Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 113

Search results for: Francis Vial

113 Numerical Simulation of Three-Dimensional Cavitating Turbulent Flow in Francis Turbines with ANSYS

Authors: Raza Abdulla Saeed

Abstract:

In this study, the three-dimensional cavitating turbulent flow in a complete Francis turbine is simulated using mixture model for cavity/liquid two-phase flows. Numerical analysis is carried out using ANSYS CFX software release 12, and standard k-ε turbulence model is adopted for this analysis. The computational fluid domain consist of spiral casing, stay vanes, guide vanes, runner and draft tube. The computational domain is discretized with a three-dimensional mesh system of unstructured tetrahedron mesh. The finite volume method (FVM) is used to solve the governing equations of the mixture model. Results of cavitation on the runner’s blades under three different boundary conditions are presented and discussed. From the numerical results it has been found that the numerical method was successfully applied to simulate the cavitating two-phase turbulent flow through a Francis turbine, and also cavitation is clearly predicted in the form of water vapor formation inside the turbine. By comparison the numerical prediction results with a real runner; it’s shown that the region of higher volume fraction obtained by simulation is consistent with the region of runner cavitation damage.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, hydraulic francis turbine, numerical simulation, two-phase mixture cavitation model

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112 Unsteady Numerical Analysis of Sediment Erosion Affected High Head Francis Turbine

Authors: Saroj Gautam, Ram Lama, Hari Prasad Neopane, Sailesh Chitrakar, Biraj Singh Thapa, Baoshan Zhu

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Sediment flowing along with the water in rivers flowing in South Asia erodes the turbine components. The erosion of turbine components is influenced by the nature of fluid flow along with components of typical turbine types. This paper examines two cases of high head Francis turbines with the same speed number numerically. The numerical investigation involves both steady-state and transient analysis of the numerical model developed for both cases. Furthermore, the influence of leakage flow from the clearance gap of guide vanes is also examined and compared with no leakage flow. It presents the added pressure pulsation to rotor-stator-interaction in the turbine runner for both cases due to leakage flow. It was also found that leakage flow was a major contributor to the sediment erosion in those turbines.

Keywords: sediment erosion, Francis turbine, leakage flow, rotor stator interaction

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111 A Study on Analysis of Magnetic Field in Induction Generator for Small Francis Turbine Generator

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Han-Sang Jeong, Yeon-Ho Ok, Jae-Ho Choi

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The purpose of this study is to verify validity of design by testing output of induction generator through finite element analysis before manufacture of induction generator designed. Characteristics in the operating domain of induction generator can be understood through analysis of magnetic field according to load (rotational speed) of induction generator. Characteristics of induction generator such as induced voltage, current, torque, magnetic flux density (magnetic flux saturation), and loss can be predicted by analysis of magnetic field.

Keywords: electromagnetic analysis, induction generator, small hydro power generator, small francis turbine generator

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110 Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge

Authors: K. Eryilmaz, G. Mercanoglu

Abstract:

Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.

Keywords: lanthanide, peptide, labeling, purification, radionuclide, radiopharmaceutical, synthesis

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109 Nude Cosmetic Water-Rich Compositions for Skin Care and Consumer Emotions

Authors: Emmanuelle Merat, Arnaud Aubert, Sophie Cambos, Francis Vial, Patrick Beau

