Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Bactrocera zonata

16 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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15 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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14 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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13 Assessment of Attractency of Bactrocera Zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera:Tephritidae) to Different Biolure Phagostimulant-Mixtures

Authors: Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Ahsan Khan, Ahmad Nawaz, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Arshad, Amna Jalal

Abstract:

Fruit flies of Bactrocera genus cause heavy losses in fruits and vegetables globally and insecticide-application for their control creates issues of ecological backlash, environmental pollution, and food safety. There is need to explore alternatives and food-baits application is considered safe for the environment and effective for fruit fly management. Present experiment was carried out to assess the attractancy of five phagostimulant-Mixtures (PHS-Mix) prepared by mixing banana-squash, mulberry, protein-hydrolysate and molasses with some phagostimulant-lure sources including beef extract, fish extract, yeast, starch, rose oil, casein and cedar oil in five different ratios i.e., PHS-Mix-1 (1 part of all ingredients), PHS-Mix-2 (1 part of banana with 0.75 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-3 (1 part of banana with 0.5 parts of all other ingredients), PHS-Mix-4 (1 part of banana with 0.25 parts of all other ingredients) and PHS-Mix-5 (1 part of banana with 0.125 parts of all other ingredients). These were evaluated in comparison with a standard (GF-120). PHS-Mix-4 demonstrated 40.5±1.3-46.2±1.6% AI for satiated flies (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) and 59.5±2.0-68.6±3.0% AI for starved flies (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for both B. dorsalis and B. zonata in olfactometric study while the same exhibited 51.2±0.53% AI (class-III i.e., highly attractive) for B. zonata and 45.4±0.89% AI (class-II i.e., moderately attractive) for B. dorsalis in field study. PHS-Mix-1 proved non-attractive (class-I) and moderately attractive (class-II) phagostimulant in olfactometer and field studies, respectively. PHS-Mix-2 exhibited moderate attractiveness for starved lots in olfactometer and field-lot in field studies. PHS-Mix-5 proved non-attractive to starved and satiated lots of B. zonata and B. dorsalis females in olfactometer and field studies. Overall PHS-Mix-4 proved better phagostimulant-mixture followed by PHS-Mix-3 which was categorized as class-II (moderately attractive) phagostimulant for starved and satiated lots of female flies of both species in olfactometer and field studies; hence these can be exploited for fruit fly management.

Keywords: attractive index, field conditions, olfactometer, Tephritid flies

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12 Description of a New Fruit Fly Species within Genus Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) Detected in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

As a result of broad trapping program for the collection of fruit flies fauna of Pakistan, adults or larvae samples of fruit flies were collected from different localities. After sampling, to characterize fruit fly fauna involved, the collected samples were brought to the laboratory for their species identification. In this study, based on extensive literature records, the presence of one fruit fly species Bactrocera abbasi (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) belonging to genus Bactrocera Macquar was recognized for the first time. This new species is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters, supported by data on its ecology and geographic distribution. Information is also given on host plant and location of type specimen, distinguish remarks and diagnosis are as well included.

Keywords: diptera, tephritidae, bactrocera, new species, taxonomy, Pakistan

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11 Assessing the Potential of Pimenta racemosa (Mill.) J. W. Moore Leaf Extract as an Attractant for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) in Selected Mango Plantations in Southern Ghana

Authors: Osei Yaw Atakora

Abstract:

A brief study involving the use of natural plant product in trapping of Bactrocera dorsalis was conducted in selected mango orchards in two agro ecological zone of Ghana for the major mango season. The main objective of the study was to compare the attractiveness of different concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Pimenta racemosa with a commercial methyl eugenol (Stop Mating Block). A total number of 174,388 organisms were captured with 171,412 identified as B. dorsalis and 2,976 identified as non-target (other insects and spiders). Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed in the performance of the different treatments across the selected experimental farms. Stop Mating Block performed better than the different concentrations with a significant margin. The result suggests that Stop Mating Block performed better than the extract but it is economically preferable since most farmers in Ghana are small-holder farmers.

Keywords: bactrocera dorsalis, methyl eugenol, Pimenta racemosa, stop mating block

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10 Parental Diet Effects on Offspring Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Bactrocera tryoni

Authors: Hue Dinh, Binh Nguyen, Vivian Mendez, Phillip W. Taylor, Fleur Ponton

Abstract:

Better understanding of how parental diet affects offspring traits is an important ecological and evolutionary question. In this study, we explored how maternal diet influences offspring physiology and resistance to infection using Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly) as a system model. Female Q-flies were fed one of six single diets varying in their yeast-to-sugar ratio yielding six protein-to-carbohydrate ratios. As controls, we used females that were given a choice between yeast and sugar. Males were reared on a choice diet and allowed to mate with females 14 days post-emergence. Results showed that while maternal diet does not influence offspring developmental time, it has a strong effect on larval body weight. Mother fed either high-protein or high-sugar diet produced larger progeny. By challenging offspring with the bacterium Serratia marcescens, we found that female offspring from mothers fed high-sugar diet survived better the infection compared to those from mothers fed low-sugar diet. In contrast, male offspring produced by mother fed high-protein diet showed better resistance to the infection compared to those produced by mother fed low-protein diet. These results suggested sex-dependent transgenerational effects of maternal nutrition on offspring physiology and immunity.

