Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 962

Search results for: slow-released formulation

962 Finite Element Approximation of the Heat Equation under Axisymmetry Assumption

Authors: Raphael Zanella


This works deals with the finite element approximation of axisymmetric problems. The weak formulation of the heat equation under the axisymmetry assumption is established for continuous finite elements. The weak formulation is implemented in a C++ solver with implicit march-in-time. The code is verified by space and time convergence tests using a manufactured solution. The solving of an example problem with an axisymmetric formulation is compared to that with a full-3D formulation. Both formulations lead to the same result, but the code based on the axisymmetric formulation is much faster due to the lower number of degrees of freedom. This confirms the correctness of our approach and the interest in using an axisymmetric formulation when it is possible.

Keywords: axisymmetric problem, continuous finite elements, heat equation, weak formulation

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961 Evaluation of the Nutritional Potential of a Developed Spice Formulation for nah poh (An Emulsion-Based Gravy): Physicochemical and Techno-Functional Characterisations

Authors: Djiazet Stève, Mezajoug Kenfack Laurette Blandine, Ravi Pullakhandam, Bethala L. A. Prabhavathi Devi, Tchiegang Clergé, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty


The nutritional potential of a developed spice formulation for nah poh was evaluated. It was found that when spices were used for the formulation for nah poh, the concentration of some nutrients is diluted while that of some of them increases. The proportion of unsaturated fats was estimated to be 76.2% of the total fat content while the chemical score varied between 31 to 39%. The contents of some essential minerals of nutritional interest in mg are as follows for 100g of spice: 2372.474 ± 0.007 for potassium, 16.447 ± 0.010 for iron, 4.772 ± 0.005 for zinc, 0.537 ± 0.001 for cupper, 0.138 ± 0.005 for selenium, and 112.954 ± 0.003 for manganese. This study shows that the consumption of these spices in the form of formulation significantly contributes to meet the mineral requirements of the populations whose food habits regularly require these spices.

Keywords: spice formulation, characterisation, nutritional potential, nah poh, techno functional properties

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960 Multiobjective Optimization of a Pharmaceutical Formulation Using Regression Method

Authors: J. Satya Eswari, Ch. Venkateswarlu


The formulation of a commercial pharmaceutical product involves several composition factors and response characteristics. When the formulation requires to satisfy multiple response characteristics which are conflicting, an optimal solution requires the need for an efficient multiobjective optimization technique. In this work, a regression is combined with a non-dominated sorting differential evolution (NSDE) involving Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques to derive different multiobjective optimization strategies, which are then evaluated by means of a trapidil pharmaceutical formulation. The analysis of the results show the effectiveness of the strategy that combines the regression model and NSDE with the integration of both Naïve & Slow and ε constraint techniques for Pareto optimization of trapidil formulation. With this strategy, the optimal formulation at pH=6.8 is obtained with the decision variables of micro crystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and compression pressure. The corresponding response characteristics of rate constant and release order are also noted down. The comparison of these results with the experimental data and with those of other multiple regression model based multiobjective evolutionary optimization strategies signify the better performance for optimal trapidil formulation.

Keywords: pharmaceutical formulation, multiple regression model, response surface method, radial basis function network, differential evolution, multiobjective optimization

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959 Design, Development and Evaluation of Ketoconazole Loaded Nanosponges in Hydrogel for the Management of Topical Fungal Infections

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani


This work aims at investigating the use of β-Cyclodextrin as a cross linker, in an attempt to formulate nanosponges containing ketoconazole. The nanosponges were prepared by cross-linking method. The excipients used in this study did not alter the physicochemical properties of a drug as revealed by FTIR spectroscopy. Studies on various formulation variables revealed that all the variables are inter-related with the formulation. The ideal batch among the formulation was selected based on the higher entrapment efficiency and drug loading. The in vitro release studies of ketoconazole nanosponges in hydrogel exhibited a sustained release over a period of 24 hours. Mathematical analysis of drug release from the formulation followed non-Fickian diffusion obeying first order kinetics. The anti-fungal activity of the formulation exhibited better zone of inhibition when compared to pure drug (ketoconazole) against Tinea corporis.