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Basically, consumers are sensitive to many stimuli when applying a cream: brand, packaging and indeed formulation compositions. Many studies demonstrated the influence of some stimuli such as brand, packaging, formula color and odor (e.g. in make-up applications). Those parameters influence perceived quality of the product. The objective of this work is to further investigate the relationship between nude skincare basic compositions with different textures and consumer experience. A tentative final step will be to connect the consumer feelings with key ingredients in the compositions. A new approach was developed to better understand touch-related subjective experience in consumers based on a combination of methods: sensory analysis with ten experts, preference mapping on one hundred female consumers and emotional assessments on thirty consumers (verbal and non-verbal through prosody and gesture monitoring). Finally, a methodology based on ‘sensorial trip’ (after olfactory, haptic and musical stimuli) has been experimented on the most interesting textures with 10 consumers. The results showed more or less impact depending on compositions and also on key ingredients. Three types of formulation particularly attracted the consumer: an aqueous gel, an oil-in-water emulsion, and a patented gel-in-oil formulation type. Regarding these three formulas, the preferences were both revealed through sensory and emotion tests. One was recognized as the most innovative in consumer sensory test whereas the two other formulas were discriminated in emotions evaluation. The positive emotions were highlighted especially in prosody criteria. The non-verbal analysis, which corresponds to the physical parameters of the voice, showed high pitch and amplitude values; linked to positive emotions. Verbatim, verbal content of responses (i.e., ideas, concepts, mental images), confirmed the first conclusion. On the formulas selected for their positive emotions generation, the ‘sensorial trip’ provided complementary information to characterize each emotional profile. In the second step, dedicated to better understand ingredients power, two types of ingredients demonstrated an obvious input on consumer preference: rheology modifiers and emollients. As a conclusion, nude cosmetic compositions with well-chosen textures and ingredients can positively stimulate consumer emotions contributing to capture their preference. For a complete achievement of the study, a global approach (Asia, America territories...) should be developed.

Keywords: sensory, emotion, cosmetic formulations, ingredients' influence

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108 Effectiveness and Efficiency of Unified Philippines Accident Reporting and Database System in Optimizing Road Crash Data Usage with Various Stakeholders

Authors: Farhad Arian Far, Anjanette Q. Eleazar, Francis Aldrine A. Uy, Mary Joyce Anne V. Uy

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The Unified Philippine Accident Reporting and Database System (UPARDS), is a newly developed system by Dr. Francis Aldrine Uy of the Mapua Institute of Technology. The main purpose is to provide an advanced road accident investigation tool, record keeping and analysis system for stakeholders such as Philippine National Police (PNP), Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), Department of Health (DOH), and insurance companies. The system is composed of 2 components, the mobile application for road accident investigators that takes advantage of available technology to advance data gathering and the web application that integrates all accident data for the use of all stakeholders. The researchers with the cooperation of PNP’s Vehicle Traffic Investigation Sector of the City of Manila, conducted the field-testing of the application in fifteen (15) accident cases. Simultaneously, the researchers also distributed surveys to PNP, Manila Doctors Hospital, and Charter Ping An Insurance Company to gather their insights regarding the web application. The survey was designed on information systems theory called Technology Acceptance Model. The results of the surveys revealed that the respondents were greatly satisfied with the visualization and functions of the applications as it proved to be effective and far more efficient in comparison with the conventional pen-and-paper method. In conclusion, the pilot study was able to address the need for improvement of the current system.

Keywords: accident, database, investigation, mobile application, pilot testing

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107 Preparation and Quality Control of a Novel Radiolabeled Complex of 166ho for the Treatment of Somatostatin Receptor Expressing Tumours

Authors: H. Yousefnia, A. Golabi Dezfuli, S. Zolghadri, M. Hosntalab

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Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is nowadays used for the treatment of various abnormalities with somatostatin receptors. In this study, 166Ho-DOTATOC was prepared and the best conditions for its radiolabeling was obtained. For this purpose, a certain of DOTATOC was added to a vial containing 166Ho. various experiments by varying ligand concentration, pH, temperature and time were performed to determine the best conditions. Radiochemical purity of the complex was assessed by instant thin layer chromatography method utilizing 0.9% NaCl as the mobile phase. 166Ho-DOTATOC was prepared with radiochemical purity of higher than 95% at the optimized condition (pH=4, temperature: 95° C, time:30 min). In 0.9% NaCl, free Ho cation was developed at Rf of 0.8 while the complex was remained at the front of the paper.

