Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Arnaud Aubert

26 Nude Cosmetic Water-Rich Compositions for Skin Care and Consumer Emotions

Authors: Emmanuelle Merat, Arnaud Aubert, Sophie Cambos, Francis Vial, Patrick Beau

Abstract:

Basically, consumers are sensitive to many stimuli when applying a cream: brand, packaging and indeed formulation compositions. Many studies demonstrated the influence of some stimuli such as brand, packaging, formula color and odor (e.g. in make-up applications). Those parameters influence perceived quality of the product. The objective of this work is to further investigate the relationship between nude skincare basic compositions with different textures and consumer experience. A tentative final step will be to connect the consumer feelings with key ingredients in the compositions. A new approach was developed to better understand touch-related subjective experience in consumers based on a combination of methods: sensory analysis with ten experts, preference mapping on one hundred female consumers and emotional assessments on thirty consumers (verbal and non-verbal through prosody and gesture monitoring). Finally, a methodology based on ‘sensorial trip’ (after olfactory, haptic and musical stimuli) has been experimented on the most interesting textures with 10 consumers. The results showed more or less impact depending on compositions and also on key ingredients. Three types of formulation particularly attracted the consumer: an aqueous gel, an oil-in-water emulsion, and a patented gel-in-oil formulation type. Regarding these three formulas, the preferences were both revealed through sensory and emotion tests. One was recognized as the most innovative in consumer sensory test whereas the two other formulas were discriminated in emotions evaluation. The positive emotions were highlighted especially in prosody criteria. The non-verbal analysis, which corresponds to the physical parameters of the voice, showed high pitch and amplitude values; linked to positive emotions. Verbatim, verbal content of responses (i.e., ideas, concepts, mental images), confirmed the first conclusion. On the formulas selected for their positive emotions generation, the ‘sensorial trip’ provided complementary information to characterize each emotional profile. In the second step, dedicated to better understand ingredients power, two types of ingredients demonstrated an obvious input on consumer preference: rheology modifiers and emollients. As a conclusion, nude cosmetic compositions with well-chosen textures and ingredients can positively stimulate consumer emotions contributing to capture their preference. For a complete achievement of the study, a global approach (Asia, America territories...) should be developed.

Keywords: sensory, emotion, cosmetic formulations, ingredients' influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
25 Facile Route for the Synthesis of NiO/ZnO Nanocomposite Used in Gas Sensors

Authors: Roussin Lontio Fomekong, John Lambi Ngolui, Arnaud Dercorte

Abstract:

Current years have seen increased interest in the synthesis of p/n metal oxide-based nano composites and their great potential in advanced applications, such as opto electronics, photo catalysis and gas sensors. The superior functional performances of the system combining p-type and n-types semiconducting oxyde in comparison to the corresponding single-phase metal oxides are mainly ascribed to the build-up of an inner electric field at the p/n junction interface.

Keywords: nanocomposite, semiconductors, p-n, heterojunction

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
24 Shock and Particle Velocity Determination from Microwave Interrogation

Authors: Benoit Rougier, Alexandre Lefrancois, Herve Aubert

Abstract:

Microwave interrogation in the range 10-100 GHz is identified as an advanced technique to investigate simultaneously shock and particle velocity measurements. However, it requires the understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation in a multi-layered moving media. The existing models limit their approach to wave guides or evaluate the velocities with a fitting method, restricting therefore the domain of validity and the precision of the results. Moreover, few data of permittivity on high explosives at these frequencies under dynamic compression have been reported. In this paper, shock and particle velocities are computed concurrently for steady and unsteady shocks for various inert and reactive materials, via a propagation model based on Doppler shifts and signal amplitude. Refractive index of the material under compression is also calculated. From experimental data processing, it is demonstrated that Hugoniot curve can be evaluated. The comparison with published results proves the accuracy of the proposed method. This microwave interrogation technique seems promising for shock and detonation waves studies.

Keywords: electromagnetic propagation, experimental setup, Hugoniot measurement, shock propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
23 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans

Abstract:

In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
22 Powering Pacemakers from Heart Pressure Variation with Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

Authors: A. Mathieu, B. Aubry, E. Chhim, M. Jobe, M. Arnaud

Abstract:

Present project consists in a study and a development of piezoelectric devices for supplying power to new generation pacemakers. They are miniaturized leadless implants without battery placed directly in right ventricle. Amongst different acceptable energy sources in cardiac environment, we choose the solution of a device based on conversion of the energy produced by pressure variation inside the heart into electrical energy. The proposed energy harvesters can meet the power requirements of pacemakers, and can be a good solution to solve the problem of regular surgical operation. With further development, proposed device should provide enough energy to allow pacemakers autonomy, and could be good candidate for next pacemaker generation.