Keywords: nanosponges, beta-cyclodextrin, ketoconazole, tinea corporis

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958 Stochastic Programming and C-Somga: Animal Ration Formulation

Authors: Pratiksha Saxena, Dipti Singh, Neha Khanna


A self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm(C-SOMGA) is developed for animal diet formulation. This paper presents animal diet formulation using stochastic and genetic algorithm. Tri-objective models for cost minimization and shelf life maximization are developed. These objectives are achieved by combination of stochastic programming and C-SOMGA. Stochastic programming is used to introduce nutrient variability for animal diet. Self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm provides exact and quick solution and presents an innovative approach towards successful application of soft computing technique in the area of animal diet formulation.

Keywords: animal feed ration, feed formulation, linear programming, stochastic programming, self-migrating genetic algorithm, C-SOMGA technique, shelf life maximization, cost minimization, nutrient maximization

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957 Formulation Development and Evaluation Chlorpheniramine Maleate Containing Nanoparticles Loaded Thermo Sensitive in situ Gel for Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis

Authors: Vipin Saini, Manish Kumar, Shailendra Bhatt, A. Pandurangan


The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermo sensitive gel containing Chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of allergic rhinitis. Chitosan based nanoparticles were prepared by precipitation method followed by the addition of developed NPs within the Poloxamer 407 and carbopol 934P based mucoadhesive thermo-reversible gel. Developed formulations were evaluated for Particle size, PDI, % entrapment efficiency and % cumulative drug permeation. NP3 formulation was found to be optimized on the basis of minimum particle size (143.9 nm), maximum entrapment efficiency (80.10±0.414 %) and highest drug permeation (90.92±0.531 %). The optimized formulation NP3 was then formulated into thermo reversible in situ gel. This intensifies the contact between nasal mucosa and the drug, increases and facilitates the drug absorption which results in increased bioavailability. G4 formulation was selected as the optimize on the basis of gelation ability and mucoadhesive strength. Histology was carried out to examine the damage caused by the optimized G4 formulation. Results revealed no visual signs of tissue damage thus indicated safe nasal delivery of nanoparticulate in situ gel formulation G4. Thus, intranasal CPM NP-loaded in situ gel was found to be a promising formulation for the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

Keywords: chitosan, nanoparticles, in situ gel, chlorpheniramine maleate, poloxamer 407

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956 In-Vivo Study of Annacardium occidentale L. Emulgel Extract Using Non-Invasive Probes

Authors: Akhtar Naveed, Kanwal Shahla, Khan HMS, Rasool Fatima, Ijaz Shakeel


The focus of the study was to design, develop and characterize in vivo, a stable Emulgel formulation containing Anacardium occidentale L.(cashew extract) as an active ingredient. The formulation was prepared and kept at 8ºC, 25 ºC, 40ºC and 40ºC±RH for a period of 28 days. During this time period, stability, pH values, conductivity, organoleptic features (color, liquefaction, phase separation) were conducted at the intervals of day 1st, 2nd, 3rd , 7th, 14th and 28th days. In In vivo studies, the test formulation (5% Anacardium occidentale L, extract) and a base formulation (without cashew extract) were prepared and both were applied on cheek areas of healthy human female volunteers, after the skin sensitivity test of each volunteer, for a study period of 8 weeks after getting consent from them. Various parameters of skin like Melanin level, Erythema level, and skin elasticity were measured at regular time intervals. Results of the study were analyzed by statistical techniques i.e. Two Way ANOVA and paired sample t-test. The result showed significant results as the p ≤ 0.05. Findings of paired sample t-test explained that test formulation have profound effects on skin parameters when compared with control formulation.