Keywords: bacterial infection, Bactrocera tryoni, maternal diet, offspring, Serretia marcescens

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9 Infestations of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Different Olive Cultivars in Çanakkale, Turkey

Authors: Hanife Genç

Abstract:

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is an economically important and endemic pest in olive (Oleae europae) orchards in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine olive fruit fly infestation in different olive cultivars in the laboratory. Olive fly infested fruits were collected in Çanakkale province to establish wild fly population. After having reproductive olive fly colonies, 14 olive cultivars were tested in the controlled laboratory conditions, at 23±2 °C, 65% RH and 16:8 h (light: dark) photoperiod. The olive samples from 14 different olive cultivars were collected in October 2015, in Campus of Dardanos, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Observations were carried out detecting some biological parameters such as the number of oviposition stings, active infestation, total infestation, the number of pupae and the adult emergence. The results indicated that oviposition stings were not associated with pupal yield. A few pupae were found within olive fruits which were not able to exit. Screening of the varieties suggested that less susceptible cultivar to olive fruit fly attacks was Arbequin while Gemlik-2M 2/3 showed significant susceptibility. Ovipositional preference of olive fly females and the success of larval development in different olive varieties are crucial for establishing new olive orchards to prevent high olive fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: infestation, olive fruit fly, olive cultivars, oviposition sting

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8 Studies on Population and Management of Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) in Vegetables Agro-Ecosystem in District Hyderabada

Authors: Abro Zain-Ul-Aabdin, Naheed Baloch, Khuhro Niaz Hussain, Waseem Akbar, Noor Abid Saeed

Abstract:

The Melon Fruit Fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) belongs to family: Tephritidae order: Diptera and is distributed throughout the vegetable growing areas of Pakistan. The B. cucurbitae is injurious pest of more than 125 species of the vegetables throughout the world. In the present studies we investigated the population of this important pest in cucurbit crops and influence of abiotic parameters such as: temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. The study was carried out at two different locations of District, Hyderabad. The locations were Jeay Shah and Dehli farm where three cucurbit vegetable crops, such as bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) were grown. The traps were baited with Cue-lure and deployed at three meter height in the all locations from 01.01.2015 and up to 30.06.2015. Results revealed that overall significantly higher (P < 0.05) population was recorded on L.acutangula, M.charantia and L.siceraria (130.64, 127.21, and 122.91), respectively. However, significantly higher (P < 0.05) population was observed on L. acutangula (339.4±22.59) during the 4th week of May 2015 followed by M. charantia (334.6±22.76) L. siceraria (333.2±20.13). Whereas; lowest population was recorded on L. siceraria (5.8±1.39) followed by L. acutangula and M. charantia (6.8±0.80g, 8.0±1.30) respectively during the 4th week of January. The population of B. cucurbitae was significantly correlated with the temperature while negatively correlated with relative humidity. Meanwhile in the parasitism preference experiment pupal parasitoid Dirhinus giffardii showed significantly higher (P<0.05) parasitization when the pupae of B.cucurbitae were reared on Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (24.8±0.48) and also female were yielded from pupae reared on C.sativus under no choice experiment. Similarly higher parasitization and female were recovered when pupae were supplied C. sativus under free choice experiment. Results of the present investigation would be useful in developing a sustainable pest management strategy in the vegetable agro-ecosystem.

Keywords: Dirhinus giffardii, Bactrocera cucurbitae Cucumis sativus, diptera, free choice, parasitization

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7 Insecticidal Effect of a Botanical Plant Extracts (Ultra Act®) on Bactrocera oleae (Diptera:Tephritidae) Preimaginal Development and Pupa Survival

Authors: Imen Blibech, Mohieddine Ksantini, Manohar Shete

Abstract:

Bactrocera oleae is one of the most economically damaging insects of olive in Tunisia and other producing countries of olive trees. As a reliable alternative to synthetic chemical insecticides, botanical insecticides are considered natural control methods safe for the environment and human health. The certified botanical insecticide ULTRA-ACT® effectively on large scale of insects is approved per Indian and International organic standards certified organic pesticides. Olives with signs of olive fly infestation were collected from productive olive trees in three Sahel localities of Tunisia. Infested fruits were separated daily for larval stage control purposes, into new rearing boxes under microclimatic conditions at 75% R.H, 25 ± 3°C and 8 L-16D. Treatment with ULTRA-ACT® extract solutions was made by dipping methods; each fruit was pipetted in 5 mL of extract for 10 seconds then air- dried. Five doses of ULTRA-ACT® were used for a bioassay, plus a water-only control. A total of 200 infested olive fruits were treated in separate dishes with a proportion of 10 olives per dish. A total of 20 dishes were used for each concentration treatment as well as 20 dished utilized as control. The bioassay was conducted with 3 replicates. The development of the larval and pupal stages was recorded since the egg hatching until emergence of adults. It was determined that ULTRA-ACT® extracts on succeeding concentrations; 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% show significant effect on the biology of the pest. Increased concentration decreased significantly adult emergence from pupae and affect the egg hatchability percentage. Therefore, larval mortality increased insignificantly with the increase of the product concentration. The 2nd instar larvae were more susceptible to the product and after 72 hours the maximum mortality (75%) was observed with ULTRA-ACT® 2%. The present work aimed to give a possible and efficient alternative solution for B. oleae biological control with a promising botanical insecticide.

Keywords: Bactrocera oleae, olive insect pest, Ultra Act®, larval mortality, pupal emergency, biological control

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6 Efficacy of Methyl Eugenol and Food-Based Lures in Trapping Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Mango Homestead Trees

Authors: Juliana Amaka Ugwu

Abstract:

Trapping efficiency of methyl eugenol and three locally made food-based lures were evaluated in three locations for trapping of B. dorsalis on mango homestead trees in Ibadan South west Nigeria. The treatments were methyl eugenol, brewery waste, pineapple juice, orange juice, and control (water). The experiment was laid in a Complete Randomized Block Design (CRBD) and replicated three times in each location. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance and significant means were separated by Turkey’s test. The results showed that B. dorsalis was recorded in all locations of study. Methyl eugenol significantly (P < 0.05) trapped higher population of B. dorsalis in all the study area. The population density of B. dorsalis was highest during the ripening period of mango in all locations. The percentage trapped flies after 7 weeks were 77.85%-82.38% (methyl eugenol), 7.29%-8.64% (pineapple juice), 5.62-7.62% (brewery waste), 4.41%-5.95% (orange juice), and 0.24-0.47% (control). There were no significance differences (p > 0.05) on the population of B. dorsalis trapped in all locations. Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) on the population of flies trapped among the food attractants. However, the three food attractants significantly (p < 0.05) trapped higher flies than control. Methyl eugenol trapped only male flies while brewery waste and other food based attractants trapped both male and female flies. The food baits tested were promising attractants for trapping B. dorsalis on mango homestead tress, hence increased dosage could be considered for monitoring and mass trapping as management strategies against fruit fly infestation.

Keywords: attractants, trapping, mango, Bactrocera dorsalis

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5 Efficacy of Gamma Radiation on the Productivity of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Authors: Mehrdad Ahmadi, Mohamad Babaie, Shiva Osouli, Bahareh Salehi, Nadia Kalantaraian

Abstract:

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most serious pests in olive orchards in growing province in Iran. The female lay eggs in green olive fruit and larvae hatch inside the fruit, where they feed upon the fruit matters. One of the main ecologically friendly and species-specific systems of pest control is the sterile insect technique (SIT) which is based on the release of large numbers of sterilized insects. The objective of our work was to develop a SIT against B. oleae by using of gamma radiation for the laboratory and field trial in Iran. Oviposition of female mated by irradiated males is one of the main parameters to determine achievement of SIT. To conclude the sterile dose, pupae were placed under 0 to 160 Gy of gamma radiation. The main factor in SIT is the productivity of females which are mated by irradiated males. The emerged adults from irradiated pupae were mated with untreated adults of the same age by confining them inside the transparent cages. The fecundity of the irradiated males mated with non-irradiated females was decreased with the increasing radiation dose level. It was observed that the number of eggs and also the percentage of the egg hatching was significantly (P < 0.05) affected in either IM x NF crosses compared with NM x NF crosses in F1 generation at all doses. Also, the statistical analysis showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean number of eggs laid between irradiated and non-irradiated females crossed with irradiated males, which suggests that the males were susceptible to gamma radiation. The egg hatching percentage declined markedly with the increase of the radiation dose of the treated males in mating trials which demonstrated that egg hatch rate was dose dependent. Our results specified that gamma radiation affects the longevity of irradiated B. oleae larvae (established from irradiated pupae) and significantly increased their larval duration. Results show the gamma radiation, and SIT can be used successfully against olive fruit flies.