Keywords: Ho-166, neuroendocrine, octreotide, quality control

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106 Effect of Tooth Bleaching Agents on Enamel Demineralisation

Authors: Najlaa Yousef Qusti, Steven J. Brookes, Paul A. Brunton

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Background: Tooth discoloration can be an aesthetic problem, and tooth whitening using carbamide peroxide bleaching agents are a popular treatment option. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects such as demineralisation of the bleached enamel; however, the cause of this demineralisation is unclear. Introduction: Teeth can become stained or discoloured over time. Tooth whitening is an aesthetic solution for tooth discoloration. Bleaching solutions of 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) have become the standard agent used in dentist-prescribed and home-applied ’vital bleaching techniques’. These materials release hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), the active whitening agent. However, there is controversy in the literature regarding the effect of bleaching agents on enamel integrity and enamel mineral content. The purpose of this study was to establish if carbamide peroxide bleaching agents affect the acid solubility of enamel (i.e., make teeth more prone to demineralisation). Materials and Methods: Twelve human premolar teeth were sectioned longitudinally along the midline and varnished to leave the natural enamel surface exposed. The baseline behavior of each tooth half in relation to its demineralisation in acid was established by sequential exposure to 4 vials containing 1ml of 10mM acetic acid (1 minute/vial). This was followed by exposure to 10% CP for 8 hours. After washing in distilled water, the tooth half was sequentially exposed to 4 further vials containing acid to test if the acid susceptibility of the enamel had been affected. The corresponding tooth half acted as a control and was exposed to distilled water instead of CP. The mineral loss was determined by measuring [Ca²⁺] and [PO₄³⁻] released in each vial using a calcium ion-selective electrode and the phosphomolybdenum blue method, respectively. The effect of bleaching on the tooth surfaces was also examined using SEM. Results: Exposure to carbamide peroxide did not significantly alter the susceptibility of enamel to acid attack, and SEM of the enamel surface revealed a slight alteration in surface appearance. SEM images of the control enamel surface showed a flat enamel surface with some shallow pits, whereas the bleached enamel appeared with an increase in surface porosity and some areas of mild erosion. Conclusions: Exposure to H₂O₂ equivalent to 10% CP does not significantly increase subsequent acid susceptibility of enamel as determined by Ca²⁺ release from the enamel surface. The effects of bleaching on mineral loss were indistinguishable from distilled water in the experimental system used. However, some surface differences were observed by SEM. The phosphomolybdenum blue method for phosphate is compromised by peroxide bleaching agents due to their oxidising properties. However, the Ca²⁺ electrode is unaffected by oxidising agents and can be used to determine the mineral loss in the presence of peroxides.

Keywords: bleaching, carbamide peroxide, demineralisation, teeth whitening

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105 Development of 111In-DOTMP as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, AR. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Erfani

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The objective of this study is the preparation of 111In-DOTMP as a new bone imaging agent. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with DOTMP was carried out by adding 0.1 ml of the stock solution (50 mg/ml in 2 N NaoH) to the vial containing 1 mCi of 111In. pH of the mixture was adjusted to 7-8 by means of phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity of the complex at the optimized condition was higher than 98% (by using whatman No.1 paper in NH4OH:MeOH: H2O (0.2:2:4)). Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake. The ratio of bone to other soft tissue accumulation was significantly high which permit to observe high quality images. The results show that 111In-DOTMP can be used as a suitable tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, DOTMP, 111In, SPECT

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104 Preparation and Quality Control of a New Radiolabelled Complex of Spion

Authors: H. Yousefnia, SJ. Ahmadi, S. Sajadi, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Bagherzadeh

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Nowadays, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as the multitask agents have showed advantageous characteristics. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 153Sm-DTPA-DA-SPION complex. Samarium-153 was produced by neutron irradiation of the enriched 152Sm2O3 in a research reactor for 5 d. For radiolabeling purposes, 8 mg of the ligand was added to the vial containing 153SmCl3 and the mixture was sonicated 30 min, while pH was adjusted to 7-8. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method using NH4OH:MeOH:H2O (0.2:2:4) as the mobile phase. This new radiolabeled complex was prepared with a radiochemical purity of higher than 98% in 30 min at the optimized condition. The complex was kept at room temperature and in human serum at 37 °C for 48 h, showed no loss of 153Sm from the complex. Considering all of these features, this new radiolabeled complex can be considered as a good therapeutic agent; however, further studies on its biological behavior are still needed.