Keywords: Anacardium occientale L., anti-oxidant, cashew nut, emulgel

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955 A Consensus Approach to the Formulation of a School ICT Policy: A Q-Methodology Case Study

Authors: Thiru Vandeyar


This study sets out to explore how teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influence a consensus approach to the formulation of a school ICT policy. This case study proposes Q- methodology as an innovative method to facilitate a school’s capacity to develop policy reflecting teacher beliefs and attitudes. Q-methodology is used as a constructivist approach to the formulation of an ICT policy. Data capture was a mix of Q-methodology and qualitative principles. Data was analyzed by means of document, content and cluster analysis methods. Findings were threefold: First, teachers’ beliefs and attitudes about ICT policy influenced a consensus approach by including teachers as policy decision-makers. Second, given the opportunity, teachers have the inherent ability to deconstruct and critically engage with policy statements according to their own professional beliefs and attitudes. And third, an inclusive approach to policy formulation may inform the practice of school leaders and policymakers alike on how schools may develop their own policy.

Keywords: ICT, policy, teacher beliefs, consensus

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954 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir


Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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953 Insecticidal Activity of Piper aduncum Fruit and Tephrosia vogelii Leaf Mixed Formulations against Cabbage Pest Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Eka Candra Lina, Indah Widhianingrum, Mita Eka Putri, Nur Afni Evalia, Muhammad Makky


The emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and wettable powder (WP) of Piper aduncum and Tephrosia vogelii mixed formulations were tested for their activities in the laboratory and their effectiveness in the field against cabbage pest Plutella xyostella. Cabbage leaves soaked in six different mixed formulation concentrations were tested to 2ⁿᵈ instar larvae of P. xylostella with six replications. The observation was conducted everyday until larvae reached 4ᵗʰ instar stage. Correlation between concentration and larvae mortality was analyzed using probit (POLO-PC). The survived larvae was observed by looking at the growth and development, as well as the antifeedant effects. Field efficacy test was based on LC₉₅ value from laboratory test result. The experiment used a randomized block design with 5 treatments and 3 replications to test the populations of P. xylostella larvae and insecticide effectivity. The results showed that the EC and WP mixed formulations showed insecticidal activity against P. xylostella larvae, with LC₉₅ value of 0.35% and 0.37%, respectively. The highest antifeedant effect on EC mixed formulation was 85.01% and WP mixed formulation was 86.23%. Both mixed formulations also slowed the development of larvae when compared with control. Field effication result showed that applications of EC mixed formulation were able to restrain the population of P. xylostella, with effectivity value of 71.06%. Insecticide effectivity value of EC mixed formulation was higher than WP mixed formulation and Bacillus thuringiensis formulation.

Keywords: botanical insecticide, efficacy, emulsifiable concentrate (EC), Plutella xylostella, wettable powder (WP)

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952 Material Failure Process Simulation by Improved Finite Elements with Embedded Discontinuities

Authors: Gelacio Juárez-Luna, Gustavo Ayala, Jaime Retama-Velasco


This paper shows the advantages of the material failure process simulation by improve finite elements with embedded discontinuities, using a new definition of traction vector, dependent on the discontinuity length and the angle. Particularly, two families of this kind of elements are compared: kinematically optimal symmetric and statically and kinematically optimal non-symmetric. The constitutive model to describe the behavior of the material in the symmetric formulation is a traction-displacement jump relationship equipped with softening after reaching the failure surface. To show the validity of this symmetric formulation, representative numerical examples illustrating the performance of the proposed formulation are presented. It is shown that the non-symmetric family may over or underestimate the energy required to create a discontinuity, as this effect is related with the total length of the discontinuity, fact that is not noticed when the discontinuity path is a straight line.

Keywords: variational formulation, strong discontinuity, embedded discontinuities, strain localization

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951 Development, Optimization and Characterization of Gastroretentive Multiparticulate Drug Delivery System

Authors: Swapnila V. Vanshiv, Hemant P. Joshi, Atul B. Aware


Current study illustrates the formulation of floating microspheres for purpose of gastroretention of Dipyridamole which shows pH dependent solubility, with the highest solubility in acidic pH. The formulation involved hollow microsphere preparation by using solvent evaporation technique. Concentrations of rate controlling polymer, hydrophilic polymer, internal phase ratio, stirring speed were optimized to get desired responses, namely release of Dipyridamole, buoyancy of microspheres, entrapment efficiency of microspheres. In the formulation, the floating microspheres were prepared by using ethyl cellulose as release retardant and HPMC as a low density hydrophilic swellable polymer. Formulated microspheres were evaluated for their physical properties such as particle size and surface morphology by optical microscopy and SEM. Entrapment efficiency, floating behavior and drug release study as well the formulation was evaluated for in vivo gastroretention in rabbits using gamma scintigraphy. Formulation showed 75% drug release up to 10 hr with entrapment efficiency of 91% and 88% buoyancy till 10 hr. Gamma scintigraphic studies revealed that the optimized system was retained in the gastric region (stomach) for a prolonged period i.e. more than 5 hr.

