Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: telehealth

21 Patient Perspectives on Telehealth During the Pandemic in the United States

Authors: Manal Sultan Alhussein, Xiang Michelle Liu

Abstract:

Telehealth is an advanced technology using digital information and telecommunication facilities that provide access to health services from a distance. It slows the transmission factor of COVID-19, especially for elderly patients and patients with chronic diseases during the pandemic. Therefore, understanding patient perspectives on telehealth services and the factors impacting their option of telehealth service will shed light on the measures that healthcare providers can take to improve the quality of telehealth services. This study aimed to evaluate perceptions of telehealth services among different patient groups and explore various aspects of telehealth utilization in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online survey distributed via social media platforms was used to collect research data. In addition to the descriptive statistics, both correlation and regression analyses were conducted to test research hypotheses. The empirical results highlighted that the factors such as accessibility to telehealth services and the type of specialty clinics that the patients required play important roles in the effectiveness of telehealth services they received. However, the results found that patients’ waiting time to receive telehealth services and their annual income did not significantly influence their desire to select receiving healthcare services via telehealth. The limitations of the study and future research directions are discussed.

Keywords: telehealth, patient satisfaction, pandemic, healthcare, survey

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20 Telehealth Ecosystem: Challenge and Opportunity

Authors: Rattakorn Poonsuph

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Technological innovation plays a crucial role in virtual healthcare services. A growing number of telehealth platforms are concentrating on using digital tools to improve the quality and availability of care. As a result, telehealth represents an opportunity to redesign the way health services are delivered. The research objective is to discover a new business model for digital health services and related industries to participate with telehealth solutions. The business opportunity is valuable for healthcare investors as a startup company to further investigations or implement the telehealth platform. The paper presents a digital healthcare business model and business opportunities to related industries. These include digital healthcare services extending from a traditional business model and use cases of business opportunities to related industries. Although there are enormous business opportunities, telehealth is still challenging due to the patient adaption and digital transformation process within a healthcare organization.

Keywords: telehealth, Internet hospital, HealthTech, InsurTech

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19 The Diffusion of Telehealth: System-Level Conditions for Successful Adoption

Authors: Danika Tynes

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Telehealth is a promising advancement in health care, though there are certain conditions under which telehealth has a greater chance of success. This research sought to further the understanding of what conditions compel the success of telehealth adoption at the systems level applying Diffusion of Innovations (DoI) theory (Rogers, 1962). System-level indicators were selected to represent four components of DoI theory (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability) and regressed on 5 types of telehealth (teleradiology, teledermatology, telepathology, telepsychology, and remote monitoring) using multiple logistic regression. The analyses supported relative advantage and compatibility as the strongest influencers of telehealth adoption, remote monitoring in particular. These findings help to quantitatively clarify the factors influencing the adoption of innovation and advance the ability to make recommendations on the viability of state telehealth adoption. In addition, results indicate when DoI theory is most applicable to the understanding of telehealth diffusion. Ultimately, this research may contribute to more focused allocation of scarce health care resources through consideration of existing state conditions available foster innovation.

Keywords: adoption, diffusion of innovation theory, remote monitoring, system-level indicators

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18 Analytics Model in a Telehealth Center Based on Cloud Computing and Local Storage

Authors: L. Ramirez, E. Guillén, J. Sánchez

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Some of the main goals about telecare such as monitoring, treatment, telediagnostic are deployed with the integration of applications with specific appliances. In order to achieve a coherent model to integrate software, hardware, and healthcare systems, different telehealth models with Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, artificial intelligence, etc. have been implemented, and their advantages are still under analysis. In this paper, we propose an integrated model based on IoT architecture and cloud computing telehealth center. Analytics module is presented as a solution to control an ideal diagnostic about some diseases. Specific features are then compared with the recently deployed conventional models in telemedicine. The main advantage of this model is the availability of controlling the security and privacy about patient information and the optimization on processing and acquiring clinical parameters according to technical characteristics.

Keywords: analytics, telemedicine, internet of things, cloud computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
17 Developing Telehealth-Focused Advanced Practice Nurse Educational Partnerships