Keywords: energy harvester, heart, leadless pacemaker, piezoelectric cells, pressure variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
21 Fast Short-Term Electrical Load Forecasting under High Meteorological Variability with a Multiple Equation Time Series Approach

Authors: Charline David, Alexandre Blondin Massé, Arnaud Zinflou

Abstract:

In 2016, Clements, Hurn, and Li proposed a multiple equation time series approach for short-term load forecasting, reporting an average mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 1.36% on an 11-years dataset for the Queensland region in Australia. We present an adaptation of their model to the electrical power load consumption for the whole Quebec province in Canada. More precisely, we take into account two additional meteorological variables -cloudiness and wind speed- on top of temperature, as well as the use of multiple meteorological measurements taken at different locations on the territory. We also consider other minor improvements. Our final model shows an average MAPE score of 1:79% over an 8-years dataset.

Keywords: short-term load forecasting, special days, time series, multiple equations, parallelization, clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
20 Nonparametric Quantile Regression for Multivariate Spatial Data

Authors: S. H. Arnaud Kanga, O. Hili, S. Dabo-Niang

Abstract:

Spatial prediction is an issue appealing and attracting several fields such as agriculture, environmental sciences, ecology, econometrics, and many others. Although multiple non-parametric prediction methods exist for spatial data, those are based on the conditional expectation. This paper took a different approach by examining a non-parametric spatial predictor of the conditional quantile. The study especially observes the stationary multidimensional spatial process over a rectangular domain. Indeed, the proposed quantile is obtained by inverting the conditional distribution function. Furthermore, the proposed estimator of the conditional distribution function depends on three kernels, where one of them controls the distance between spatial locations, while the other two control the distance between observations. In addition, the almost complete convergence and the convergence in mean order q of the kernel predictor are obtained when the sample considered is alpha-mixing. Such approach of the prediction method gives the advantage of accuracy as it overcomes sensitivity to extreme and outliers values.

Keywords: conditional quantile, kernel, nonparametric, stationary

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
19 Functional Nanomaterials for Environmental Applications

Authors: S. A. M. Sabrina, Gouget Lammel, Anne Chantal, Chazalviel, Jean Noël, Ozanam François, Etcheberry Arnaud, Tighlit Fatma Zohra, B. Samia, Gabouze Noureddine

Abstract:

The elaboration and characterization of hybrid nano materials give rise to considerable interest due to the new properties that arising. They are considered as an important category of new materials having innovative characteristics by combining the specific intrinsic properties of inorganic compounds (semiconductors) with the grafted organic species. This open the way to improved properties and spectacular applications in various and important fields, especially in the environment. In this work, nano materials based-semiconductors were elaborated by chemical route. The obtained surfaces were grafted with organic functional groups. The functionalization process was optimized in order to confer to the hybrid nano material a good stability as well as the right properties required for the subsequent applications. Different characterization techniques were used to investigate the resulting nano structures, such as SEM, UV-Visible, FTIR, Contact angle and electro chemical measurements. Finally, applications were envisaged in environmental area. The elaborated nano structures were tested for the detection and the elimination of pollutants.

Keywords: hybrid materials, porous silicon, peptide, metal detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
18 The Case for Implementing a Supplier Diversity and Inclusion Program beyond the Ethical Value

Authors: Arnaud Deshais

Abstract:

The supply chain industry has integrated the need for supplier Diversity and Inclusion (D&I), mostly from an ethical and moral argument. In addition, in some countries, it is also a legal requirement for companies reaching a certain size. As a matter of fact, a lot of successful companies have developed a Corporate Social Responsibility Program that encourages diversity and inclusion in the supply chain, such as building strong relationships with minority owned businesses (women, LGBT, veterans, etc.). Outside ethical and legal perspectives, it is also worth researching the economic and financial benefits of pursuing such efforts. Through surveys of purchasing and supply chain managers in their current roles as well as review of some case studies on supplier based D&I programs, it becomes apparent that a financial return on investment is to be expected as well for companies who make a concerted effort to grow their D&I programs. The study explores the levers to increase shareholder value and business efficiencies. Finally, the research highlights the competitive advantage related to a broad minority based supplier network. The benefits manifest themselves in the areas of competitiveness, innovation, and collaboration. The economic reward ends up being at the forefront of those programs while being an opportunity for organizations to become 'a good citizen'.

Keywords: diversity, inclusion, purchasing, supplier

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
17 Method for Tuning Level Control Loops Based on Internal Model Control and Closed Loop Step Test Data

Authors: Arnaud Nougues

Abstract:

This paper describes a two-stage methodology derived from internal model control (IMC) for tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for levels or other integrating processes in an industrial environment. Focus is the ease of use and implementation speed which are critical for an industrial application. Tuning can be done with minimum effort and without the need for time-consuming open-loop step tests on the plant. The first stage of the method applies to levels only: the vessel residence time is calculated from equipment dimensions and used to derive a set of preliminary proportional-integral (PI) settings with IMC. The second stage, re-tuning in closed-loop, applies to levels as well as other integrating processes: a tuning correction mechanism has been developed based on a series of closed-loop simulations with model errors. The tuning correction is done from a simple closed-loop step test and the application of a generic correlation between observed overshoot and integral time correction. A spin-off of the method is that an estimate of the vessel residence time (levels) or open-loop process gain (other integrating process) is obtained from the closed-loop data.