Keywords: Dipyridamole microspheres, gastroretention, HPMC, optimization method

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950 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit


Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

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949 Postbuckling Analysis of End Supported Rods under Self-Weight Using Intrinsic Coordinate Finite Elements

Authors: C. Juntarasaid, T. Pulngern, S. Chucheepsakul


A formulation of postbuckling analysis of end supported rods under self-weight has been presented by the variational method. The variational formulation involving the strain energy due to bending and the potential energy of the self-weight, are expressed in terms of the intrinsic coordinates. The variational formulation is accomplished by introducing the Lagrange multiplier technique to impose the boundary conditions. The finite element method is used to derive a system of nonlinear equations resulting from the stationary of the total potential energy and then Newton-Raphson iterative procedure is applied to solve this system of equations. The numerical results demonstrate the postbluckled configurations of end supported rods under self-weight. This finite element method based on variational formulation expressed in term of intrinsic coordinate is highly recommended for postbuckling analysis of end-supported rods under self-weight.

Keywords: postbuckling, finite element method, variational method, intrinsic coordinate

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948 Formulation of Extended-Release Ranolazine Tablet and Investigation Its Stability in the Accelerated Stability Condition at 40⁰C and 75% Humidity

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani


Formulation of Ranolazine in the form of extended-release tablet in 500 mg dosage form was performed using Eudragit L100-55 as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with the reference Ranexa extended-release 500 mg tablet. F₂ and f₁ were calculated as 64.16 and 8.53, respectively. According to Peppas equation, the release of drug is controlled by diffusion (n=0.5). The tablets were put into accelerated stability conditions (40 °C, 75% humidity) for 3 and 6 months. The dissolution release profiles and other physical and chemical characteristics of the tablets confirmed the robustness and stability of formulation in this condition.

Keywords: drug release, extended-release tablet, ranolazine, stability

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947 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq


Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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946 Hyperelastic Formulation for Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Daniel O'Shea, Mario M. Attard, David C. Kellermann


In this paper, we propose a hyperelastic strain energy function that maps isotopic hyperelastic constitutive laws for the use of orthotropic materials without the use of structural tensors or any kind of fiber vector, or the use of standard invariants. In particular, we focus on neo-Hookean class of models and represent them using an invariant-free formulation. To achieve this, we revise the invariant-free formulation of isotropic hyperelasticity. The formulation uses quadruple contractions between fourth-order tensors, rather than scalar products of scalar invariants. We also propose a new decomposition of the orthotropic Hookean stiffness tensor into two fourth-order Lamé tensors that collapse down to the classic Lamé parameters for isotropic continua. The resulting orthotropic hyperelastic model naturally maintains all of the advanced properties of the isotropic counterparts, and similarly collapse back down to their isotropic form by nothing more than equality of parameters in all directions (isotropy). Comparisons are made with large strain experimental results for transversely isotropic rubber type materials under tension.

Keywords: finite strain, hyperelastic, invariants, orthotropic

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945 The Strategic Formulation of Competitive Advantage on Private Higher Education Institution Using Participatory Prospective Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Sulfarano Barusman


Research for the strategic formulation of competitive advantage development on Indonesian Private Higher Education Institutions (IPHEI) is mostly done using positivistic paradigm by means of analytical thinking. This study emphasized of the participatory paradigm by using synthesis as a way of thinking in order to achieve its goal. The purposes of this study are to: 1) build future scenario of the external environmental dynamics that will be encountered by IPHEI, 2) formulate a strategy that can be implemented by IPHEI through developing the organization's competitive advantage in the future. The used research methodology is Participatory Prospective Analysis (PPA). The results showed that the future scenario of external environmental conditions that will be encountered by IPHEI in the future can be described in three conditions, namely: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic scenarios. The strategic formulation from the research results is based on four internal factors as its foundation (the effectiveness of leadership, the availability of funds and financing, the effectiveness of human resource management strategy, and the relevance of curriculum). A set of resulted strategic formulation is knowledge of the experts that needed to be followed up wisely so that their use can be optimized for the development of IPHE organizational competitive advantage in the future.