Keywords: iron nanoparticles, preparation, quality control, 153Sm

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103 Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-1,2-Propylene Di-Amino Tetra (Methylenephosphonic Acid)

Authors: N. Tadayon, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian

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Bone metastases occur in many patients with solid malignant tumors. Recently, 1,2 propylene di-amino tetra methylenephosphonic acid (PDTMP) has been introduced as a suitable carrier in the development of therapeutic bone-avid radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, due to the desirable characteristics of 68Ga, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A stock solution of PDTMP was prepared by dissolving in 2 N NaOH. A certain volume of the stock solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared in only 15 min with radiochemical purity of more than 98%. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: bone metastases, Ga-68, imaging, PDTMP

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102 Biodistribution Study of 68GA-PDTMP as a New Bone Pet Imaging Agent

Authors: N. Tadayon, H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian

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In this study, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared as a new agent for bone imaging. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A certain volume of the PDTMP solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution of this new agent was assessed in rats after intravenously injection of the complex. For this purpose, the rats were killed at specified times after injection and the weight and activity of each organ was measured. Injected dose per gram was calculated by dividing the activity of each organ to the total injected activity and the mass of each organ. As expected the most of the activity was accumulated in the bone tissue. The radiolabelled compound was extracted from blood very fast. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: biodistribution, Ga-68, imaging, PDTMP

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101 Preparation and Biological Evaluation of 186/188Re-Chitosan for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: N. Ahmadi, H. Yousefnia, A. Bahrami-Samani

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Chitosan is a natural and biodegradable polysaccharide with special characteristic for application in intracavital therapy. 166Ho-chitosan has been reported for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and RSV with promising results. The aim of this study was to prepare 186/188Re-chitosan for radiosynovectomy purposes and investigate the probability of its leakage from the knee joint. 186/188Re was produced by neutron irradiation of the natural rhenium in a research reactor. Chemical processing was performed to obtain (186/188Re)-NaReO4- according to the IAEA manual. A stock solution of chitosan was prepared by dissolving in 1 % acetic acid aqueous solution (10 mg/mL). 1.5 mL of this stock solution was added to the vial containing the activity and the mixture was stirred for 5 min in the room temperature. The radiochemical purity of the complex was checked by the ITLC method, showing the purity of higher than 98%. Distribution of the radiolabeled complex was determined after intra-articular injection into the knees of rats. Excellent retention was observed in the joint with approximately no activity in the other organs.

Keywords: chitosan, leakage, radiosynovectomy, rhenium

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100 Production and Quality Control of a Novel 153Sm-Complex for Radiotherapy of Bone-Metastases

Authors: H. Yousefnia, R. Enayati, M. Hosntalab, S. Zolghadri, A. Bahrami-Samani

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Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease, however their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation of 153Sm-(4-{[bis-(phosphonomethyl))carbamoyl]methyl}-7,10-bis(carboxymethyl) 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododec-1-yl) acetic acid (BPAMD) for bone pain palliation therapy. 153Sm was produced at Tehran research reactor via 152Sm(n,γ)153Sm reaction. 200 µl of 1mg/ml BPAMD solution was added to the vial containing 1 mCi 153Sm and the mixture was heated up to 90 0C for 1 h. The radiochemical purity of the complex was measured by ITLC method. The final solution with radiochemical purity of more than 95% was injected to BALB mice and bio distribution was determined up to 48 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. While high bone uptake was confirmed by both the bio distribution studies and SPECT imaging, accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 153Sm-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for bone pain palliation therapy.

