Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Emmanuelle Merat

12 Nude Cosmetic Water-Rich Compositions for Skin Care and Consumer Emotions

Authors: Emmanuelle Merat, Arnaud Aubert, Sophie Cambos, Francis Vial, Patrick Beau

Abstract:

Basically, consumers are sensitive to many stimuli when applying a cream: brand, packaging and indeed formulation compositions. Many studies demonstrated the influence of some stimuli such as brand, packaging, formula color and odor (e.g. in make-up applications). Those parameters influence perceived quality of the product. The objective of this work is to further investigate the relationship between nude skincare basic compositions with different textures and consumer experience. A tentative final step will be to connect the consumer feelings with key ingredients in the compositions. A new approach was developed to better understand touch-related subjective experience in consumers based on a combination of methods: sensory analysis with ten experts, preference mapping on one hundred female consumers and emotional assessments on thirty consumers (verbal and non-verbal through prosody and gesture monitoring). Finally, a methodology based on ‘sensorial trip’ (after olfactory, haptic and musical stimuli) has been experimented on the most interesting textures with 10 consumers. The results showed more or less impact depending on compositions and also on key ingredients. Three types of formulation particularly attracted the consumer: an aqueous gel, an oil-in-water emulsion, and a patented gel-in-oil formulation type. Regarding these three formulas, the preferences were both revealed through sensory and emotion tests. One was recognized as the most innovative in consumer sensory test whereas the two other formulas were discriminated in emotions evaluation. The positive emotions were highlighted especially in prosody criteria. The non-verbal analysis, which corresponds to the physical parameters of the voice, showed high pitch and amplitude values; linked to positive emotions. Verbatim, verbal content of responses (i.e., ideas, concepts, mental images), confirmed the first conclusion. On the formulas selected for their positive emotions generation, the ‘sensorial trip’ provided complementary information to characterize each emotional profile. In the second step, dedicated to better understand ingredients power, two types of ingredients demonstrated an obvious input on consumer preference: rheology modifiers and emollients. As a conclusion, nude cosmetic compositions with well-chosen textures and ingredients can positively stimulate consumer emotions contributing to capture their preference. For a complete achievement of the study, a global approach (Asia, America territories...) should be developed.

Keywords: sensory, emotion, cosmetic formulations, ingredients' influence

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11 Qualitative Detection of HCV and GBV-C Co-infection in Cirrhotic Patients Using a SYBR Green Multiplex Real Time RT-PCR Technique

Authors: Shahzamani Kiana, Esmaeil Lashgarian Hamed, Merat Shahin

Abstract:

HCV and GBV-C belong to the Flaviviridae family of viruses and GBV-C is the closest virus to HCV genetically. Accumulative research is in progress all over the world to clarify clinical aspects of GBV-C. Possibility of interaction between HCV and GBV-C and also its consequence with other liver diseases are the most important clinical aspects which encourage researchers to develop a technique for simultaneous detection of these viruses. In this study a SYBR Green multiplex real time RT-PCR technique as a new economical and sensitive method was optimized for simultaneous detection of HCV/GBV-C in HCV positive plasma samples. After designing and selection of two pairs of specific primers for HCV and GBV-C, SYBR Green Real time RT-PCR technique optimization was performed separately for each virus. Establishment of multiplex PCR was the next step. Finally our technique was performed on positive and negative plasma samples. 89 cirrhotic HCV positive plasma samples (29 of genotype 3 a and 27 of genotype 1a) were collected from patients before receiving treatment. 14% of genotype 3a and 17.1% of genotype 1a showed HCV/GBV-C co-infection. As a result, 13.48% of 89 samples had HCV/GBV-C co-infection that was compatible with other results from all over the world. Data showed no apparent influence of HGV co-infection on the either clinical or virological aspect of HCV infection. Furthermore, with application of multiplex Real time RT-PCR technique, more time and cost could be saved in clinical-research settings.