Keywords: competitive advantage, participatory prospective analysis, PPA, private higher education institutions, PHEI, strategic formulation

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944 Energy Management System

Authors: S. Periyadharshini, K. Ramkumar, S. Jayalalitha, M. GuruPrasath, R. Manikandan


This paper presents a formulation and solution for industrial load management and product grade problem. The formulation is created using linear programming technique thereby optimizing the electricity cost by scheduling the loads satisfying the process, storage, time zone and production constraints which will create an impact of reducing maximum demand and thereby reducing the electricity cost. Product grade problem is formulated using integer linear programming technique of optimization using lingo software and the results show that overall increase in profit margin. In this paper, time of use tariff is utilized and this technique will provide significant reductions in peak electricity consumption.

Keywords: cement industries, integer programming, optimal formulation, objective function, constraints

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943 Novel Wound Healing Biodegradable Patch of Bioactive

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari


The present research was aimed to develop a biodegradable dermal patch formulation for wound healing in a novel, sustained and systematic manner. The goal is to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and thereby enhance therapeutic performance. In present study optimized formulation was designed using component polymers and excipients (e.g. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity and strength. Gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in suitable medium was mixed with stirring to gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added in optimized ratio to get homogeneous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12 h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2 > 0.9. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: biodegradable, patch, bioactive, polymer

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942 Applied Mathematical Approach on “Baut” Special High Performance Metal Aggregate by Formulation and Equations

Authors: J. R. Bhalla, Gautam, Gurcharan Singh, Sanjeev Naval


Mathematics is everywhere behind the every things on the earth as well as in the universe. Predynastic Egyptians of the 5th millennium BC pictorially represented geometric designs. Now a day’s we can made and apply an equation on a complex geometry through applied mathematics. Here we work and focus on to create a formula which apply in the field of civil engineering in new concrete technology. In this paper our target is to make a formula which is applied on “BAUT” Metal Aggregate. In this paper our approach is to make formulation and equation on special “BAUT” Metal Aggregate by Applied Mathematical Study Case 1. BASIC PHYSICAL FORMULATION 2. ADVANCE EQUATION which shows the mechanical performance of special metal aggregates for concrete technology. In case 1. Basic physical formulation shows the surface area and volume manually and in case 2. Advance equation shows the mechanical performance has been discussed, the metal aggregates which had outstandingly qualities to resist shear, tension and compression forces. In this paper coarse metal aggregates is 20 mm which used for making high performance concrete (H.P.C).

Keywords: applied mathematical study case, special metal aggregates, concrete technology, basic physical formulation, advance equation

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941 Mothwash Formulation of Moringa Leaf (Moringa Oleifera) and Its Activity as an Antibacterial for Streptococcus Mutans

Authors: Amalia Dwi Berliyanti Amel


Streptococcus mutants bacteria are bacteria that are believed to be the cause of the growth of dental plaque which can further adversely affect dental caries if left unchecked. Previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract can slow down the growth rate of this bacterium. This study aims to make the best formulation of mouthwash with the active ingredient of Moringa leaf extract based on its antibacterial and organoleptic test results. Nine mouthwash variations were carried out with two factors and three levels, namely a comparison of the concentration of sorbitol (A) with three levels namely 15% (A1), 20% (A2), and 25% (A3), and peppermint added (B) with three levels, namely 0.2% (B1), 0.25% (B2), and 0.3% (B3). The test parameters performed as the determination of the best mouthwash are based on physicochemical properties which include pH and viscosity as well as organoleptic test results which include color, viscosity, aroma, taste, sensation in the mouth, and general appearance. The results showed that the bright zone as a test for the antibacterial activity of Streptococcus mutants began to be seen at a concentration of 5%. Moringa leaf mouthwash formulation has a pH value between 6 - 7, with a control of 6. Whereas the mucosa leaf mouthwash vascularity produced between 1.1 - 1.7 cP with a control of 1.1 cP. Moringa leaf mouthwash and control have the same total number of microbes, namely 0 colonies / mL. Based on organoleptic tests performed with 20 panelists, it was shown that the best mouthwash formulation was formulation A1B3 with sorbitol composition 15% and peppermint 0.3%.

