the more ionic leakage percentage showed to be more sensitive to low temperatures. Results of Proline experiment approved that the most resistant genotype to freezing stress is E. erythrocorys. In the stomatal density experiment, the numbers of stomata under microscopic field were totally counted and the results showed that the E. erythrocorys and E. macrocorpa genotypes had the maximum and E. coccifera and E. darlympleana genotypes had minimum number of stomata under microscopic field (0.0605 mm2). In conclusion, E. erythrocorys identified as the most tolerant genotype; meanwhile E. gunnii classified as the most freezing susceptible genotype in this investigation. Further, remarkable correlation was not obtained between the stomatal density and other cold stress measures.

Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence, cold stress, ionic leakage, proline, stomatal density

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50 Fungi Associated with Decline of Kikar (Acacia nilotica) and Red River Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in Faisalabad

Authors: I. Ahmad, A. Hannan, S. Ahmad, M. Asif, M. F. Nawaz, M. A. Tanvir, M. F. Azhar


During this research, a comprehensive survey of tree growing areas of Faisalabad district of Pakistan was conducted to observe the symptoms, spectrum, occurrence and severity of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis decline. Objective of current research was to investigate specific fungal pathogens involved in decline of A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis. For this purpose, infected roots, bark, neck portion, stem, branches, leaves and infected soils were collected to identify associated fungi. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) and Czepak dox agar media were used for isolations. Identification of isolated fungi was done microscopically and different fungi were identified. During survey of urban locations of Faisalabad, disease incidence on Kikar and Eucalyptus was recorded as 3.9-7.9% and 2.6-7.1% respectively. Survey of Agroforest zones of Faisalabad revealed decline incidence on kikar 7.5% from Sargodha road while on Satiana and Jhang road it was not planted. In eucalyptus trees, 4%, 8% and 0% disease incidence was observed on Jhang road, Sargodha road and Satiana road respectively. The maximum fungus isolated from the kikar tree was Drechslera australiensis (5.00%) from the stem part. Aspergillus flavus also gave the maximum value of (3.05%) from the bark. Alternaria alternata gave the maximum value of (2.05%) from leaves. Rhizopus and Mucor spp. were recorded minimum as compared to the Drechslera, Alternaria and Aspergillus. The maximum fungus isolated from the Eucalyptus tree was Armillaria luteobubalina (5.00%) from the stem part. The other fungi isolated were Macrophamina phaseolina and A. niger.

Keywords: decline, frequency of mycoflora, A. nilotica and E. camaldulensis, Drechslera australiensis, Armillaria luteobubalina

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49 Cellulose Enhancement in Wood Used in Pulp Production by Overexpression of Korrigan and Sucrose Synthase Genes

Authors: Anil Kumar, Diwakar Aggarwal, M. Sudhakara Reddy


The wood of Eucalyptus, Populus and bamboos are some important species used as raw material for the manufacture of pulp. However, higher levels of lignin pose a problem during Kraft pulping and yield of pulp is also lower. In order to increase the yield of pulp per unit wood and reduce the use of chemicals during kraft pulping it is important to reduce the lignin content and/or increase cellulose content in wood. Cellulose biosynthesis in wood takes place by the coordinated action of many enzymes. The two important enzymes are KORRIGAN and SUCROSE SYNTHASE. KORRIGAN (Endo-1,4--glucanase) is implicated in the process of editing growing cellulose chains and improvement of the crystallinity of produced cellulose, whereas SUCROSE SYNTHASE is involved in providing substrate (UDP-glucose) for growing cellulose chains. The present study was aimed at the cloning, characterization and overexpression of these genes in Eucalyptus and Populus. An efficient shoot organogenesis protocol from leaf explants taken from micro shoots of the species has been developed. Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 and LBA4404 harboring binary vector pBI121 was achieved. Both the genes were cloned from cDNA library of Populus deltoides. These were subsequently characterized using various bioinformatics tools. The cloned genes were then inserted into pBI121 under the CaMV35S promotors replacing GUS gene. The constructs were then mobilized into above strains of Agrobacterium and used for the transformation work. Subsequently, genetic transformation of these clones with target genes following already developed protocol is in progress. Four transgenic lines of Eucalyptus tereticornis overexpressing Korrigan gene under the strong constitutive promoters CaMV35S have been developed, which are being further evaluated. Work on development of more transgenic lines overexpressing these genes in Populus and Eucalyptus is also in progress. This presentation will focus on important developments in this direction.