Authors: Shelley Y. Hawkins

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Introduction/Background: As technology has grown exponentially in healthcare, nurse educators must prepare Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) graduates with the knowledge and skills in information systems/technology to support and improve patient care and health care systems. APRN’s are expected to lead in caring for populations who lack accessibility and availability through the use of technology, specifically telehealth. The capacity to effectively and efficiently use technology in patient care delivery is clearly delineated in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) and Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Essentials. However, APRN’s have minimal, or no, exposure to formalized telehealth education and lack necessary technical skills needed to incorporate telehealth into their patient care. APRN’s must successfully master the technology using telehealth/telemedicine, electronic health records, health information technology, and clinical decision support systems to advance health. Furthermore, APRN’s must be prepared to lead the coordination and collaboration with other healthcare providers in their use and application. Aim/Goal/Purpose: The purpose of this presentation is to establish and operationalize telehealth-focused educational partnerships between one University School of Nursing and two health care systems in order to enhance the preparation of APRN NP students for practice, teaching, and/or scholarly endeavors. Methods: The proposed project was initially presented by the project director to selected multidisciplinary stakeholders including leadership, home telehealth personnel, primary care providers, and decision support systems within two major health care systems to garner their support for acceptance and implementation. Concurrently, backing was obtained from key university-affiliated colleagues including the Director of Simulation and Innovative Learning Lab and Coordinator of the Health Care Informatics Program. Technology experts skilled in design and production in web applications and electronic modules were secured from two local based technology companies. Results: Two telehealth-focused APRN Program academic/practice partnerships have been established. Students have opportunities to engage in clinically based telehealth experiences focused on: (1) providing patient care while incorporating various technology with a specific emphasis on telehealth; (2) conducting research and/or evidence-based practice projects in order to further develop the scientific foundation regarding incorporation of telehealth with patient care; and (3) participating in the production of patient-level educational materials related to specific topical areas. Conclusions: Evidence-based APRN student telehealth clinical experiences will assist in preparing graduates who can effectively incorporate telehealth into their clinical practice. Greater access for diverse populations will be available as a result of the telehealth service model as well as better care and better outcomes at lower costs. Furthermore, APRN’s will provide the necessary leadership and coordination through interprofessional practice by transforming health care through new innovative care models using information systems and technology.

Keywords: academic/practice partnerships, advanced practice nursing, nursing education, telehealth

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16 Use of Telehealth for Facilitating the Diagnostic Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Scoping Review

Authors: Manahil Alfuraydan, Jodie Croxall, Lisa Hurt, Mike Kerr, Sinead Brophy

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition characterised by impairment in terms of social communication, social interaction, and a repetitive or restricted pattern of interest, behaviour, and activity. There is a significant delay between seeking help and a confirmed diagnosis of ASD. This may result in delay in receiving early intervention services, which are critical for positive outcomes. The long wait times also cause stress for the individuals and their families. Telehealth potentially offers a way of improving the diagnostic pathway for ASD. This review of the literature aims to examine which telehealth approaches have been used in the diagnosis and assessment of autism in children and adults, whether they are feasible and acceptable, and how they compare with face-to-face diagnosis and assessment methods. A comprehensive search of following databases- MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full text, Business Sources Complete, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO and trail and systematic review databases including Cochrane Library, Health Technology Assessment, Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effectiveness and NHS Economic Evaluation was conducted, combining the terms of autism and telehealth from 2000 to 2018. A total of 10 studies were identified for inclusion in the review. This review of the literature found there to be two methods of using telehealth: (a) video conferencing to enable teams in different areas to consult with the families and to assess the child/adult in real time and (b) a video upload to a web portal that enables the clinical assessment of behaviours in the family home. The findings were positive, finding there to be high agreement in terms of the diagnosis between remote methods and face to face methods and with high levels of satisfaction among the families and clinicians. This field is in the very early stages, and so only studies with small sample size were identified, but the findings suggest that there is potential for telehealth methods to improve assessment and diagnosis of autism used in conjunction with existing methods, especially for those with clear autism traits and adults with autism. Larger randomised controlled trials of this technology are warranted.

Keywords: assessment, autism spectrum disorder, diagnosis, telehealth

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15 Global Indicators of Successful Remote Monitoring Adoption Applying Diffusion of Innovation Theory

Authors: Danika Tynes

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Innovations in technology have implications for sustainable development in health and wellness. Remote monitoring is one innovation for which the evidence-base has grown to support its viability as a quality healthcare delivery adjunct. This research reviews global data on telehealth adoption, in particular, remote monitoring, and the conditions under which its success becomes more likely. System-level indicators were selected to represent four constructs of DoI theory (relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability) and assessed against 5 types of Telehealth (Teleradiology, Teledermatology, Telepathology, Telepsychology, and Remote Monitoring) using ordinal logistic regression. Analyses include data from 84 countries, as extracted from the World Health Organization, World Bank, ICT (Information Communications Technology) Index, and HDI (Human Development Index) datasets. Analyses supported relative advantage and compatibility as the strongest influencers of remote monitoring adoption. Findings from this research may help focus on the allocation of resources, as a sustainability concern, through consideration of systems-level factors that may influence the success of remote monitoring adoption.