Keywords: bone metastases, BPAMD, 153Sm, radiotherapy

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99 The Factors Affecting Pupil Psychological Well-Being in Mainstream Schools: A Systematic Review

Authors: Chantelle Francis, Karen McKenzie, Charlotte Emmerson

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In the context of the rise in mental health difficulties amongst pupils, this review explores the factors that have been indicated as affecting psychological well-being in mainstream school contexts. Search terms relating to school-based psychological well-being were entered into five databases, and twenty-two studies were included in the review. The results suggested that pupil psychological well-being is affected by both direct and indirect factors. The former included a sense of belonging and inclusion, relationships with teachers, and academic attainment. The latter included family socioeconomic status, whole-school approaches, and individual differences factors, such as gender and Special Educational Needs. The implications for policymakers and practitioners are discussed.

Keywords: psychological wellbeing, mainstream schools, special educational needs, school-based wellbeing

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98 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A New Cognitive Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

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Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of the object-oriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: cognitive complexity metric, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics

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97 The Sociological and Legal Study of Sexual Assault in Nigeria

Authors: Adeshina Francis Akindutre, Adebolarin Adekanle

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Sexual assault is often considered as the most extreme form of violence that degrades and humiliates women in society. It is a widespread public health and psychological problem in Nigeria. Criminologically, sexual assaults have been considered as one of the several violent crimes targeted specifically at women and perpetrated by men. This paper attempts to examine the types of sexual assaults in Nigeria, the strategies used by the offenders, the causes, the psychological effects on the victims and the possible solutions of sexual assaults. This work also, examines the law prohibiting sexual assault in Nigeria. The authors made use of three theories: the victim precipitation approach, the feminist approach, and the psychological approach which explain why sexual assault takes place in society. Finally, it takes the Stockholm Syndrome into consideration (the treatment of victims).

Keywords: feminist, victims, offenders, psychological, sexual assault, Stockholm Syndrome

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96 The Challenge of Teaching French as a Foreign Language in a Multilingual Community

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

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The teaching of French language, like every other language, has its numerous challenges. A multilingual community, however, is a linguistic environment housing diverse languages, each with its peculiarity, both pros, and cones. A foreign language will have to strive hard for survival in an environment where various indigenous languages, as well as an established official language, exist. This study examined the challenges and prospects of the teaching of French as a foreign language in a multilingual community. A 22-item questionnaire was used to elicit information from 40 Nigerian Secondary school teachers of French. One of the findings of this study showed that the teachers of the French language are not motivated. Also, the linguistic environment is not favourable for the teaching and learning of French language in Nigeria. One of the recommendations was that training and re-training of teachers of French should be of utmost importance to the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education.

Keywords: challenges, french as foreign language, multilingual community, teaching

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95 The Effect of Flue Gas Condensation on the Exergy Efficiency and Economic Performance of a Waste-To-Energy Plant

Authors: Francis Chinweuba Eboh, Tobias Richards

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In this study, a waste-to-energy combined heat and power plant under construction was modelled and simulated with the Aspen Plus software. The base case process plant was evaluated and compared when integrated with flue gas condensation (FGC) in order to find out the impact of the exergy efficiency and economic feasibility as well as the effect of overall system exergy losses and revenue generated in the investigated plant. The economic evaluations were carried out using the vendor cost data from Aspen process economic analyser. The results indicate that 4 % increase in the exergy efficiency and 29 % reduction in the exergy loss in the flue gas were obtained when the flue gas condensation was incorporated. Furthermore, with the integrated FGC, the net present values (NPV) and income generated in the base process plant were increased by 29 % and 10 % respectively after 20 years of operation.

Keywords: economic feasibility, exergy efficiency, exergy losses, flue gas condensation, waste-to-energy

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94 Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediments of Sta. Maria River, Laguna

Authors: Francis Angelo A. Sta. Ana

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Heavy metal pollutants are a major environmental concern in built-up areas in the Philippines. It causes negative effects on aquatic organisms and human health. Heavy metals concentrations of chromium, mercury, lead, copper, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, and nickel were investigated in Sta. Maria river, in Laguna. A total of 16 sediment samples were collected from the river at four stations. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used for element detection. It is found that copper is associated with chromium based on statistical analysis using principal component analysis (PCA). Conduct of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) revealed that chromium has high toxicity due to values higher than Sediment Quality Guidelines Probable Effect Level (SQG’s PEL). Copper, Nickel, and Pb fall on average toxicity while others are below PEL and effect range low (ERL).