Keywords: antibasteria, formula, moringa leaf, mouthwash

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940 On the Representation of Actuator Faults Diagnosis and Systems Invertibility

Authors: F. Sallem, B. Dahhou, A. Kamoun


In this work, the main problem considered is the detection and the isolation of the actuator fault. A new formulation of the linear system is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator fault diagnosis. The proposed method is based on the representation of the actuator as a subsystem connected with the process system in cascade manner. The designed formulation is generated to obtain the conditions of the actuator fault detection and isolation. Detectability conditions are expressed in terms of the invertibility notions. An example and a comparative analysis with the classic formulation illustrate the performances of such approach for simple actuator fault diagnosis by using the linear model of nuclear reactor.

Keywords: actuator fault, Fault detection, left invertibility, nuclear reactor, observability, parameter intervals, system inversion

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939 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir


The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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938 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani


Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Gliclazide, hypromellose, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model

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937 Numerical Simulation of Fluid Structure Interaction Using Two-Way Method

Authors: Samira Laidaoui, Mohammed Djermane, Nazihe Terfaya


The fluid-structure coupling is a natural phenomenon which reflects the effects of two continuums: fluid and structure of different types in the reciprocal action on each other, involving knowledge of elasticity and fluid mechanics. The solution for such problems is based on the relations of continuum mechanics and is mostly solved with numerical methods. It is a computational challenge to solve such problems because of the complex geometries, intricate physics of fluids, and complicated fluid-structure interactions. The way in which the interaction between fluid and solid is described gives the largest opportunity for reducing the computational effort. In this paper, a problem of fluid structure interaction is investigated with two-way coupling method. The formulation Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) was used, by considering a dynamic grid, where the solid is described by a Lagrangian formulation and the fluid by a Eulerian formulation. The simulation was made on the ANSYS software.

Keywords: ALE, coupling, FEM, fluid-structure, interaction, one-way method, two-way method

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936 Polymer Recycling by Biomaterial and Its Application in Grease Formulation

Authors: Amitkumar Barot, Vijaykumar Sinha


There is growing interest in the development of new materials based on recycled polymers from plastic waste, and also in the field of lubricants much effort has been spent on substitution of petro-based raw materials by natural-based renewable ones. This is due to the facts of depleting fossil fuels and due to strict environmental laws. In relevance to this, new technique for the formulation of grease that combines the chemical recycling of poly (ethylene terephthalate) PET with the use of castor oil (CO) has been developed. Comparison to diols used in chemical recycling of PET, castor oil is renewable, easily available, environmentally friendly, economically cheaper and hence sustainability indeed. The process parameters like CO concentration and temperature were altered, and further, the influences of the process parameters have been studied in order to establish technically and commercially viable process. Further thereby formed depolymerized product find an application as base oil in the formulation of grease. A depolymerized product has been characterized by various chemical and instrumental methods, while formulated greases have been evaluated for its tribological properties. The grease formulated using this new environmentally friendly approach presents applicative properties similar, and in some cases superior, compared to those of a commercial grease obtained from non-renewable resources.

Keywords: castor oil, grease formulation, recycling, sustainability

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935 Acceleration of Lagrangian and Eulerian Flow Solvers via Graphics Processing Units

Authors: Pooya Niksiar, Ali Ashrafizadeh, Mehrzad Shams, Amir Hossein Madani


There are many computationally demanding applications in science and engineering which need efficient algorithms implemented on high performance computers. Recently, Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) have drawn much attention as compared to the traditional CPU-based hardware and have opened up new improvement venues in scientific computing. One particular application area is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), in which mature CPU-based codes need to be converted to GPU-based algorithms to take advantage of this new technology. In this paper, numerical solutions of two classes of discrete fluid flow models via both CPU and GPU are discussed and compared. Test problems include an Eulerian model of a two-dimensional incompressible laminar flow case and a Lagrangian model of a two phase flow field. The CUDA programming standard is used to employ an NVIDIA GPU with 480 cores and a C++ serial code is run on a single core Intel quad-core CPU. Up to two orders of magnitude speed up is observed on GPU for a certain range of grid resolution or particle numbers. As expected, Lagrangian formulation is better suited for parallel computations on GPU although Eulerian formulation represents significant speed up too.