Keywords: remote monitoring, diffusion of innovation, telehealth, digital health

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14 Barriers and Facilitators for Telehealth Use during Cervical Cancer Screening and Care: A Literature Review

Authors: Reuben Mugisha, Stella Bakibinga

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The cervical cancer burden is a global threat, but more so in low income settings where more than 85% of mortality cases occur due to lack of sufficient screening programs. There is consequently a lack of early detection of cancer and precancerous cells among women. Studies show that 3% to 35% of deaths could have been avoided through early screening depending on prognosis, disease progression, environmental and lifestyle factors. In this study, a systematic literature review is undertaken to understand potential barriers and facilitators as documented in previous studies that focus on the application of telehealth in cervical cancer screening programs for early detection of cancer and precancerous cells. The study informs future studies especially those from low income settings about lessons learned from previous studies and how to be best prepared while planning to implement telehealth for cervical cancer screening. It further identifies the knowledge gaps in the research area and makes recommendations. Using a specified selection criterion, 15 different articles are analyzed based on the study’s aim, theory or conceptual framework used, method applied, study findings and conclusion. Results are then tabulated and presented thematically to better inform readers about emerging facts on barriers and facilitators to telehealth implementation as documented in the reviewed articles, and how they consequently lead to evidence informed conclusions that are relevant to telehealth implementation for cervical cancer screening. Preliminary findings of this study underscore that use of low cost mobile colposcope is an appealing option in cervical cancer screening, particularly when coupled with onsite treatment of suspicious lesions. These tools relay cervical images to the online databases for storage and retrieval, they permit integration of connected devices at the point of care to rapidly collect clinical data for further analysis of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Results however reveal the need for population sensitization prior to use of mobile colposcopies among patients, standardization of mobile colposcopy programs across screening partners, sufficient logistics and good connectivity, experienced experts to review image cases at the point-of-care as important facilitators to the implementation of mobile colposcope as a telehealth cervical cancer screening mechanism.

Keywords: cervical cancer screening, digital technology, hand-held colposcopy, knowledge-sharing

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13 Exploring Key Elements of Successful Distance Learning Programs: A Case Study in Palau

Authors: Maiya Smith, Tyler Thorne

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Background: The Pacific faces multiple healthcare crises, including high rates of noncommunicable diseases, infectious disease outbreaks, and susceptibility to natural disasters. These issues are expected to worsen in the coming decades, increasing the burden on an already understaffed healthcare system. Telehealth is not new to the Pacific, but improvements in technology and accessibility have increased its utility and have already proven to reduce costs and increase access to care in remote areas. Telehealth includes distance learning; a form of education that can help alleviate many healthcare issues by providing continuing education to healthcare professionals and upskilling staff, while decreasing costs. This study examined distance learning programs at the Ministry of Health in the Pacific nation of Palau and identified key elements to their successful distance learning programs. Methods: Staff at the Belau National Hospital in Koror, Palau as well as private practitioners were interviewed to assess distance learning programs utilized. This included physicians, IT personnel, public health members, and department managers of allied health. In total, 36 people were interviewed. Standardized questions and surveys were conducted in person throughout the month of July 2019. Results: Two examples of successful distance learning programs were identified. Looking at the factors that made these programs successful, as well as consulting with staff who undertook other distance learning programs, four factors for success were determined: having a cohort, having a facilitator, dedicated study time off from work, and motivation. Discussion: In countries as geographically isolated as the Pacific, with poor access to specialists and resources, telehealth has the potential to radically change how healthcare is delivered. Palau shares similar resources and issues as other countries in the Pacific and the lessons learned from their successful programs can be adapted to help other Pacific nations develop their own distance learning programs.

Keywords: distance learning, Pacific, Palau, telehealth

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12 Digital Platform for Psychological Assessment Supported by Sensors and Efficiency Algorithms

Authors: Francisco M. Silva

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Technology is evolving, creating an impact on our everyday lives and the telehealth industry. Telehealth encapsulates the provision of healthcare services and information via a technological approach. There are several benefits of using web-based methods to provide healthcare help. Nonetheless, few health and psychological help approaches combine this method with wearable sensors. This paper aims to create an online platform for users to receive self-care help and information using wearable sensors. In addition, researchers developing a similar project obtain a solid foundation as a reference. This study provides descriptions and analyses of the software and hardware architecture. Exhibits and explains a heart rate dynamic and efficient algorithm that continuously calculates the desired sensors' values. Presents diagrams that illustrate the website deployment process and the webserver means of handling the sensors' data. The goal is to create a working project using Arduino compatible hardware. Heart rate sensors send their data values to an online platform. A microcontroller board uses an algorithm to calculate the sensor heart rate values and outputs it to a web server. The platform visualizes the sensor's data, summarizes it in a report, and creates alerts for the user. Results showed a solid project structure and communication from the hardware and software. The web server displays the conveyed heart rate sensor's data on the online platform, presenting observations and evaluations.