Keywords: heavy metals, pollutants, sediment quality guidelines, atomic absorption spectroscopy

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93 From Manipulation to Citizen Control: A Case Study Revealing the Level of Participation in the Citizen Participatory Audit

Authors: Mark Jason E. Arca, Jay Vee R. Linatoc, Rex Francis N. Lupango, Michael Joe A. Ramirez

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Participation promises an avenue for citizens to take part in governance, but it does not necessarily mean effective participation. The proper integration of participants in the decision-making process should be properly addressed to ensure effectiveness. This study explores the integration of the participants in the decision-making process to reveal the level of participation in the Solid Waste Management audit done by the Citizen Participatory Audit (CPA), a program under the supervision of the Commission on Audit. Specifically, this study will use the experience of participation to identify emerging themes that will help reveal the level of participation through the integrated ladder of participation. The researchers used key informant interviews to gather necessary data from the actors of the program. The findings revealed that the level of participation present in the CPA is at the Placation level, a level below the program’s targeted level of participation. The study also allowed the researchers to reveal facilitating factors in the program that contributed to a better understanding of the practice of participation.

Keywords: citizen participation, culture of participation, ladder of participation, level of participation

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92 A Refrigerated Condition for the Storage of Glucose Test Strips at Health Promoting Hospitals: An Implication for Hospitals with Limited Air Conditioners

Authors: Wanutchaya Duanginta, Napaporn Apiratmateekul, Tippawan Sangkaew, Sunaree Wekinhirun, Kunchit Kongros, Wanvisa Treebuphachatsakul

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Thailand has a tropical climate with an average outdoor ambient air temperature of over 30°C, which can exceed manufacturer recommendations for the storage of glucose test strips. This study monitored temperature and humidity at actual sites of five sub-district health promoting hospitals (HPH) in Phitsanulok Province for the storage of glucose test strips in refrigerated conditions. Five calibrated data loggers were placed at the actual sites for glucose test strip storage at five HPHs for 8 weeks between April and June. For the stress test, two lot numbers of glucose test strips, each with two glucose meters, were kept in a plastic box with desiccants and placed in a refrigerator with the temperature calibrated to 4°C and at room temperature (RT). Temperature and humidity in the refrigerator and at RT were measured every hour for 30 days. The mean temperature for storing test strips at the five HPHs ranged from 29°C to 33°C, and three of the five HPHs (60%) had a mean temperature above 30°C. The refrigerator temperatures were 3.8 ± 2.0°C (2.0°C to 6.5°C), and relative humidity was 51 ± 2% (42 to 54%). The maximum of blood glucose testing by glucose meters when the test strips were stored in a refrigerator were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from unstressed test strips for both glucose meters using amperometry-GDH-PQQ and amperometry-GDH-FAD principles. Opening the test strip vial daily resulted in higher variation than when refrigerated after a single-use. However, the variations were still within an acceptable range. This study concludes that glucose tested strips can be stored in plastic boxes in a refrigerator if it is well-controlled for temperature and humidity. Storage of glucose-tested strips in the refrigerator during hot and humid weather may be useful for HPHs with limited air conditioners.

Keywords: environmental stressed test, thermal stressed test, quality control, point-of-care testing

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91 Line Heating Forming: Methodology and Application Using Kriging and Fifth Order Spline Formulations

Authors: Henri Champliaud, Zhengkun Feng, Ngan Van Lê, Javad Gholipour

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In this article, a method is presented to effectively estimate the deformed shape of a thick plate due to line heating. The method uses a fifth order spline interpolation, with up to C3 continuity at specific points to compute the shape of the deformed geometry. First and second order derivatives over a surface are the resulting parameters of a given heating line on a plate. These parameters are determined through experiments and/or finite element simulations. Very accurate kriging models are fitted to real or virtual surfaces to build-up a database of maps. Maps of first and second order derivatives are then applied on numerical plate models to evaluate their evolving shapes through a sequence of heating lines. Adding an optimization process to this approach would allow determining the trajectories of heating lines needed to shape complex geometries, such as Francis turbine blades.