Keywords: closed-loop model identification, IMC-PID tuning method, integrating process control, on-line PID tuning adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
16 Early-Age Cracking of Low Carbon Concrete Incorporating Ferronickel Slag as Supplementary Cementitious Material

Authors: Mohammad Khan, Arnaud Castel

Abstract:

Concrete viscoelastic properties such as shrinkage, creep, and associated relaxation are important in assessing the risk of cracking during the first few days after placement. This paper investigates the early-age mechanical and viscoelastic properties, restrained shrinkage-induced cracking and time to cracking of concrete incorporating ferronickel slag (FNS) as supplementary cementitious material. Compressive strength, indirect tensile strength and elastic modulus were measured. Tensile creep and drying shrinkage was measured on dog-bone shaped specimens. Restrained shrinkage induced stresses and concrete cracking age were assessed by using the ring test. Results revealed that early-age strength development of FNS blended concrete is lower than that of the corresponding ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. FNS blended concrete showed significantly higher tensile creep. The risk of early-age cracking for the restrained specimens depends on the development of concrete tensile stress considering both restrained shrinkage and tensile creep and the development of the tensile strength. FNS blended concrete showed only 20% reduction in time to cracking compared to reference OPC concrete, and this reduction is significantly lower compared to fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag blended concretes at similar replacement level.

Keywords: ferronickel slag, restraint shrinkage, tensile creep, time to cracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
15 Investigating the Environmental Impact of Additive Manufacturing Compared to Conventional Manufacturing through Life Cycle Assessment

Authors: Gustavo Menezes De Souza Melo, Arnaud Heitz, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing is a growing market that is taking over in many industries as it offers numerous advantages like new design possibilities, weight-saving solutions, ease of manufacture, and simplification of assemblies. These are all unquestionable technical or financial assets. As to the environmental aspect, additive manufacturing is often discussed whether it is the best solution to decarbonize our industries or if conventional manufacturing remains cleaner. This work presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) comparison based on the technological case of a motorbike swing-arm. We compare the original equipment manufacturer part made with conventional manufacturing (CM) methods to an additive manufacturing (AM) version printed using the laser powder bed fusion process. The AM version has been modified and optimized to achieve better dynamic performance without any regard to weight saving. Lightweight not being a priority in the creation of the 3D printed part brings us a unique perspective in this study. To achieve the LCA, we are using the open-source life cycle, and sustainability software OpenLCA combined with the ReCiPe 2016 at midpoint and endpoint level method. This allows the calculation and the presentation of the results through indicators such as global warming, water use, resource scarcity, etc. The results are then showing the relative impact of the AM version compared to the CM one and give us a key to understand and answer questions about the environmental sustainability of additive manufacturing.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, environmental impact, life cycle assessment, laser powder bed fusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
14 Bulk Electrical Resistivity of Geopolymer Mortars: The Effect of Binder Composition and Alkali Concentration

Authors: Mahdi Babaee, Arnaud Castel

Abstract:

One of the main hurdles for commercial adaptation of geopolymer concrete (GPC) as a low-embodied-carbon alternative for Portland cement concrete (PCC) is the durability aspects and its long-term performance in aggressive/corrosive environments. GPC is comparatively a new engineering material and in the absence of a track record of successful durability performance, proper experimental studies to investigate different durability-related characteristics of GPC seem inevitable. In this context, this paper aims to study the bulk electrical resistivity of geopolymer mortars fabricated of blends of low-calcium fly ash (FA) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). Bulk electrical resistivity is recognized as one of the most important parameters influencing the rate of corrosion of reinforcing bars during the propagation phase of corrosion. To investigate the effect of alkali concentration on the resistivity of the samples, 100x200 mm mortar cylinders were cast at different alkali concentration levels, whereas the modulus ratio (the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O) was fixed for the mixes, and the bulk electrical resistivity was then measured. Also, the effect of the binder composition was assessed with respect to the ratio of FA to GGBS used. Results show a superior performance of samples with higher GGBS content. Lower concentration of the solution has increased the resistivity by reducing the amount of mobile alkali ions in the pore solution. Moreover, GGBS-based samples showed a much sharper increase in the electrical resistivity with decreasing the moisture content.

Keywords: bulk resistivity, corrosion, durability, geopolymer concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
13 INCIPIT-CRIS: A Research Information System Combining Linked Data Ontologies and Persistent Identifiers

Authors: David Nogueiras Blanco, Amir Alwash, Arnaud Gaudinat, René Schneider

Abstract:

At a time when the access to and the sharing of information are crucial in the world of research, the use of technologies such as persistent identifiers (PIDs), Current Research Information Systems (CRIS), and ontologies may create platforms for information sharing if they respond to the need of disambiguation of their data by assuring interoperability inside and between other systems. INCIPIT-CRIS is a continuation of the former INCIPIT project, whose goal was to set up an infrastructure for a low-cost attribution of PIDs with high granularity based on Archival Resource Keys (ARKs). INCIPIT-CRIS can be interpreted as a logical consequence and propose a research information management system developed from scratch. The system has been created on and around the Schema.org ontology with a further articulation of the use of ARKs. It is thus built upon the infrastructure previously implemented (i.e., INCIPIT) in order to enhance the persistence of URIs. As a consequence, INCIPIT-CRIS aims to be the hinge between previously separated aspects such as CRIS, ontologies and PIDs in order to produce a powerful system allowing the resolution of disambiguation problems using a combination of an ontology such as Schema.org and unique persistent identifiers such as ARK, allowing the sharing of information through a dedicated platform, but also the interoperability of the system by representing the entirety of the data as RDF triplets. This paper aims to present the implemented solution as well as its simulation in real life. We will describe the underlying ideas and inspirations while going through the logic and the different functionalities implemented and their links with ARKs and Schema.org. Finally, we will discuss the tests performed with our project partner, the Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), by the use of large and real-world data sets.