Keywords: Arduino, heart rate BPM, microcontroller board, telehealth, wearable sensors, web-based healthcare

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11 Lessons Learned from Implementation of Remote Pregnant and Newborn Care Service for Vulnerable Women and Children During COVID-19 and Political Crisis in Myanmar

Authors: Wint Wint Thu, Htet Ko Ko Win, Myat Mon San, Zaw Lin Tun, Nandar Than Aye, Khin Nyein Myat, Hayman Nyo Oo, Nay Aung Lin, Kusum Thapa, Kyaw Htet Aung

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Background: In Myanmar, the intense political instability happened to start in Feb-2021, while the COVID-19 pandemic waves are also threatening the public health system, which subsequently led to severe health sector crisis, including difficulties in accessing maternal and newborn health care for vulnerable women and children. The Remote Pregnant and Newborn Care (RPNC) uses a telehealth approach United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Essential Health Project. Implementation: The Remote Pregnant and Newborn Care (RPNC) service has adapted to the MNCH needs of vulnerable pregnant women and was implemented to mitigate the risk of limited access to essential quality MNH care in Yangon, Myanmar, under women, and the project trained 13 service providers on a telehealth care package for pregnancy and newborn developed Jhpiego to ensure understanding of evidence-based MNCH care practices. The phone numbers of the pregnant women were gathered through the preexisting and functioning community volunteers, who reach the most vulnerable pregnant women in the project's targeted area. A total of 212 pregnant women have been reached by service providers for RPNC during the implementation period. The trained service providers offer quality antenatal and postnatal care, including newborn care, via telephone calls. It includes 24/7 incoming calls and time-allotted outgoing calls to the pregnant women during antenatal and postnatal periods, including the newborn care. The required data were collected daily in time with the calls, and the quality of the medical services is made assured with the track of the calls, ensuring data privacy and patient confidentiality. Lessons learned: The key lessons are 1) cost-effectiveness: RPNC service could reduce out of pocket expenditure of pregnant women as it only costs 1.6 United States dollars (USD) per one telehealth call while it costs 8 to 10 USD per one time in-person care service at private service providers, including transportation cost, 2) network of care: telehealth call could not replace the in-person antenatal and postnatal care services, and integration of telehealth calls with in-person care by local healthcare providers with the support of the community is crucial for accessibility to essential MNH services by poor and vulnerable women, and 3) sharing information on health access points: most of the women seem to have financial barriers in accessing private health facilities while public health system collapse and telehealthcare could provide information on low-cost facilities and connect women to relevant health facilities. These key lessons are important for future efforts regarding the implementation of remote pregnancy and newborn care in Myanmar, especially during the political crisis and COVID-19 pandemic situation.

Keywords: telehealth, accessibility, maternal care, newborn care

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10 A Survey of Digital Health Companies: Opportunities and Business Model Challenges

Authors: Iris Xiaohong Quan

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The global digital health market reached 175 billion U.S. dollars in 2019, and is expected to grow at about 25% CAGR to over 650 billion USD by 2025. Different terms such as digital health, e-health, mHealth, telehealth have been used in the field, which can sometimes cause confusion. The term digital health was originally introduced to refer specifically to the use of interactive media, tools, platforms, applications, and solutions that are connected to the Internet to address health concerns of providers as well as consumers. While mHealth emphasizes the use of mobile phones in healthcare, telehealth means using technology to remotely deliver clinical health services to patients. According to FDA, “the broad scope of digital health includes categories such as mobile health (mHealth), health information technology (IT), wearable devices, telehealth and telemedicine, and personalized medicine.” Some researchers believe that digital health is nothing else but the cultural transformation healthcare has been going through in the 21st century because of digital health technologies that provide data to both patients and medical professionals. As digital health is burgeoning, but research in the area is still inadequate, our paper aims to clear the definition confusion and provide an overall picture of digital health companies. We further investigate how business models are designed and differentiated in the emerging digital health sector. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are adopted in the research. For the quantitative analysis, our research data came from two databases Crunchbase and CBInsights, which are well-recognized information sources for researchers, entrepreneurs, managers, and investors. We searched a few keywords in the Crunchbase database based on companies’ self-description: digital health, e-health, and telehealth. A search of “digital health” returned 941 unique results, “e-health” returned 167 companies, while “telehealth” 427. We also searched the CBInsights database for similar information. After merging and removing duplicate ones and cleaning up the database, we came up with a list of 1464 companies as digital health companies. A qualitative method will be used to complement the quantitative analysis. We will do an in-depth case analysis of three successful unicorn digital health companies to understand how business models evolve and discuss the challenges faced in this sector. Our research returned some interesting findings. For instance, we found that 86% of the digital health startups were founded in the recent decade since 2010. 75% of the digital health companies have less than 50 employees, and almost 50% with less than 10 employees. This shows that digital health companies are relatively young and small in scale. On the business model analysis, while traditional healthcare businesses emphasize the so-called “3P”—patient, physicians, and payer, digital health companies extend to “5p” by adding patents, which is the result of technology requirements (such as the development of artificial intelligence models), and platform, which is an effective value creation approach to bring the stakeholders together. Our case analysis will detail the 5p framework and contribute to the extant knowledge on business models in the healthcare industry.