Keywords: Eucalyptus tereticornis, genetic transformation, Kraft pulping Populus deltoides

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48 Estimation of Eucalyptus Wood Calorific Potential for Energy Recovering

Authors: N. Ouslimani, N. Hakimi, H. Aksas


The reduction of oil reserves in the world makes that many countries are directed towards the study and the use of local and renewable energies. For this purpose, wood energy represents the material of choice. The energy production is primarily thermal and corresponds to a heating of comfort, auxiliary or principal. Wood is generally conditioned in the form of logs, of pellets, even of plates. In Algeria, this way of energy saving could contribute to the safeguarding of the environment, as to the recovery of under wood products (branches, barks and various wastes on the various transformation steps). This work is placed within the framework general of the search for new sources of energy starting from the recovery of the lignocellulosic matter. In this direction, we proposed various sources of products (biomass, under product and by-products) relating to the ‘Eucalyptus species’ being able to be developed, of which we carried out a preliminary physicochemical study, necessary to the development of the densified products with high calorific value.

Keywords: biomass, calorific value, combustion, energy recovery

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47 Hepatoprotective and Immunostimulative Properties of Medicinal Plants against Tuberculosis

Authors: Anna-Mari Kok, Carel B. Oosthuizen, Namrita Lall


Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is associated with high mortality rates in both developing and developed countries. Many higher plants are found that are medicinally associated with tuberculosis infection. Plants belonging to thirteen families were selected, based on their traditional usage for tuberculosis and its associated symptoms. Eight plants showed the best antimycobacterial activities (MIC-value ≤ 500.0 µg/ml) against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. LS was found to have a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 125 µg/ml whereas, Tulbaghia violacea, Heteromorpha arborescens, Sutherlandia frutescens, Eucalyptus deglupta, and Plectranthus neochilus were found to have a MIC value of 250 µg/ml against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Cytotoxicity values on U937 and HepG2 cells were obtained and the IC50 values ranged between 40 ±4.30 and > 400 µg/ml for the U937 cell line and 72.4 ±1.50 and > 400 µg/ml for the HepG2 cell line. Heteromorpha arborescens had the lowest IC50 value in both cell lines and therefore showed moderate levels of toxicity. Of the 19 samples that underwent the 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant assay, Eucalyptus deglupta and Melianthus major showed significant free radical scavenging activities with concentrations of 1.33 and 1.32 µg/ml respectively for the inhibition of DPPH. Hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen identified Searsia lancea with hepatoprotective activity of 59.37% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Out of the 7 samples that were investigated for their immunomodulatory capabilities, Eucalyptus deglupta produced the most IL-12 with Sutherlandia frutescens also showing positive results for IL-12 production. In the present study, Eucalyptus deglupta showed the most promising results with good activity against M. tuberculosis with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also has potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 1.33 µg/ml. This sample also stimulated high production of the cytokine, IL-12. Searsia lancea showed moderate antimycobacterial acticvity with an MIC-value of 500 µg/ml. The antioxidant potential also showed promising results with an IC50 value of 4.50 µg/ml. The hepatoprotective capability of Searsia lancea was 59.34% at a ¼ IC50 concentration. Another sample Sutherlandia frutescens showed effective antimycobacterial activity with an MIC-value of 250 µg/ml. It also stimulated production of IL-12 with 13.43 pg/ml produced. These three samples can be considered for further studies for the consideration as adjuvants for current tuberculosis treatment.

Keywords: adjuvant, hepatoprotection, immunomodulation, tuberculosis

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46 Study on Parallel Shear Stress of Cement-Wood Composites Using Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. in natura and Treated with CCA

Authors: Rodrigo D. S. Oliveira, Sarah David-Muzel, Maristela Gava, Victor A. De Araujo, Glaucia A. Prates, Juliana Cortez-Barbosa


Improper disposal of treated wood waste is a problem of the timber sector, since this residue is toxic, due to the harmful characteristics of the preservative substances. An environmentally friendly alternative is the use of this waste for the production of cement-wood composites. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using wood treated with CCA (Chromated Cooper Arsenate) in cement-wood. Specimens of Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. were produced with wood raw in natura and treated with CCA. A test was performed to determine the parallel shear stress of samples after 14 days of drying, according to the Brazilian Standard NBR-7215/97. Based on the analyzed results it is concluded that the use of wood treated with CCA is not feasible in cement-wood production, because the composite samples of treated wood showed lower mechanical strength in shear stress than those with wood in natura.