Keywords: current research information systems, linked data, ontologies, persistent identifier, schema.org, semantic web

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
12 Characterising the Dynamic Friction in the Staking of Plain Spherical Bearings

Authors: Jacob Hatherell, Jason Matthews, Arnaud Marmier

Abstract:

Anvil Staking is a cold-forming process that is used in the assembly of plain spherical bearings into a rod-end housing. This process ensures that the bearing outer lip conforms to the chamfer in the matching rod end to produce a lightweight mechanical joint with sufficient strength to meet the pushout load requirement of the assembly. Finite Element (FE) analysis is being used extensively to predict the behaviour of metal flow in cold forming processes to support industrial manufacturing and product development. On-going research aims to validate FE models across a wide range of bearing and rod-end geometries by systematically isolating and understanding the uncertainties caused by variations in, material properties, load-dependent friction coefficients and strain rate sensitivity. The improved confidence in these models aims to eliminate the costly and time-consuming process of experimental trials in the introduction of new bearing designs. Previous literature has shown that friction coefficients do not remain constant during cold forming operations, however, the understanding of this phenomenon varies significantly and is rarely implemented in FE models. In this paper, a new approach to evaluate the normal contact pressure versus friction coefficient relationship is outlined using friction calibration charts generated via iterative FE models and ring compression tests. When compared to previous research, this new approach greatly improves the prediction of forming geometry and the forming load during the staking operation. This paper also aims to standardise the FE approach to modelling ring compression test and determining the friction calibration charts.

Keywords: anvil staking, finite element analysis, friction coefficient, spherical plain bearing, ring compression tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
11 Rock-Bed Thermocline Storage: A Numerical Analysis of Granular Bed Behavior and Interaction with Storage Tank

Authors: Nahia H. Sassine, Frédéric-Victor Donzé, Arnaud Bruch, Barthélemy Harthong

Abstract:

Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost–effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the tank might be subjected to catastrophic failure induced by a mechanical phenomenon known as thermal ratcheting. Thermal stresses are accumulated during cycles of loading and unloading until the failure happens. For instance, when rocks are used as storage material, the tank wall expands more than the solid medium during charge process, a gap is created between the rocks and tank walls and the filler material settles down to fill it. During discharge, the tank contracts against the bed, resulting in thermal stresses that may exceed the wall tank yield stress and generate plastic deformation. This phenomenon is repeated over the cycles and the tank will be slowly ratcheted outward until it fails. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogeneously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material. Besides the study of the influence of different thermal configurations on the storage tank response, other parameters are varied, such as the internal angle of friction of the granular material, the dispersion of particles diameters as well as the tank’s dimensions. Then, their influences on the kinematics of the granular bed submitted to thermal cycles are highlighted.

Keywords: discrete element method (DEM), thermal cycles, thermal energy storage, thermocline

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
10 Evaluation of Bucket Utility Truck In-Use Driving Performance and Electrified Power Take-Off Operation

Authors: Robert Prohaska, Arnaud Konan, Kenneth Kelly, Adam Ragatz, Adam Duran

Abstract:

In an effort to evaluate the in-use performance of electrified Power Take-off (PTO) usage on bucket utility trucks operating under real-world conditions, data from 20 medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating in California, USA were collected, compiled, and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Fleet Test and Evaluation team. In this paper, duty-cycle statistical analyses of class 5, medium-duty quick response trucks and class 8, heavy-duty material handler trucks are performed to examine and characterize vehicle dynamics trends and relationships based on collected in-use field data. With more than 100,000 kilometers of driving data collected over 880+ operating days, researchers have developed a robust methodology for identifying PTO operation from in-field vehicle data. Researchers apply this unique methodology to evaluate the performance and utilization of the conventional and electric PTO systems. Researchers also created custom representative drive-cycles for each vehicle configuration and performed modeling and simulation activities to evaluate the potential fuel and emissions savings for hybridization of the tractive driveline on these vehicles. The results of these analyses statistically and objectively define the vehicle dynamic and kinematic requirements for each vehicle configuration as well as show the potential for further system optimization through driveline hybridization. Results are presented in both graphical and tabular formats illustrating a number of key relationships between parameters observed within the data set that relates specifically to medium- and heavy-duty utility vehicles operating under real-world conditions.