Keywords: digital health, business models, entrepreneurship opportunities, healthcare

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9 Mental Health and Technology: Evidence Review

Authors: Kylie Henderson

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Adapting mental health interventions is important when providing support to those experiencing difficulties. This analysis aimed to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of mental health interventions. Literature that has analysed face-to-face (F2F), phone (Telehealth), mobile (mHealth) and online (e-interventions) interferences found all interventions were effective in reducing and treating symptoms of mental health disorders. F2F and Telehealth interventions facilitated greater engagement and client satisfaction. Due to accessibility and privacy, mHealth and e-interventions were the preferred methods of engagement with health services for youth and young adults. Regardless, these interventions still identified several barriers of high dropout, low adherence, and lack of awareness. Additionally, a large proportion of interventions lacked evidence-based foundations. Exploration of interventions that utilise a variety of interfaces, as well as incorporated evidence-based literature and clinician experience, show that they benefit those experiencing mental health difficulties. Applications like YourHealth+ provide a combination of interventions (F2F, mHealth, and e-interventions) to improve the wellbeing of job seekers and employment consults. Individuals that have used the application in conjunction with therapy have reported feeling more empowered and demonstrated improved wellbeing. Practitioners have also described improved confidence in their ability to provide support to clients. Therefore, it can be proposed that utilising a variety of interventions as well as incorporating literature and experience is beneficial to those experiencing mental health difficulties and to health practitioners.

Keywords: face-to-face, e-interventions, mHealth, YourHealth+

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8 Improving Rural Access to Specialist Emergency Mental Health Care: Using a Time and Motion Study in the Evaluation of a Telepsychiatry Program

Authors: Emily Saurman, David Lyle

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In Australia, a well serviced rural town might have a psychiatrist visit once-a-month with more frequent visits from a psychiatric nurse, but many have no resident access to mental health specialists. Access to specialist care, would not only reduce patient distress and benefit outcomes, but facilitate the effective use of limited resources. The Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program (MHEC-RAP) was developed to improve access to specialist emergency mental health care in rural and remote communities using telehealth technologies. However, there has been no current benchmark to gauge program efficiency or capacity; to determine whether the program activity is justifiably sufficient. The evaluation of MHEC-RAP used multiple methods and applied a modified theory of access to assess the program and its aim of improved access to emergency mental health care. This was the first evaluation of a telepsychiatry service to include a time and motion study design examining program time expenditure, efficiency, and capacity. The time and motion study analysis was combined with an observational study of the program structure and function to assess the balance between program responsiveness and efficiency. Previous program studies have demonstrated that MHEC-RAP has improved access and is used and effective. The findings from the time and motion study suggest that MHEC-RAP has the capacity to manage increased activity within the current model structure without loss to responsiveness or efficiency in the provision of care. Enhancing program responsiveness and efficiency will also support a claim of the program’s value for money. MHEC-RAP is a practical telehealth solution for improving access to specialist emergency mental health care. The findings from this evaluation have already attracted the attention of other regions in Australia interested in implementing emergency telepsychiatry programs and are now informing the progressive establishment of mental health resource centres in rural New South Wales. Like MHEC-RAP, these centres will provide rapid, safe, and contextually relevant assessments and advice to support local health professionals to manage mental health emergencies in the smaller rural emergency departments. Sharing the application of this methodology and research activity may help to improve access to and future evaluations of telehealth and telepsychiatry services for others around the globe.