Keywords: HCV, GBV-C, cirrhotic patients, multiplex real time RT- PCR

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10 Use of Statistical Correlations for the Estimation of Shear Wave Velocity from Standard Penetration Test-N-Values: Case Study of Algiers Area

Authors: Soumia Merat, Lynda Djerbal, Ramdane Bahar, Mohammed Amin Benbouras

Abstract:

Along with shear wave, many soil parameters are associated with the standard penetration test (SPT) as a dynamic in situ experiment. Both SPT-N data and geophysical data do not often exist in the same area. Statistical analysis of correlation between these parameters is an alternate method to estimate Vₛ conveniently and without additional investigations or data acquisition. Shear wave velocity is a basic engineering tool required to define dynamic properties of soils. In many instances, engineers opt for empirical correlations between shear wave velocity (Vₛ) and reliable static field test data like standard penetration test (SPT) N value, CPT (Cone Penetration Test) values, etc., to estimate shear wave velocity or dynamic soil parameters. The relation between Vs and SPT- N values of Algiers area is predicted using the collected data, and it is also compared with the previously suggested formulas of Vₛ determination by measuring Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of each model. Algiers area is situated in high seismic zone (Zone III [RPA 2003: réglement parasismique algerien]), therefore the study is important for this region. The principal aim of this paper is to compare the field measurements of Down-hole test and the empirical models to show which one of these proposed formulas are applicable to predict and deduce shear wave velocity values.

Keywords: empirical models, RMSE, shear wave velocity, standard penetration test

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9 Predicting Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Psychosis Using Machine Learning and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Eva Tolmeijer, Emmanuelle Peters, Veena Kumari, Liam Mason

Abstract:

Cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) is effective in many but not all patients, making it important to better understand the factors that determine treatment outcomes. To date, no studies have examined whether neuroimaging can make clinically useful predictions about who will respond to CBTp. To this end, we used machine learning methods that make predictions about symptom improvement at the individual patient level. Prior to receiving CBTp, 22 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a social-affective processing task during functional MRI. Multivariate pattern analysis assessed whether treatment response could be predicted by brain activation responses to facial affect that was either socially threatening or prosocial. The resulting models did significantly predict symptom improvement, with distinct multivariate signatures predicting psychotic (r=0.54, p=0.01) and affective (r=0.32, p=0.05) symptoms. Psychotic symptom improvement was accurately predicted from relatively focal threat-related activation across hippocampal, occipital, and temporal regions; affective symptom improvement was predicted by a more dispersed profile of responses to prosocial affect. These findings enrich our understanding of the neurobiological underpinning of treatment response. This study provides a foundation that will hopefully lead to greater precision and tailoring of the interventions offered to patients.

Keywords: cognitive behavioral therapy, machine learning, psychosis, schizophrenia

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8 Prebiotics and Essential Oils-Enriched Diet Can Increase the Efficiency of Vaccine against Furunculosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

Authors: Niki Hayatgheib, SéGolèNe Calvez, Catherine Fournel, Lionel Pineau, Herve Pouliquen, Emmanuelle Moreau

Abstract:

Furunculosis caused by infection with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida has been a known disease found principally in salmonid aquaculture. Vaccination has been partly successful in preventing this disease, but outbreaks still occur. The application of functional feed additive found to be a promising yield to improve fish health against diseases. In this study, we tested the efficacy of prebiotics and plant essential oils-enriched diet on immune response and disease resistance in vaccinated and non-vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against furunculosis. A total of 600 fish were fed with the basal diet or supplement. On 4th week of feeding, fish were vaccinated with an autovaccine. Following 8 weeks, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida and mortalities were recorded for 3 weeks. Lysozyme activity and antibody titer in serum were measured in different groups. The results of this study showed that lysozyme and circulatory antibody titer in plasma elevated significantly in vaccinated fish fed with additive. The best growth rate and relative percentage survival (62%) were in fish fed with a supplement, while 15% in control fish. Overall, prebiotics and essential oils association can be considered as a potential component for enhancing vaccine efficacy against furunculosis by increasing the growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance in rainbow trout.

Keywords: aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, aquaculture, disease resistance, fish, immune response, prebiotics-essential oils feed additive, rainbow trout, vaccination

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7 Waters Colloidal Phase Extraction and Preconcentration: Method Comparison

Authors: Emmanuelle Maria, Pierre Crançon, Gaëtane Lespes

Abstract:

Colloids are ubiquitous in the environment and are known to play a major role in enhancing the transport of trace elements, thus being an important vector for contaminants dispersion. Colloids study and characterization are necessary to improve our understanding of the fate of pollutants in the environment. However, in stream water and groundwater, colloids are often very poorly concentrated. It is therefore necessary to pre-concentrate colloids in order to get enough material for analysis, while preserving their initial structure. Many techniques are used to extract and/or pre-concentrate the colloidal phase from bulk aqueous phase, but yet there is neither reference method nor estimation of the impact of these different techniques on the colloids structure, as well as the bias introduced by the separation method. In the present work, we have tested and compared several methods of colloidal phase extraction/pre-concentration, and their impact on colloids properties, particularly their size distribution and their elementary composition. Ultrafiltration methods (frontal, tangential and centrifugal) have been considered since they are widely used for the extraction of colloids in natural waters. To compare these methods, a ‘synthetic groundwater’ was used as a reference. The size distribution (obtained by Field-Flow Fractionation (FFF)) and the chemical composition of the colloidal phase (obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Total Organic Carbon analysis (TOC)) were chosen as comparison factors. In this way, it is possible to estimate the pre-concentration impact on the colloidal phase preservation. It appears that some of these methods preserve in a more efficient manner the colloidal phase composition while others are easier/faster to use. The choice of the extraction/pre-concentration method is therefore a compromise between efficiency (including speed and ease of use) and impact on the structural and chemical composition of the colloidal phase. In perspective, the use of these methods should enhance the consideration of colloidal phase in the transport of pollutants in environmental assessment studies and forensics.

Keywords: chemical composition, colloids, extraction, preconcentration methods, size distribution

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6 Uranium Migration Process: A Multi-Technique Investigation Strategy for a Better Understanding of the Role of Colloids

Authors: Emmanuelle Maria, Pierre Crançon, Gaëtane Lespes

Abstract:

The knowledge of uranium migration processes within underground environments is a major issue in the environmental risk assessment associated with nuclear activities. This process is identified as strongly controlled by adsorption mechanisms, thus leading to strongly delayed migration paths. Colloidal ligands are likely to significantly increase the mobility of uranium in natural environments. The ability of colloids to mobilize and transport uranium depends on their origin, their nature, their structure, their stability and their reactivity with uranium. Thus, the colloidal mobilization and transport properties are often described as site-specific. In this work, the colloidal phases of two leachates obtained from two different horizons of the same podzolic soil were characterized with a speciation approach. For this purpose, a multi-technique strategy was used, based on Field-Flow Fractionation coupled to Ultraviolet, Multi-Angle Light Scattering and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (AF4-UV-MALS-ICPMS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Electrospray Ionization Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry (ESI-Orbitrap), and Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS-EEM). Thus, elemental composition, size distribution, microscopic structure, colloidal stability and possible organic and/or inorganic content of colloids were determined, as well as their association with uranium. The leachates exhibit differences in their physical and chemical characteristics, mainly in the nature of organic matter constituents. The multi-technique investigation strategy used provides original data about colloidal phase structure and composition, offering a new vision of the way the uranium can be mobilized and transported in the considered soil. This information is a real significant contribution opening the way to our understanding and predicting of the colloidal transport.

Keywords: colloids, migration, multi-technique, speciation, transport, uranium

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5 A Multi-Family Offline SPE LC-MS/MS Analytical Method for Anionic, Cationic and Non-ionic Surfactants in Surface Water

Authors: Laure Wiest, Barbara Giroud, Azziz Assoumani, Francois Lestremau, Emmanuelle Vulliet

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Due to their production at high tonnages and their extensive use, surfactants are contaminants among those determined at the highest concentrations in wastewater. However, analytical methods and data regarding their occurrence in river water are scarce and concern only a few families, mainly anionic surfactants. The objective of this study was to develop an analytical method to extract and analyze a wide variety of surfactants in a minimum of steps, with a sensitivity compatible with the detection of ultra-traces in surface waters. 27 substances, from 12 families of surfactants, anionic, cationic and non-ionic were selected for method optimization. Different retention mechanisms for the extraction by solid phase extraction (SPE) were tested and compared in order to improve their detection by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The best results were finally obtained with a C18 grafted silica LC column and a polymer cartridge with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB), and the method developed allows the extraction of the three types of surfactants with satisfactory recoveries. The final analytical method comprised only one extraction and two LC injections. It was validated and applied for the quantification of surfactants in 36 river samples. The method's limits of quantification (LQ), intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were evaluated, and good performances were obtained for the 27 substances. As these compounds have many areas of application, contaminations of instrument and method blanks were observed and considered for the determination of LQ. Nevertheless, with LQ between 15 and 485 ng/L, and accuracy of over 80%, this method was suitable for monitoring surfactants in surface waters. Application on French river samples revealed the presence of anionic, cationic and non-ionic surfactants with median concentrations ranging from 24 ng/L for octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO) to 4.6 µg/L for linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS). The analytical method developed in this work will therefore be useful for future monitoring of surfactants in waters. Moreover, this method, which shows good performances for anionic, non-ionic and cationic surfactants, may be easily adapted to other surfactants.