Keywords: waste recovery, wood composites, cement-wood, wood preservation, chromated copper arsenate

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45 A Study on Soil Micro-Arthropods Assemblage in Selected Plantations in The Nilgiris, Tamilnadu

Authors: J. Dharmaraj, C. Gunasekaran


Invertebrates are the reliable ecological indicators of disturbance of the forest ecosystems and they respond to environment changes more quickly than other fauna. Among these the terrestrial invertebrates are vital to functioning ecosystems, contributing to processes such as decomposition, nutrient cycling and soil fertility. The natural ecosystems of the forests have been subject to various types of disturbances, which lead to decline of flora and fauna. The comparative diversity of micro-arthropods in natural forest, wattle plantation and eucalyptus plantations were studied in Nilgiris. The study area was divided in to five major sites (Emerald (Site-I), Thalaikundha (Site-II), Kodapmund (Site-III), Aravankad (Site-IV), Kattabettu (Site-V). The research was conducted during period from March 2014 to August 2014. The leaf and soil samples were collected and isolated by using Berlese funnel extraction methods. Specimens were isolated and identified according to their morphology (Balogh 1972). In the present study results clearly showed the variation in soil pH, NPK (Major Nutrients) and organic carbon among the study sites. The chemical components of the leaf litters of the plantation decreased the diversity of micro-arthropods and decomposition rate leads to low amount of carbon and other nutrients present in the soil. Moreover eucalyptus and wattle plantations decreases the availability of the ground water source to other plantations and micro-arthropods and hences affects the soil fertility. Hence, the present study suggests to minimize the growth of wattle and eucalyptus tree plantations in the natural areas which may help to reduce the decline of forests.

Keywords: micro-arthropods, assemblage, berlese funnel, morphology, NPK, nilgiris

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44 Effects of Nickel and Inoculation with Three Isolates of Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Pisolithus on Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake Seedlings

Authors: N. S. Aggangan, B. Dell, P. Jeffries


Two moderately nickel-tolerant isolates of Pisolithus were compared with a non-Ni tolerant isolate for the ability to increase the growth of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings in the presence of nickel (Ni) in pots in a glasshouse. Seedlings, either inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi or uninoculated, were transplanted into pots containing 3 kg steam-pasteurized yellow sand amended with five concentrations of nickel (0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 mg Ni kg-1 soil). Within a day after transplanting, all seedlings subjected to Ni rates greater than 12 mg Ni kg-1 showed symptoms of wilting and all died within two weeks. At lower nickel concentrations, inoculation with all 3 Pisolithus strains increased rates of seedling survival after 12 weeks. Inoculation with all 3 isolates Pisolithus significantly increased the growth of plants in Ni-free soils between 2 to 4 fold dependent on isolate. However, seedlings growing in soils containing 12 mg Ni kg-1 grew poorly, mycorrhizal development was inhibited and no beneficial effects of inoculation were noted. In contrast, in soils containing 6mg Ni kg-1, inoculated seedlings did not show the reduced root growth and severe toxicity symptoms (chlorosis on young leaves and shoot tips) of uninoculated seedlings. Only the Ni-tolerant Pisolithus strains conferred a significant growth benefit compared to non-inoculated controls, and plants inoculated with one of these strains grew twice the size as those inoculated with the other Ni-tolerant strain. Inorganic plant analysis revealed that inoculation increased plant growth through improved P uptake but did not prevent Ni uptake. However, toxicity may have been minimized by dilution due to an increase in plant biomass. The results suggest that only one of the Ni-tolerant strains of Pisolithus has the potential to improve the growth and survival of E. urophylla seedlings in serpentine soils in the Philippines.

Keywords: ectomycorrhizas, Eucalyptus urophylla, nickel tolerance, pisolithus

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43 Evaluation of Polyurethane-Bonded Particleboard Manufactured with Eucalyptus Sp. and Bi-Oriented Polypropylene Wastes

Authors: Laurenn Borges de Macedo, Fabiane Salles Ferro, Tiago Hendrigo de Almeida, Gérson Moreira de Lima, André Luiz Christoforo, Francisco Antonio Rocco Lahr


The growth of the furniture manufacturing industry is one of the fundamental factors contributing to the growth of the particleboard industry. The use of recycled products into particleboards can contribute to the forest conservation, in addition to achieve a high quality sustainable product with low-cost production. This work investigates the effect of bi-oriented polypropylene (BOPP) waste particles and sealing product on the physical and mechanical properties of Eucalyptus sp. particleboards fabricated with a castor oil based polyurethane resin. Among the factors, only the seal coating was statistically significant. The wood panels of Treatment 2 were classified as H1, based on the internal bond strength and elastic modulus results data required by ANSI A208.1:1999. The bending strength data did not reach the minimum values recommended by NBR 14810:2006 and ANSI A208.1:1999. The thickness swelling data for 2h immersed in water achieved the standard requirement levels. High-density panels were achieved revealing their potential use in variety of particleboard applications.