Keywords: deformation, kriging, fifth order spline interpolation, first, second and third order derivatives, C3 continuity, line heating, plate forming, thermal forming

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90 The Use of Mobile Applications for Language Learning in 21st-Century Teacher Education for Sustainable Development in Africa

Authors: Carol C. Opara, Olukemi E. Adetuyi-Olu-Francis

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The need for ICT in Teacher Education due to the nature of 21st-century learners who are computer citizens is essential. The recent increase in the use of Mobile phones has equally revealed the importance of Mobile Applications for learning purposes. However, teacher-trainees and the trainers need to be well-grounded in basic ICT skills for an appropriate outcome. This study seeks to assess the use of Mobile Applications for language learning in Teacher Education teaching-learning process. A 22-item e-questionnaire was used to elicit information from teacher-trainers and teachers-trainees from Faculties of Education in Nigerian Universities. Major findings of this study include: That teacher-education sector is not adequately prepared for manipulative use of ICT and Mobile Applications for teaching and learning process; etc. It was recommended among others that, teacher-trainers should be trained and re-trained on the manipulative use of Mobile devices and the several applications for teaching-learning purpose, especially language education.

Keywords: information and communications technology, ICT, language learning, mobile application, sustainable development, teacher education

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89 The Psychological Impact of Acute Occupational Hand Trauma

Authors: Michelle Roesler, Ian Glendon, Francis O'Callaghan

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This study expands on recent findings and offers a new perspective on recovery from injury and return to work (RTW) after an acute traumatic occupational hand injury. Recovery is a complex medical and psychosocial process. A number of predictor variables were studied simultaneously to identify the bio-psychosocial variables that impede recovery. An unexpected phenomenon to emerge from this study was the high incidence of complications within the hand-injured patient sample. Twenty six percent (n = 71) of the total sample (N = 263) required a second operation due to complications. This warranted further investigation. Results confirmed that complications not only significantly delayed the RTW outcome but also had a profound psychological impact on the individuals affected. Research has found that surgical complications are usually the result of incorrect early assessment and management. A strategic plan needs to be implemented to ensure the optimal level of surgical care is provided for managing acute traumatic hand injuries to avoid such complications.

Keywords: occupational hand trauma, psychological recovery, return to work, psychology

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88 Physicochemical Analysis of Ground Water of Selected Areas of Oji River in Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: C. Akpagu Francis, V. Nnamani Emmanuel

Abstract:

Drinking and use of polluted water from ponds, rivers, lakes, etc. for other domestic activities especially by the larger population in the rural areas has been a major source of health problems to man. A study was carried out in two different ponds in Oji River, Enugu State of Nigeria to determine the extent of total dissolved solid (TDS), metals (lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, manganese, calcium), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Samples of water were collected from two different ponds at a distance of 510, and 15 metres from the point of entry into the ponds to fetch water. From the results obtained, TDS (751.6Mg/l), turbidity (24ftu), conductivity (1193µs/cm), cadmium (0.008Mg/l) and lead (0.03mg/t) in pond A (PA) were found to have exceeded the WHO standard. Also in pond B (PB) the results shows that TDS (760.30Mg/l), turbidity (26ftu), conductivity (1195µs/cm), cadmium (0.008mg/l) and lead (0.03Mg/l) were also found to have exceeded the WHO standard which makes the two ponds. Water very unsafe for drinking and use in other domestic activities.