Keywords: anionic surfactant, cationic surfactant, LC-MS/MS, non-ionic surfactant, SPE, surface water

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4 Identification of Rare Mutations in Genes Involved in Monogenic Forms of Obesity and Diabetes in Obese Guadeloupean Children through Next-Generation Sequencing

Authors: Lydia Foucan, Laurent Larifla, Emmanuelle Durand, Christine Rambhojan, Veronique Dhennin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Philippe Froguel, Amelie Bonnefond

Abstract:

In the population of Guadeloupe Island (472,124 inhabitants and 80% of subjects of African descent), overweight and obesity were estimated at 23% and 9% respectively among children. High prevalence of diabetes has been reported (~10%) in the adult population. Nevertheless, no study has investigated the contribution of gene mutations to childhood obesity in this population. We aimed to investigate rare genetic mutations in genes involved in monogenic obesity or diabetes in obese Afro-Caribbean children from Guadeloupe Island using next-generation sequencing. The present investigation included unrelated obese children, from a previous study on overweight conducted in Guadeloupe Island in 2013. We sequenced coding regions of 59 genes involved in monogenic obesity or diabetes. A total of 25 obese schoolchildren (with Z-score of body mass index [BMI]: 2.0 to 2.8) were screened for rare mutations (non-synonymous, splice-site, or insertion/deletion) in 59 genes. Mean age of the study population was 12.4 ± 1.1 years. Seventeen children (68%) had insulin-resistance (HOMA-IR > 3.16). A family history of obesity (mother or father) was observed in eight children and three of the accompanying parent presented with type 2 diabetes. None of the children had gonadotrophic abnormality or mental retardation. We detected five rare heterozygous mutations, in four genes involved in monogenic obesity, in five different obese children: MC4R p.Ile301Thr and SIM1 p.Val326Thrfs*43 mutations which were pathogenic; SIM1 p.Ser343Pro and SH2B1 p.Pro90His mutations which were likely pathogenic; and NTRK2 p.Leu140Phe that was of uncertain significance. In parallel, we identified seven carriers of mutation in ABCC8 or KCNJ11 (involved in monogenic diabetes), which were of uncertain significance (KCNJ11 p.Val13Met, KCNJ11 p.Val151Met, ABCC8 p.Lys1521Asn and ABCC8 p.Ala625Val). Rare pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations, linked to severe obesity were detected in more than 15% of this Afro-Caribbean population at high risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: childhood obesity, MC4R, monogenic obesity, SIM1

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3 Monitoring of 53 Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Occurrence in Effluents, Sludges, and Surface Waters Upstream and Downstream of 7 Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Azziz Assoumani, Francois Lestremau, Celine Ferret, Benedicte Lepot, Morgane Salomon, Helene Budzinski, Marie-Helene Devier, Pierre Labadie, Karyn Le Menach, Patrick Pardon, Laure Wiest, Emmanuelle Vulliet, Pierre-Francois Staub

Abstract:

Seven French wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were monitored for 53 contaminants of emerging concern within a nation-wide monitoring campaign in surface waters, which took place in 2018. The overall objective of the 2018 campaign was to provide the exercise of prioritization of emerging substances, which is being carried out in 2021, with monitoring data. This exercise should make it possible to update the list of relevant substances to be monitored (SPAS) as part of future water framework directive monitoring programmes, which will be implemented in the next water body management cycle (2022). One sampling campaign was performed in October 2018 in the seven WWTP, where affluent and sludge samples were collected. Surface water samples were collected in September 2018 at three to five sites upstream and downstream the point of effluent discharge of each WWTP. The contaminants (36 biocides and 17 surfactants, selected by the Prioritization Experts Committee) were determined in the seven WWTP effluent and sludge samples and in surface water samples by liquid or gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, depending on the contaminant. Nine surfactants and three biocides were quantified at least in one WWTP effluent sample. Linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acids (LAS) and fipronil were quantified in all samples; the LAS were quantified at the highest median concentrations. Twelve surfactants and 13 biocides were quantified in at least one sludge sample. The LAS and didecyldimethylammonium were quantified in all samples and at the highest median concentrations. Higher concentration levels of the substances quantified in WWTP effluent samples were observed in the surface water samples collected downstream the effluents discharge points, compared with the samples collected upstream, suggesting a contribution of the WWTP effluents in the contamination of surface waters.

Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern, effluent, monitoring, river water, sludge

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2 Improving Collective Health and Social Care through a Better Consideration of Sex and Gender: Analytical Report by the French National Authority for Health

Authors: Thomas Suarez, Anne-Sophie Grenouilleau, Erwan Autin, Alexandre Biosse-Duplan, Emmanuelle Blondet, Laurence Chazalette, Marie Coniel, Agnes Dessaigne, Sylvie Lascols, Andrea Lasserre, Candice Legris, Pierre Liot, Aline Metais, Karine Petitprez, Christophe Varlet, Christian Saout

Abstract:

Background: The role of biological sex and gender identity -whether assigned or chosen- as health determinants are far from a recent discovery: several reports have stressed out how being a woman or a man could affect health on various scales. However, taking it into consideration beyond stereotypes and rigid binary assumptions still seems to be a work in progress. Method: The report is a synthesis on a variety of specific topics, each of which was studied by a specialist from the French National Authority for Health (HAS), through an analysis of existing literature on both healthcare policy construction process and instruments (norms, data analysis, clinical trials, guidelines, and professional practices). This work also implied a policy analysis of French recent public health laws and a retrospective study of guidelines with a gender mainstreaming approach. Results: The analysis showed that though sex and gender were well-known determinants of health, their consideration by both public policy and health operators was often incomplete, as it does not incorporate how sex and gender interact, as well as how they interact with other factors. As a result, the health and social care systems and their professionals tend to reproduce some stereotypical and inadequate habits. Though the data available often allows to take sex and gender into consideration, such data is often underused in practice guidelines and policy formulation. Another consequence is a lack of inclusiveness towards transgender or intersex persons. Conclusions: This report first urges for raising awareness of all the actors of health, in its broadest definition, that sex and gender matter beyond first-look conclusions. It makes a series of recommendations in order to reshape policy construction in the health sector on the one hand and to design public health instruments to make them more inclusive regarding sex and gender on the other hand. The HAS finally committed to integrate sex and gender preoccupations in its workings methods, to be a driving force in the spread of these concerns.

Keywords: biological sex, determinants of health, gender, healthcare policy instruments, social accompaniment

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1 Experimental Quantification of the Intra-Tow Resin Storage Evolution during RTM Injection

Authors: Mathieu Imbert, Sebastien Comas-Cardona, Emmanuelle Abisset-Chavanne, David Prono

Abstract:

Short cycle time Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) applications appear to be of great interest for the mass production of automotive or aeronautical lightweight structural parts. During the RTM process, the two components of a resin are mixed on-line and injected into the cavity of a mold where a fibrous preform has been placed. Injection and polymerization occur simultaneously in the preform inducing evolutions of temperature, degree of cure and viscosity that furthermore affect flow and curing. In order to adjust the processing conditions to reduce the cycle time, it is, therefore, essential to understand and quantify the physical mechanisms occurring in the part during injection. In a previous study, a dual-scale simulation tool has been developed to help determining the optimum injection parameters. This tool allows tracking finely the repartition of the resin and the evolution of its properties during reactive injections with on-line mixing. Tows and channels of the fibrous material are considered separately to deal with the consequences of the dual-scale morphology of the continuous fiber textiles. The simulation tool reproduces the unsaturated area at the flow front, generated by the tow/channel difference of permeability. Resin “storage” in the tows after saturation is also taken into account as it may significantly affect the repartition and evolution of the temperature, degree of cure and viscosity in the part during reactive injections. The aim of the current study is, thanks to experiments, to understand and quantify the “storage” evolution in the tows to adjust and validate the numerical tool. The presented study is based on four experimental repeats conducted on three different types of textiles: a unidirectional Non Crimp Fabric (NCF), a triaxial NCF and a satin weave. Model fluids, dyes and image analysis, are used to study quantitatively, the resin flow in the saturated area of the samples. Also, textiles characteristics affecting the resin “storage” evolution in the tows are analyzed. Finally, fully coupled on-line mixing reactive injections are conducted to validate the numerical model.

Keywords: experimental, on-line mixing, high-speed RTM process, dual-scale flow

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