Keywords: BOPP, mechanical properties, particleboards, physical properties

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42 Evaluation of Natural Waste Materials for Ammonia Removal in Biofilters

Authors: R. F. Vieira, D. Lopes, I. Baptista, S. A. Figueiredo, V. F. Domingues, R. Jorge, C. Delerue-matos, O. M. Freitas


Odours are generated in municipal solid wastes management plants as a result of decomposition of organic matter, especially when anaerobic degradation occurs. Information was collected about the substances and respective concentration in the surrounding atmosphere of some management plants. The main components which are associated with these unpleasant odours were identified: ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans. The first is the most common and the one that presents the highest concentrations, reaching values of 700 mg/m3. Biofiltration, which involves simultaneously biodegradation, absorption and adsorption processes, is a sustainable technology for the treatment of these odour emissions when a natural packing material is used. The packing material should ideally be cheap, durable, and allow the maximum microbiological activity and adsorption/absorption. The presence of nutrients and water is required for biodegradation processes. Adsorption and absorption are enhanced by high specific surface area, high porosity and low density. The main purpose of this work is the exploitation of natural waste materials, locally available, as packing media: heather (Erica lusitanica), chestnut bur (from Castanea sativa), peach pits (from Prunus persica) and eucalyptus bark (from Eucalyptus globulus). Preliminary batch tests of ammonia removal were performed in order to select the most interesting materials for biofiltration, which were then characterized. The following physical and chemical parameters were evaluated: density, moisture, pH, buffer and water retention capacity. The determination of equilibrium isotherms and the adjustment to Langmuir and Freundlich models was also performed. Both models can fit the experimental results. Based both in the material performance as adsorbent and in its physical and chemical characteristics, eucalyptus bark was considered the best material. It presents a maximum adsorption capacity of 0.78±0.45 mol/kg for ammonia. The results from its characterization are: 121 kg/m3 density, 9.8% moisture, pH equal to 5.7, buffer capacity of 0.370 mmol H+/kg of dry matter and water retention capacity of 1.4 g H2O/g of dry matter. The application of natural materials locally available, with little processing, in biofiltration is an economic and sustainable alternative that should be explored.

Keywords: ammonia removal, biofiltration, natural materials, odour control

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41 Synthesis and Characterisation of Bio-Based Acetals Derived from Eucalyptus Oil

Authors: Kirstin Burger, Paul Watts, Nicole Vorster


Green chemistry focuses on synthesis which has a low negative impact on the environment. This research focuses on synthesizing novel compounds from an all-natural Eucalyptus citriodora oil. Eight novel plasticizer compounds are synthesized and optimized using flow chemistry technology. A precursor to one novel compound can be synthesized from the lauric acid present in coconut oil. Key parameters, such as catalyst screening and loading, reaction time, temperature, residence time using flow chemistry techniques is investigated. The compounds are characterised using GC-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C-NMR techniques, X-ray crystallography. The efficiency of the compounds is compared to two commercial plasticizers, i.e. Dibutyl phthalate and Eastman 168. Several PVC-plasticized film formulations are produced using the bio-based novel compounds. Tensile strength, stress at fracture and percentage elongation are tested. The property of having increasing plasticizer percentage in the film formulations is investigated, ranging from 3, 6, 9 and 12%. The diastereoisomers of each compound are separated and formulated into PVC films, and differences in tensile strength are measured. Leaching tests, flexibility, and change in glass transition temperatures for PVC-plasticized films is recorded. Research objective includes using these novel compounds as a green bio-plasticizer alternative in plastic products for infants. The inhibitory effect of the compounds on six pathogens effecting infants are studied, namely; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella choleraesuis and Klebsiella oxytoca.