Keywords: drive cycle, heavy-duty (HD), hybrid, medium-duty (MD), PTO, utility

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
9 Effects of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Early Age Thermal Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Maryam Ghareh Chaei, Masuzyo Chilwesa, Ali Akbarnezhad, Arnaud Castel, Redmond Lloyd, Stephen Foster

Abstract:

Cement hydration is an exothermic chemical reaction generally leading to a rise in concrete’s temperature. This internal heating of concrete may, in turn, lead to a temperature difference between the hotter interior and the cooler exterior of concrete and thus differential thermal stresses in early ages which could be particularly significant in mass concrete. Such differential thermal stresses result in early age thermal cracking of concrete when exceeding the concrete’s tensile strength. The extent of temperature rise and thus early age differential thermal stresses is generally a function of hydration heat intensity, thermal properties of concrete and size of the concrete element. Both hydration heat intensity and thermal properties of concrete may vary considerably with variations in the type cementitious materials and other constituents. With this in mind, partial replacement of cement with supplementary cementitious materials including fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag has been investigated widely as an effective strategy to moderate the heat generation rate and thus reduce the risk of early age thermal cracking of concrete. However, there is currently a lack of adequate literature on effect of partial replacement of cement with fly ash and/or ground granulated blast furnace slag on the thermal properties of concrete. This paper presents the results of an experimental conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of varying percentages of fly ash (up to 60%) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (up to 50%) on the heat capacity and thermal conductivity of early age cement paste. The water to cementitious materials ratio is kept 0.45 for all the paste samples. The results of the experimental studies were used in a numerical analysis performed using Comsol Multiphysics to highlight the effects of variations in the thermal properties of concrete, due to variations in the type of aggregate and content of supplemenraty cementitious materials, on the risk of early age cracking of a concrete raft.

Keywords: thermal diffusivity, early age thermal cracking, concrete, supplementary cementitious materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
8 Multi-Agent System Based Solution for Operating Agile and Customizable Micro Manufacturing Systems

Authors: Dylan Santos De Pinho, Arnaud Gay De Combes, Matthieu Steuhlet, Claude Jeannerat, Nabil Ouerhani

Abstract:

The Industry 4.0 initiative has been launched to address huge challenges related to ever-smaller batch sizes. The end-user need for highly customized products requires highly adaptive production systems in order to keep the same efficiency of shop floors. Most of the classical Software solutions that operate the manufacturing processes in a shop floor are based on rigid Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES), which are not capable to adapt the production order on the fly depending on changing demands and or conditions. In this paper, we present a highly modular and flexible solution to orchestrate a set of production systems composed of a micro-milling machine-tool, a polishing station, a cleaning station, a part inspection station, and a rough material store. The different stations are installed according to a novel matrix configuration of a 3x3 vertical shelf. The different cells of the shelf are connected through horizontal and vertical rails on which a set of shuttles circulate to transport the machined parts from a station to another. Our software solution for orchestrating the tasks of each station is based on a Multi-Agent System. Each station and each shuttle is operated by an autonomous agent. All agents communicate with a central agent that holds all the information about the manufacturing order. The core innovation of this paper lies in the path planning of the different shuttles with two major objectives: 1) reduce the waiting time of stations and thus reduce the cycle time of the entire part, and 2) reduce the disturbances like vibration generated by the shuttles, which highly impacts the manufacturing process and thus the quality of the final part. Simulation results show that the cycle time of the parts is reduced by up to 50% compared with MES operated linear production lines while the disturbance is systematically avoided for the critical stations like the milling machine-tool.

Keywords: multi-agent systems, micro-manufacturing, flexible manufacturing, transfer systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7 Quantitative on Fatty Acid Profiles, Lipid Contents and Fat-Soluble Vitamin A of Freshwater Fish Species in Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

Authors: Sengly Sroy, Elodie Arnaud, Adrien Servent, Sokneang In, Sylvie Avallone

Abstract:

In Cambodia, fish plays an important role for local community in term of food habits, preference and contribution to several nutritional intakes. Consumed on a daily basis, fishes and their derivatives products are good sources of proteins, essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins. They mainly obtain from the Tonle Sap Lake but, during the last decade, the fish population decreased drastically due to climate change and human activities as well. Contamination by agricultural residues and heavy metals were identified. However, fishes are currently used in several nutrition programs for children and pregnant women to improve their nutritional status. The aim of our work was to characterize the nutritional profile and contamination of 10 fish species consumed near the Tonle Sap Lake with a special attention to fatty acid and fat-soluble vitamin profiles. Fish samples were analyzed for their nutritional profiles (AOAC methods for macronutrients and micronutrients), their lipid content (Folch modified method), their Fatty acid (FAME method), their vitamin A (HPLC) and their heavy metals (ICP-MS). The total lipid contents ranged from 1.43 to 10.00% according to fish species. Lipid profile was mainly dominated by saturated fat (from 47.95 to 57.32%) but some fish species were particularly rich in ω-3 and ω-6 especially eicosapentaenoic acid EPA (3.05%) and docosahexaenoic acid DHA (2.82%). The more the fishes were fats, the more they contained vitamin A, DHA and EPA. Vitamin A is particularly abundant in small fishes (250.10 μg RE/100 g) compare to big ones (13.77 μg RE/100 g) because they are consumed as a whole with their organs (liver) and head. However, the contents of heavy metal in some species are higher than the maximum permitted level (MPL) from codex alimentarius, especially Mn. The results obtained provided important information on the most interesting fish in term of human nutrition and the potential risk of contaminants. The fatty acids are important for child development and pregnant women. These data are useful for supply chain stakeholders and the people in charge of nutrition program.