Keywords: physicochemical, groundwater, Oji River, Nigeria

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87 Financial Statement Fraud: The Need for a Paradigm Shift to Forensic Accounting

Authors: Ifedapo Francis Awolowo

Abstract:

The unrelenting series of embarrassing audit failures should stimulate a paradigm shift in accounting. And in this age of information revolution, there is need for a constant improvement on the products or services one offers to the market in order to be relevant. This study explores the perceptions of external auditors, forensic accountants and accounting academics on whether a paradigm shift to forensic accounting can reduce financial statement frauds. Through Neo-empiricism/inductive analytical approach, findings reveal that a paradigm shift to forensic accounting might be the right step in the right direction in order to increase the chances of fraud prevention and detection in the financial statement. This research has implication on accounting education on the need to incorporate forensic accounting into present day accounting curriculum. Accounting professional bodies, accounting standard setters and accounting firms all have roles to play in incorporating forensic accounting education into accounting curriculum. Particularly, there is need to alter the ISA 240 to make the prevention and detection of frauds the responsibilities of bot those charged with the management and governance of companies and statutory auditors.

Keywords: financial statement fraud, forensic accounting, fraud prevention and detection, auditing, audit expectation gap, corporate governance

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86 RFID Laptop Monitoring and Management System

Authors: Francis E. Idachaba, Sarah Uyimeh Tommy

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of an RFID laptop monitoring and management system. Laptops embedded with RFID chips are monitored and tracked to provide a monitoring system for the purpose of tracking as well as monitoring movement of the laptops in and out of a building. The proposed system is implemented with both hardware and software components. The hardware architecture consists of RFID passive tag, RFID module (reader), and a server hosting the application and database. The RFID readers are distributed at major exits of a building or premises. The tags are programmed with owner laptop details are concealed in the laptops. The software architecture consists of application software that has the APIs (Applications Programming Interface) necessary to interface the RFID system with the PC, to achieve automated laptop monitoring system. A friendly graphic user interface (GUI) and a database that saves all readings and owners details. The system is capable of reducing laptop theft especially in students’ hostels as laptops can be monitored as they are taken either in or out of the building.

Keywords: asset tracking, GUI, laptop monitoring, radio frequency identification, passive tags

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85 Semantic Based Analysis in Complaint Management System with Analytics

Authors: Francis Alterado, Jennifer Enriquez

Abstract:

Semantic Based Analysis in Complaint Management System with Analytics is an enhanced tool of providing complaints by the clients as well as a mechanism for Palawan Polytechnic College to gather, process, and monitor status of these complaints. The study has a mobile application that serves as a remote facility of communication between the students and the school management on the issues encountered by the student and the solution of every complaint received. In processing the complaints, text mining and clustering algorithms were utilized. Every module of the systems was tested and based on the results; these are 100% free from error before integration was done. A system testing was also done by checking the expected functionality of the system which was 100% functional. The system was tested by 10 students by forwarding complaints to 10 departments. Based on results, the students were able to submit complaints, the system was able to process accordingly by identifying to which department the complaints are intended, and the concerned department was able to give feedback on the complaint received to the student. With this, the system gained 4.7 rating which means Excellent.

Keywords: technology adoption, emerging technology, issues challenges, algorithm, text mining, mobile technology

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84 Social Anxiety, Parental Criticism and the Mediating Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas

Authors: Tahmeena Ali, Andrew Francis, Keong Yap, Sharynn Schuster

Abstract:

Social anxiety is a chronic and debilitating condition characterized by fear and avoidance of social situations. Several risk factors have emerged, which emphasize the role of early childhood experiences in the development of this condition. As such, the current study tested the hypothesis that early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) mediate the relationship between retrospectively reported parental criticism and social anxiety whilst controlling the effects of depression. Three hundred and thirty-four non-clinical participants completed an online questionnaire consisting of self-report measures of parental criticism, EMSs of disconnection and rejection, and symptoms of social anxiety and depression. The mediation analysis confirmed the hypothesized model, indicating that EMSs mediated the relationship between parental criticism and social anxiety symptoms when controlling for depression. Whilst the current study is limited due to its cross-sectional design, the findings lend support to the developmental formulations of social anxiety and have important therapeutic implications for treatment.

Keywords: early maladaptive schema, parental criticism, schema, social anxiety

Procedia PDF Downloads 208