Keywords: bio-based compounds, plasticizer, tensile strength, microbiological inhibition , synthesis

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40 Antimicrobial Activity of Eucalyptus globulus Essential Oil: Disc Diffusion versus Vapour Diffusion Methods

Authors: Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Ferhat Mohamed Amine


Essential Oils (EO) produced by medicinal plants have been traditionally used for respiratory tract infections and are used nowadays as ethical medicines for colds. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Algerian EGEO against some respiratory tract pathogens by disc diffusion and vapour diffusion methods at different concentrations. The chemical composition of the EGEO was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Fresh leaves of E. globulus on steam distillation yielded 0.96% (v/w) of essential oil whereas the analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 11 constituents, 1.8 cineole (85.8%), α-pinene (7.2%) and β-myrcene (1.5%) being the main components. By disc diffusion method, EGEO showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive more than Gram-negative bacteria. The Diameter of Inhibition Zone (DIZ) varied from 69 mm to 75 mm for Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis (Gram +) and from 13 to 42 mm for Enterobacter sp and Escherichia coli (Gram-), respectively. However, the results obtained by both agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods were different. Significantly higher antibacterial activity was observed in the vapour phase at lower concentrations. A. baumanii and Klebsiella pneumoniae were the most susceptible strains to the oil vapour with DIZ varied from 38 to 42 mm. Therefore, smaller doses of EO in the vapour phase can be inhibitory to pathogenic bacteria. Else, the DIZ increased with increase in the concentration of the oil. There is growing evidence that EGEO in the vapour phase are effective antibacterial systems and appears worthy to be considered for practical uses in the treatment or prevention of patients with respiratory tract infections or as air decontaminants in the hospital. The present study indicates that EGEO has considerable antimicrobial activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications.

Keywords: eucalyptus globulus, essential oils, respiratory tract pathogens, antimicrobial activity, vapour phase

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39 Mechanism of Veneer Colouring for Production of Multilaminar Veneer from Plantation-Grown Eucalyptus Globulus

Authors: Ngoc Nguyen


There is large plantation of Eucalyptus globulus established which has been grown to produce pulpwood. This resource is not suitable for the production of decorative products, principally due to low grades of wood and “dull” appearance but many trials have been already undertaken for the production of veneer and veneer-based engineered wood products, such as plywood and laminated veneer lumber (LVL). The manufacture of veneer-based products has been recently identified as an unprecedented opportunity to promote higher value utilisation of plantation resources. However, many uncertainties remain regarding the impacts of inferior wood quality of young plantation trees on product recovery and value, and with respect to optimal processing techniques. Moreover, the quality of veneer and veneer-based products is far from optimal as trees are young and have small diameters; and the veneers have the significant colour variation which affects to the added value of final products. Developing production methods which would enhance appearance of low-quality veneer would provide a great potential for the production of high-value wood products such as furniture, joinery, flooring and other appearance products. One of the methods of enhancing appearance of low quality veneer, developed in Italy, involves the production of multilaminar veneer, also named “reconstructed veneer”. An important stage of the multilaminar production is colouring the veneer which can be achieved by dyeing veneer with dyes of different colours depending on the type of appearance products, their design and market demand. Although veneer dyeing technology has been well advanced in Italy, it has been focused on poplar veneer from plantation which wood is characterized by low density, even colour, small amount of defects and high permeability. Conversely, the majority of plantation eucalypts have medium to high density, have a lot of defects, uneven colour and low permeability. Therefore, detailed study is required to develop dyeing methods suitable for colouring eucalypt veneers. Brown reactive dye is used for veneer colouring process. Veneers from sapwood and heartwood of two moisture content levels are used to conduct colouring experiments: green veneer and veneer dried to 12% MC. Prior to dyeing, all samples are treated. Both soaking (dipping) and vacuum pressure methods are used in the study to compare the results and select most efficient method for veneer dyeing. To date, the results of colour measurements by CIELAB colour system showed significant differences in the colour of the undyed veneers produced from heartwood part. The colour became moderately darker with increasing of Sodium chloride, compared to control samples according to the colour measurements. It is difficult to conclude a suitable dye solution used in the experiments at this stage as the variables such as dye concentration, dyeing temperature or dyeing time have not been done. The dye will be used with and without UV absorbent after all trials are completed using optimal parameters in colouring veneers.

Keywords: Eucalyptus globulus, veneer colouring/dyeing, multilaminar veneer, reactive dye

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38 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Abdul Rashid, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif


Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: natural extract, medicinal plant, toxic effects, enzyme inhibition, acetone extract

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