Keywords: access, emergency, mental health, rural, time and motion

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7 Interdisciplinary Evaluations of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Telehealth Arena

Authors: Janice Keener, Christine Houlihan

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Over the last several years, there has been an increase in children identified as having Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Specialists across several disciplines: mental health and medical professionals have been tasked with ensuring accurate and timely evaluations for children with suspected ASD. Due to the nature of the ASD symptom presentation, an interdisciplinary assessment and treatment approach best addresses the needs of the whole child. During the unprecedented COVID-19 Pandemic, clinicians were faced with how to continue with interdisciplinary assessments in a telehealth arena. Instruments that were previously used to assess ASD in-person were no longer appropriate measures to use due to the safety restrictions. For example, The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule requires examiners and children to be in very close proximity of each other and if masks or face shields are worn, they render the evaluation invalid. Similar issues arose with the various cognitive measures that are used to assess children such as the Weschler Tests of Intelligence and the Differential Ability Scale. Thus the need arose to identify measures that are able to be safely and accurately administered using safety guidelines. The incidence of ASD continues to rise over time. Currently, the Center for Disease Control estimates that 1 in 59 children meet the criteria for a diagnosis of ASD. The reasons for this increase are likely multifold, including changes in diagnostic criteria, public awareness of the condition, and other environmental and genetic factors. The rise in the incidence of ASD has led to a greater need for diagnostic and treatment services across the United States. The uncertainty of the diagnostic process can lead to an increased level of stress for families of children with suspected ASD. Along with this increase, there is a need for diagnostic clarity to avoid both under and over-identification of this condition. Interdisciplinary assessment is ideal for children with suspected ASD, as it allows for an assessment of the whole child over the course of time and across multiple settings. Clinicians such as Psychologists and Developmental Pediatricians play important roles in the initial evaluation of autism spectrum disorder. An ASD assessment may consist of several types of measures such as standardized checklists, structured interviews, and direct assessments such as the ADOS-2 are just a few examples. With the advent of telehealth clinicians were asked to continue to provide meaningful interdisciplinary assessments via an electronic platform and, in a sense, going to the family home and evaluating the clinical symptom presentation remotely and confidently making an accurate diagnosis. This poster presentation will review the benefits, limitations, and interpretation of these various instruments. The role of other medical professionals will also be addressed, including medical providers, speech pathology, and occupational therapy.

Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder Assessments, Interdisciplinary Evaluations , Tele-Assessment with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

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6 Difficulties for Implementation of Telenursing: An Experience Report

Authors: Jacqueline A. G. Sachett, Cláudia S. Nogueira, Diana C. P. Lima, Jessica T. S. Oliveira, Guilherme K. M. Salazar, Lílian K. Aguiar

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The Polo Amazon Telehealth offers several tools for professionals working in Primary Health Care as a second formative opinion, teleconsulting and training between the different areas, whether medicine, dentistry, nursing, physiotherapy, among others. These activities have a monthly schedule of free access to the municipalities of Amazonas registered. With this premise, and in partnership with the University of the State of Amazonas (UEA), is promoting the practice of the triad; teaching-research-extension in order to collaborate with the enrichment and acquisition of knowledge through educational practices carried out through teleconferences. Therefore, nursing is to join efforts and inserts as a collaborator of this project running, contributing to the education and training of these professionals who are part of the health system in full Amazon. The aim of this study is to report the experience of academic of Amazonas State University nursing course, about the experience in the extension project underway in Polo Telemedicine Amazon. This was a descriptive study, the experience report type, about the experience of nursing academic UEA, by extension 'Telenursing: teleconsulting and second formative opinion for FHS professionals in the state of Amazonas' project, held in Polo Telemedicine Amazon, through an agreement with the UEA and funded by the Foundation of Amazonas Research from July / 2012 to July / 2016. Initially developed active search of members of the Family Health Strategy professionals, in order to provide training and training teams to use the virtual clinic, as well as the virtual environment is the focus of this tool design. The election period was an aggravating factor for the implementation of teleconsulting proposal, due to change of managers in each municipality, requiring the stoppage until they assume their positions. From this definition, we established the need for new training. The first video conference took place on 03.14.2013 for learning and training in the use of Virtual Learning Environment and Virtual Clinic, with the participation of municipalities of Novo Aripuanã, São Paulo de Olivença and Manacapuru. During the whole project was carried out literature about what is being done and produced at the national level about the subject. By the time the telenursing project has received twenty-five (25) consultancy requests. The consultants sent by nursing professionals, all have been answered to date. Faced with the lived experience, particularly in video conferencing, face to cause difficulties issues, such as the fluctuation in the number of participants in activities, difficulty of participants to reconcile the opening hours of the units with the schedule of video conferencing, transmission difficulties and changes schedule. It was concluded that the establishment of connection between the Telehealth points is one of the main factors for the implementation of Telenursing and that this feature is still new for nursing. However, effective training and updating, may provide to these professional category subsidies to quality health care in the Amazon.