Keywords: fat-soluble vitamin, fatty acid, freshwater fish, lipid content, Tonle Sap Lake

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
6 Impact of Electric Field on the Optical Properties of Hydrophilic Quantum Dots

Authors: Valentina V. Goftman, Vladislav A. Pankratov, Alexey V. Markin, Tangi Aubert, Zeger Hens, Sarah De Saeger, Irina Yu. Goryacheva

Abstract:

The most important requirements for biochemical applicability of quantum dots (QDs) are: 1) the surface cap should render intact or improved optical properties; 2) mono-dispersion and good stability in aqueous phase in a wide range of pH and ionic strength values; 3) presence of functional groups, available for bioconjugation; 4) minimal impact from the environment on the QDs’ properties and, vice versa, minimal influence of the QDs’ components on the environment; and 5) stability against chemical/biochemical/physical influence. The latter is especially important for in vitro and in vivo applications. For example, some physical intracellular delivery strategies (e.g., electroporation) imply a rapid high-voltage electric field impulse in order to temporarily generate hydrophilic pores in the cell plasma membrane, necessary for the passive transportation of QDs into the cell. In this regard, it is interesting to investigate how different capping layers, which can provide high stability and sufficient fluorescent properties of QDs in a water solution, behave under these abnormal conditions. In this contribution, hydrophobic core-shell CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS QDs (λem=600 nm), produced by means of the Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique, were transferred to a water solution using two of the most commonly used methods: (i) encapsulation in an amphiphilic brush polymer based on poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and (ii) silica covering. Polymer encapsulation preserves the initial ligands on the QDs’ surface owing to the hydrophobic attraction between the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphilic molecules and the surface hydrophobic groups of the QDs. This covering process allows maintaining the initial fluorescent properties, but it leads to a considerable increase of the QDs’ size. However, covering with a silica shell, by means of the reverse microemulsion method, allows maintaining both size and fluorescent properties of the initial QDs. The obtained water solutions of polymer covered and silica-coated QDs in three different concentrations were exposed to a low-voltage electric field for a short time and the fluorescent properties were investigated. It is shown that the PMAO-PEG polymer acquires some additional charges in the presence of the electric field, which causes repulsion between the polymer and the QDs’ surface. This process destroys the homogeneity of the whole amphiphilic shell and it dramatically decreases the fluorescent properties (dropping to 10% from its initial value) because of the direct contact of the QDs with the strongly oxidative environment (water). In contrast, a silica shell possesses dielectric properties which allow retaining 90% of its initial fluorescence intensity, even after a longer electric impact. Thus, silica shells are clearly a preferable covering for bio-application of QDs, because – besides the high uniform morphology, controlled size and biocompatibility – it allows protecting QDs from oxidation, even under the influence of an electric field.

Keywords: electric field, polymer coating, quantum dots, silica covering, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
5 Braille Code Matrix

Authors: Mohammed E. A. Brixi Nigassa, Nassima Labdelli, Ahmed Slami, Arnaud Pothier, Sofiane Soulimane

Abstract:

According to the world health organization (WHO), there are almost 285 million people with visual disability, 39 million of these people are blind. Nevertheless, there is a code for these people that make their life easier and allow them to access information more easily; this code is the Braille code. There are several commercial devices allowing braille reading, unfortunately, most of these devices are not ergonomic and too expensive. Moreover, we know that 90 % of blind people in the world live in low-incomes countries. Our contribution aim is to concept an original microactuator for Braille reading, as well as being ergonomic, inexpensive and lowest possible energy consumption. Nowadays, the piezoelectric device gives the better actuation for low actuation voltage. In this study, we focus on piezoelectric (PZT) material which can bring together all these conditions. Here, we propose to use one matrix composed by six actuators to form the 63 basic combinations of the Braille code that contain letters, numbers, and special characters in compliance with the standards of the braille code. In this work, we use a finite element model with Comsol Multiphysics software for designing and modeling this type of miniature actuator in order to integrate it into a test device. To define the geometry and the design of our actuator, we used physiological limits of perception of human being. Our results demonstrate in our study that piezoelectric actuator could bring a large deflection out-of-plain. Also, we show that microactuators can exhibit non uniform compression. This deformation depends on thin film thickness and the design of membrane arm. The actuator composed of four arms gives the higher deflexion and it always gives a domed deformation at the center of the deviceas in case of the Braille system. The maximal deflection can be estimated around ten micron per Volt (~ 10µm/V). We noticed that the deflection according to the voltage is a linear function, and this deflection not depends only on the voltage the voltage, but also depends on the thickness of the film used and the design of the anchoring arm. Then, we were able to simulate the behavior of the entire matrix and thus display different characters in Braille code. We used these simulations results to achieve our demonstrator. This demonstrator is composed of a layer of PDMS on which we put our piezoelectric material, and then added another layer of PDMS to isolate our actuator. In this contribution, we compare our results to optimize the final demonstrator.