Keywords: CFD, Eulerian formulation, graphics processing units, Lagrangian formulation

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934 Development and Validation Method for Quantitative Determination of Rifampicin in Human Plasma and Its Application in Bioequivalence Test

Authors: Endang Lukitaningsih, Fathul Jannah, Arief R. Hakim, Ratna D. Puspita, Zullies Ikawati


Rifampicin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derivative of rifamycin B produced by Streptomyces mediterranei. RIF has been used worldwide as first line drug-prescribed throughout tuberculosis therapy. This study aims to develop and to validate an HPLC method couple with a UV detection for determination of rifampicin in spiked human plasma and its application for bioequivalence study. The chromatographic separation was achieved on an RP-C18 column (LachromHitachi, 250 x 4.6 mm., 5μm), utilizing a mobile phase of phosphate buffer/acetonitrile (55:45, v/v, pH 6.8 ± 0.1) at a flow of 1.5 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 337 nm by using spectrophotometer. The developed method was statistically validated for the linearity, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precise and specifity. The specifity of the method was ascertained by comparing chromatograms of blank plasma and plasma containing rifampicin; the matrix and rifampicin were well separated. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.7 µg/mL and 2.3 µg/mL, respectively. The regression curve of standard was linear (r > 0.999) over a range concentration of 20.0 – 100.0 µg/mL. The mean recovery of the method was 96.68 ± 8.06 %. Both intraday and interday precision data showed reproducibility (R.S.D. 2.98% and 1.13 %, respectively). Therefore, the method can be used for routine analysis of rifampicin in human plasma and in bioequivalence study. The validated method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence study of rifampicin tablet in a limited number of subjects (under an Ethical Clearance No. KE/FK/6201/EC/2015). The mean values of Cmax, Tmax, AUC(0-24) and AUC(o-∞) for the test formulation of rifampicin were 5.81 ± 0.88 µg/mL, 1.25 hour, 29.16 ± 4.05 µg/mL. h. and 29.41 ± 4.07 µg/mL. h., respectively. Meanwhile for the reference formulation, the values were 5.04 ± 0.54 µg/mL, 1.31 hour, 27.20 ± 3.98 µg/mL.h. and 27.49 ± 4.01 µg/mL.h. From bioequivalence study, the 90% CIs for the test formulation/reference formulation ratio for the logarithmic transformations of Cmax and AUC(0-24) were 97.96-129.48% and 99.13-120.02%, respectively. According to the bioequivamence test guidelines of the European Commission-European Medicines Agency, it can be concluded that the test formulation of rifampicin is bioequivalence with the reference formulation.

Keywords: validation, HPLC, plasma, bioequivalence

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933 Mechanisms and Process of an Effective Public Policy Formulation in Islamic Economic System

Authors: Md Abu Saieed


Crafting and implementing public policy is one of the indispensable works in any form of state and government. But the policy objectives, methods of formulation and tools of implementation might be different based on the ideological nature, historical legacy, structure and capacity of administration and management and other push and factors. Public policy in Islamic economic system needs to be based on the key guidelines of divine scriptures along with other sources of sharia’h. As a representative of Allah (SWT), the governor and other apparatus of the state will formulate and implement public policies which will enable to establish a true welfare state based on justice, equity and equality. The whole life of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and his policy in operating state of affairs in Madina is the practical guidelines for the policy actors and professionals in Islamic system of economics. Moreover, policy makers need to be more meticulous in formulating Islamic public policy which meets the needs and demands of contemporary worlds as well.

Keywords: formulation, Islam, public policy, policy factors, Sharia’h

Procedia PDF Downloads 191