Keywords: Amazon, teleconsulting, telehealth, telenursing

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5 Telepsychiatry for Asian Americans

Authors: Jami Wang, Brian Kao, Davin Agustines

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COVID-19 highlighted the active discrimination against the Asian American population easily seen through media, social tension, and increased crimes against the specific population. It is well known that long-term racism can also have a large impact on both emotional and psychological well-being. However, the healthcare disparity during this time also revealed how the Asian American community lacked the research data, political support, and medical infrastructure for this particular population. During a time when Asian American fear for safety with decreasing mental health, telepsychiatry is particularly promising. COVID-19 demonstrated how well psychiatry could integrate with telemedicine, with psychiatry being the second most utilized telemedicine visits. However, the Asian American community did not utilize the telepsychiatry resources as much as other groups. Because of this, we wanted to understand why the patient population who was affected the most by COVID-19 mentally did not seek out care. To do this, we decided to study the top top telepsychiatry platforms. The current top telepsychiatry companies in the United States include Teladoc and BetterHelp. In the Teladoc mental health sector, they only had 4 available languages (English, Spanish, French, and Danis,) with none of them being an Asian language. In a similar manner, Teladoc’s top competitor in the telepsychiatry space, BetterHelp, only listed a total of 3 Asian languages, including Mandarin, Japanese, and Malaysian. However, this is still a short list considering they have over 20 languages available. The shortage of available physicians that speak multiple languages is concerning, as it could be difficult for the Asian American community to relate with. There are limited mental health resources that cater to their likely cultural needs, further exacerbating the structural racism and institutional barriers to appropriate care. It is important to note that these companies do provide interpreters to comply with the nondiscrimination and language assistance federal law. However, interactions with an interpreter are not only more time-consuming but also less personal than talking directly with a physician. Psychiatry is the field that emphasizes interpersonal relationships. The trust between a physician and the patient is critical in developing patient rapport to guide in better understanding the clinical picture and treating the patient appropriately. The language barrier creates an additional barrier between the physician and patient. Because Asian Americans are one of the largest growing patient population bases, these telehealth companies have much to gain by catering to the Asian American market. Without providing adequate access to bilingual and bicultural physicians, the current system will only further exacerbate the growing disparity. The healthcare community and telehealth companies need to recognize that the Asian American population is a severely underserved population in mental health and has much to gain from telepsychiatry. The lack of language is one of many reasons why there is a disparity for Asian Americans in the mental health space.

Keywords: telemedicine, psychiatry, Asian American, disparity

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4 Telemedicine Services in Ophthalmology: A Review of Studies

Authors: Nasim Hashemi, Abbas Sheikhtaheri

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Telemedicine is the use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide health care services that would often not be consistently available in distant rural communities to people at these remote areas. Teleophthalmology is a branch of telemedicine that delivers eye care through digital medical equipment and telecommunications technology. Thus, teleophthalmology can overcome geographical barriers and improve quality, access, and affordability of eye health care services. Since teleophthalmology has been widespread applied in recent years, the aim of this study was to determine the different applications of teleophthalmology in the world. To this end, three bibliographic databases (Medline, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were comprehensively searched with these keywords: eye care, eye health care, primary eye care, diagnosis, detection, and screening of different eye diseases in conjunction with telemedicine, telehealth, teleophthalmology, e-services, and information technology. All types of papers were included in the study with no time restriction. We conducted the search strategies until 2015. Finally 70 articles were surveyed. We classified the results based on the’type of eye problems covered’ and ‘the type of telemedicine services’. Based on the review, from the ‘perspective of health care levels’, there are three level for eye health care as primary, secondary and tertiary eye care. From the ‘perspective of eye care services’, the main application of teleophthalmology in primary eye care was related to the diagnosis of different eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, strabismus and aged related macular degeneration. The main application of teleophthalmology in secondary and tertiary eye care was related to the screening of eye problems i.e. diabetic retinopathy, astigmatism, glaucoma screening. Teleconsultation between health care providers and ophthalmologists and also education and training sessions for patients were other types of teleophthalmology in world. Real time, store–forward and hybrid methods were the main forms of the communication from the perspective of ‘teleophthalmology mode’ which is used based on IT infrastructure between sending and receiving centers. In aspect of specialists, early detection of serious aged-related ophthalmic disease in population, screening of eye disease processes, consultation in an emergency cases and comprehensive eye examination were the most important benefits of teleophthalmology. Cost-effectiveness of teleophthalmology projects resulted from reducing transportation and accommodation cost, access to affordable eye care services and receiving specialist opinions were also the main advantages of teleophthalmology for patients. Teleophthalmology brings valuable secondary and tertiary care to remote areas. So, applying teleophthalmology for detection, treatment and screening purposes and expanding its use in new applications such as eye surgery will be a key tool to promote public health and integrating eye care to primary health care.