Keywords: Braille code, comsol software, microactuators, piezoelectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
4 Modeling of an Insulin Mircopump

Authors: Ahmed Slami, Med El Amine Brixi Nigassa, Nassima Labdelli, Sofiane Soulimane, Arnaud Pothier

Abstract:

Many people suffer from diabetes, a disease marked by abnormal levels of sugar in the blood; 285 million people have diabetes, 6.6% of the world adult population (in 2010), according to the International Diabetes Federation. Insulin medicament is invented to be injected into the body. Generally, the injection requires the patient to do it manually. However, in many cases he will be unable to inject the drug, saw that among the side effects of hyperglycemia is the weakness of the whole body. The researchers designed a medical device that injects insulin too autonomously by using micro-pumps. Many micro-pumps of concepts have been investigated during the last two decades for injecting molecules in blood or in the body. However, all these micro-pumps are intended for slow infusion of drug (injection of few microliters by minute). Now, the challenge is to develop micro-pumps for fast injections (1 microliter in 10 seconds) with accuracy of the order of microliter. Recently, studies have shown that only piezoelectric actuators can achieve this performance, knowing that few systems at the microscopic level were presented. These reasons lead us to design new smart microsystems injection drugs. Therefore, many technological advances are still to achieve the improvement of materials to their uses, while going through their characterization and modeling action mechanisms themselves. Moreover, it remains to study the integration of the piezoelectric micro-pump in the microfluidic platform features to explore and evaluate the performance of these new micro devices. In this work, we propose a new micro-pump model based on piezoelectric actuation with a new design. Here, we use a finite element model with Comsol software. Our device is composed of two pumping chambers, two diaphragms and two actuators (piezoelectric disks). The latter parts will apply a mechanical force on the membrane in a periodic manner. The membrane deformation allows the fluid pumping, the suction and discharge of the liquid. In this study, we present the modeling results as function as device geometry properties, films thickness, and materials properties. Here, we demonstrate that we can achieve fast injection. The results of these simulations will provide quantitative performance of our micro-pumps. Concern the spatial actuation, fluid rate and allows optimization of the fabrication process in terms of materials and integration steps.

Keywords: COMSOL software, piezoelectric, micro-pump, microfluidic

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
3 Bed Evolution under One-Episode Flushing in a Truck Sewer in Paris, France

Authors: Gashin Shahsavari, Gilles Arnaud-Fassetta, Alberto Campisano, Roberto Bertilotti, Fabien Riou

Abstract:

Sewer deposits have been identified as a major cause of dysfunctions in combined sewer systems regarding sewer management, which induces different negative consequents resulting in poor hydraulic conveyance, environmental damages as well as worker’s health. In order to overcome the problematics of sedimentation, flushing has been considered as the most operative and cost-effective way to minimize the sediments impacts and prevent such challenges. Flushing, by prompting turbulent wave effects, can modify the bed form depending on the hydraulic properties and geometrical characteristics of the conduit. So far, the dynamics of the bed-load during high-flow events in combined sewer systems as a complex environment is not well understood, mostly due to lack of measuring devices capable to work in the “hostile” in combined sewer system correctly. In this regards, a one-episode flushing issue from an opening gate valve with weir function was carried out in a trunk sewer in Paris to understanding its cleansing efficiency on the sediments (thickness: 0-30 cm). During more than 1h of flushing within 5 m distance in downstream of this flushing device, a maximum flowrate and a maximum level of water have been recorded at 5 m in downstream of the gate as 4.1 m3/s and 2.1 m respectively. This paper is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of this type of gate for around 1.1 km (from the point -50 m to +1050 m in downstream from the gate) by (i) determining bed grain-size distribution and sediments evolution through the sewer channel, as well as their organic matter content, and (ii) identifying sections that exhibit more changes in their texture after the flush. For the first one, two series of sampling were taken from the sewer length and then analyzed in laboratory, one before flushing and second after, at same points among the sewer channel. Hence, a non-intrusive sampling instrument has undertaken to extract the sediments smaller than the fine gravels. The comparison between sediments texture after the flush operation and the initial state, revealed the most modified zones by the flush effect, regarding the sewer invert slope and hydraulic parameters in the zone up to 400 m from the gate. At this distance, despite the increase of sediment grain-size rages, D50 (median grain-size) varies between 0.6 mm and 1.1 mm compared to 0.8 mm and 10 mm before and after flushing, respectively. Overall, regarding the sewer channel invert slope, results indicate that grains smaller than sands (< 2 mm) are more transported to downstream along about 400 m from the gate: in average 69% before against 38% after the flush with more dispersion of grain-sizes distributions. Furthermore, high effect of the channel bed irregularities on the bed material evolution has been observed after the flush.