Keywords: applications, telehealth, telemedicine, teleophthalmology

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3 Early Intervention and Teletherapy during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Stephen Hernandez, Nikita Sharma

Abstract:

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged as a worldwide pandemic at the beginning of 2020. The pandemic and its impact reached the shores of the United States by the second week of March. Once infections started to grow in numbers, early intervention programs, including those providing home-based services, recognized that to reduce the spread of the virus, many traditional in-person therapeutic interventions were going to be impossible due to social distancing and self-quarantine requirements. Initially, infants, toddlers, and their families were left without any services from their educators and therapists, but within a few weeks of the public health emergency, various states, including New York, approved the use of teletherapy/virtual visits for early intervention service provision. This paper will detail the results of a survey from over 400 E.I. service providers about their experiences utilizing teletherapy to deliver services to children in early intervention programs. The survey questions focused on how did COVID-19 stay-at-home orders impact E.I. services for young children with special needs? Sub-questions included topics such as availability of the parents, the amount of time that babies remained engaged, as well as the perceived success of teletherapy as a viable option to provide service by both parent and professional. The results of this study found that therapists found teletherapy to be a viable manner of providing services and could be very effective on a case by case basis.

Keywords: early intervention, teletheraphy, telehealth, COVID-19

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2 Cosmetic Surgery on the Rise: The Impact of Remote Communication

Authors: Bruno Di Pace, Roxanne H. Padley

Abstract:

Aims: The recent increase in remote video interaction has increased the number of requests for teleconsultations with plastic surgeons in private practice (70% in the UK and 64% in the USA). This study investigated the motivations for such an increase and the underlying psychological impact on patients. Method: An anonymous web-based poll of 8 questions was designed and distributed to patients seeking cosmetic surgery through social networks in both Italy and the UK. The questions gathered responses regarding 1. Reasons for pursuing cosmetic surgery; 2. The effects of delays caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic; 3. The effects on mood; 4. The influence of video conferencing on body-image perception. Results: 85 respondents completed the online poll. Overall, 68% of respondents stated that seeing themselves more frequently online had influenced their decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The types of surgeries indicated were predominantly to the upper body and face (82%). Delays and access to surgeons during the pandemic were perceived as negatively impacting patients' moods (95%). Body-image perception and self-esteem were lower than in the pre-pandemic, particularly during lockdown (72%). Patients were more inclined to undergo cosmetic surgery during the pandemic, both due to the wish to improve their “lockdown face” for video conferencing (77%) and also due to the benefits of home recovery while in smart working (58%). Conclusions: Overall, findings suggest that video conferencing has led to a significant increase in requests for cosmetic surgery and the so-called “Zoom Boom” effect.

Keywords: cosmetic surgery, remote communication, telehealth, zoom boom

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1 Sukh Initiative: A Family Planning Reproductive Health Project for Squatter Settlement of Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Arshad Hussain

Abstract:

Background: Sukh Initiative is a multi-donor funded, family planning and reproductive health project, primed by Aman Healthcare Services; implemented through a consortium of local and international organizations, in a selected one million underserved peri-urban population of Karachi, Sindh; which aims at increasing modern contraceptive prevalence rate by 15 percentage point. Objective: To empower women to access contraception by increasing knowledge, improving quality of services and expanding the basket of choices; contributing to the goals of FP2020. Methods: A five years project has a multi-pronged approach with door to door services by LHWs and CHWs in an LHWs covered population and provision of quality FP/RH services both at public and private health care facilities. The project engages youth (12-16 years) both with community and at secondary schools to mentor them for responsible adulthood with life skilled base initiative. A 24/7 availability of youth and FP helpline service provides counselling, referrals in addition with a follow-up mechanism. Results: 131,810 MWRAs were reached by 191 community health workers through 29,693 of community support group meetings and 166,775 house hold visits. These MWRAs were counselled on FP related myths and misconception and referred to 216 providers trained for quality family planning services and maintaining average 64% quality scores in 43 public health and 35 private facilities in the project area. Of those referred 26% MWRAs opted modern contraception with 17.56% in LARCs and 41% PPFP as compared to baseline. Aman TeleHealth is linked with 24/7 counselling, referrals and post services follow-ups to clients, showing 14% proportion of FP call volume. Sukh has a unique role in engaging all partners on youth SRHR issues through family life education sessions, 30 higher sec. schools in Sukh area have been provided LSBE to 16,000 students (aged 15-17), and in community approximately 10, 496 girls and boys have received SRHR information. Conclusion: Through individual counselling, access to quality family planning services and involvement of stakeholders, Suk created an enabling environment to rapid increase in family planning in the project intervention area.

Keywords: family planning and reproductive health, married women with reproductive age, urban squatter, Pakistan

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