Keywords: bed-load evolution, combined sewer systems, flushing efficiency, sediments transport

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
2 Newly Designed Ecological Task to Assess Cognitive Map Reading Ability: Behavioral Neuro-Anatomic Correlates of Mental Navigation

Authors: Igor Faulmann, Arnaud Saj, Roland Maurer

Abstract:

Spatial cognition consists in a plethora of high level cognitive abilities: among them, the ability to learn and to navigate in large scale environments is probably one of the most complex skills. Navigation is thought to rely on the ability to read a cognitive map, defined as an allocentric representation of ones environment. Those representations are of course intimately related to the two geometrical primitives of the environment: distance and direction. Also, many recent studies point to a predominant hippocampal and para-hippocampal role in spatial cognition, as well as in the more specific cluster of navigational skills. In a previous study in humans, we used a newly validated test assessing cognitive map processing by evaluating the ability to judge relative distances and directions: the CMRT (Cognitive Map Recall Test). This study identified in topographically disorientated patients (1) behavioral differences between the evaluation of distances and of directions, and (2) distinct causality patterns assessed via VLSM (i.e., distinct cerebral lesions cause distinct response patterns depending on the modality (distance vs direction questions). Thus, we hypothesized that: (1) if the CMRT really taps into the same resources as real navigation, there would be hippocampal, parahippocampal, and parietal activation, and (2) there exists underlying neuroanatomical and functional differences between the processing of this two modalities. Aiming toward a better understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of the CMRT in humans, and more generally toward a better understanding of how the brain processes the cognitive map, we adapted the CMRT as an fMRI procedure. 23 healthy subjects (11 women, 12 men), all living in Geneva for at least 2 years, underwent the CMRT in fMRI. Results show, for distance and direction taken together, than the most active brain regions are the parietal, frontal and cerebellar parts. Additionally, and as expected, patterns of brain activation differ when comparing the two modalities. Furthermore, distance processing seems to rely more on parietal regions (compared to other brain regions in the same modality and also to direction). It is interesting to notice that no significant activity was observed in the hippocampal or parahippocampal areas. Direction processing seems to tap more into frontal and cerebellar brain regions (compared to other brain regions in the same modality and also to distance). Significant hippocampal and parahippocampal activity has been shown only in this modality. This results demonstrated a complex interaction of structures which are compatible with response patterns observed in other navigational tasks, thus showing that the CMRT taps at least partially into the same brain resources as real navigation. Additionally, differences between the processing of distances and directions leads to the conclusion that the human brain processes each modality distinctly. Further research should focus on the dynamics of this processing, allowing a clearer understanding between the two sub-processes.

Keywords: cognitive map, navigation, fMRI, spatial cognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
1 Biomimicked Nano-Structured Coating Elaboration by Soft Chemistry Route for Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Uses

Authors: Elodie Niemiec, Philippe Champagne, Jean-Francois Blach, Philippe Moreau, Anthony Thuault, Arnaud Tricoteaux

Abstract:

Hygiene of equipment in contact with users is an important issue in the railroad industry. The numerous cleanings to eliminate bacteria and dirt cost a lot. Besides, mechanical solicitations on contact parts are observed daily. It should be interesting to elaborate on a self-cleaning and antibacterial coating with sufficient adhesion and good resistance against mechanical and chemical solicitations. Thus, a Hauts-de-France and Maubeuge Val-de-Sambre conurbation authority co-financed Ph.D. thesis has been set up since October 2017 based on anterior studies carried by the Laboratory of Ceramic Materials and Processing. To accomplish this task, a soft chemical route has been implemented to bring a lotus effect on metallic substrates. It involves nanometric liquid zinc oxide synthesis under 100°C. The originality here consists in a variation of surface texturing by modification of the synthesis time of the species in solution. This helps to adjust wettability. Nanostructured zinc oxide has been chosen because of the inherent photocatalytic effect, which can activate organic substance degradation. Two methods of heating have been compared: conventional and microwave assistance. Tested subtracts are made of stainless steel to conform to transport uses. Substrate preparation was the first step of this protocol: a meticulous cleaning of the samples is applied. The main goal of the elaboration protocol is to fix enough zinc-based seeds to make them grow during the next step as desired (nanorod shaped). To improve this adhesion, a silica gel has been formulated and optimized to ensure chemical bonding between substrate and zinc seeds. The last step consists of deposing a wide carbonated organosilane to improve the superhydrophobic property of the coating. The quasi-proportionality between the reaction time and the nanorod length will be demonstrated. Water Contact (superior to 150°) and Roll-off Angle at different steps of the process will be presented. The antibacterial effect has been proved with Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Bacillus Subtilis. The mortality rate is found to be four times superior to a non-treated substrate. Photocatalytic experiences were carried out from different dyed solutions in contact with treated samples under UV irradiation. Spectroscopic measurements allow to determinate times of degradation according to the zinc quantity available on the surface. The final coating obtained is, therefore, not a monolayer but rather a set of amorphous/crystalline/amorphous layers that have been characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. We will show that the thickness of the nanostructured oxide layer depends essentially on the synthesis time set in the hydrothermal growth step. A green, easy-to-process and control coating with self-cleaning and antibacterial properties has been synthesized with a satisfying surface structuration.

Keywords: antibacterial, biomimetism, soft-chemistry, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 57