Keywords: fertility, olive fruit fly, radiation, sterile insect technique

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4 Level of Sociality and Sting Autotomy

Authors: V. V. Belavadi, Syed Najeer E. Noor Khadri, Shivamurthy Naik

Abstract:

Members of aculeate Hymenoptera exhibit different levels of sociality. While Chrysidoidea are primarily parasitic and use their sting only for the purpose parasitizing the host and never for defense, all vespoid and apoid (sphecid) wasps use their sting for paralysing their prey as well as for defending themselves from predators and intruders. Though most apoid bees use their sting for defending themselves, a few bees (Apis spp.) use their sting exclusively for defending their colonies and the brood. A preliminary study conducted on the comparative morphology of stings of apoid bees and wasps and that of vespid wasps, indicated that the backward projected barbs are more pronounced only in the genus Apis, which is considered as the reason why a honey bee worker, loses its sting and dies when it stings a higher animal. This raises an important question: How barbs on lancets of Apis bees evolved? Supposing the barbs had not been strong, the worker bee would have been more efficient in defending the colony instead of only once in its lifetime! Some arguments in favour of worker altruistic behaviour, mention that in highly social insects, the colony size is large, workers are closely related among themselves and a worker sacrificing its life for the colony is beneficial for the colony. However, in colonies with a queen that has mated multiple times, the coefficient of relatedness among workers gets reduced and still the workers continue to exhibit the same behaviour. In this paper, we have tried to compare the morphology of stings of aculeate Hymenoptera and have attempted to relate sting morphology with social behaviour. Species examined for sting morphology are A. cerana, Apis dorsata, A. florea, Amegilla violacea, A. zonata, Megachile anthracina, M. Disjuncta, Liris aurulentus, Tachysphex bengalensis. Our studies indicate that occurrence of barbs on lancets correlates with the degree of sociality and sting autotomy is more pronounced in swarm-founding species than in haplometrotic species. The number of barbs on the lancets varied from 0 to 11. Additionally SEM images also revealed interesting characters of barbs.

Keywords: altruistic, barbs, sociality, sting autotomy

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3 Entomological Study of Pests of Olive Trees in the Region of Batna - Algeria

Authors: Smail Chafaa, Abdelkrim Si Bachir

Abstract:

Our work aims to study the insect diversity based on bioclimatic levels of pests in olive cultures (Olea europea L.) in the area of Batna (arid and semi arid north eastern Algeria) during the period from January 2011 to May 2011. Several sampling techniques were used, those of hunting on sight, visual inspection, hatches traps, colored traps, Japanese umbrella and sweep net. We have identified in total, 2311 individuals with results in inventory 206 species divided to 74 families and 11 orders, including Coleoptera order is quantitatively the most represented with 47.1%. The most dominant diet in our inventory is the phytophagous. Between the herbivorous insects that we have listed and which are the main olive pest of olive cultivation; we quote the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), cochineal purple olive (Parlatoria oleae) the psyllid olive (Euphyllura olivina) and olive Trips (Liothrips oleae). The distribution of species between stations shows that Boumia resort with the most number of species (113) compared to other resorts and beetles are also better represented in three groves. Total wealth is high in Boumia station compared with the others stations. The values of (H') exceeding 3.9 bits for all the stations studied indicate a specific wealth and diversity of ecological nests in insect species. The values of equitability are near the unit; that suggests a balance between the numbers of insect populations sampled in the various stations.

Keywords: entomology, olive, grove, batna, Algeria

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2 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anum Tariq, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Talha Farooq, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar

Abstract:

Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: attractancy, field conditions, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

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1 A Long Range Wide Area Network-Based Smart Pest Monitoring System

Authors: Yun-Chung Yu, Yan-Wen Wang, Min-Sheng Liao, Joe-Air Jiang, Yuen-Chung Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes to use a Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) for a smart pest monitoring system which aims at the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) to improve the communication efficiency of the system. The oriental fruit fly is one of the main pests in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim. Different smart pest monitoring systems based on the Internet of Things (IoT) architecture have been developed to solve problems of employing manual measurement. These systems often use Octopus II, a communication module following the 2.4GHz IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee specification, as sensor nodes. The Octopus II is commonly used in low-power and short-distance communication. However, the energy consumption increase as the logical topology becomes more complicate to have enough coverage in the large area. By comparison, LoRaWAN follows the Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) specification, which targets the key requirements of the IoT technology, such as secure bi-directional communication, mobility, and localization services. The LoRaWAN network has advantages of long range communication, high stability, and low energy consumption. The 433MHz LoRaWAN model has two superiorities over the 2.4GHz ZigBee model: greater diffraction and less interference. In this paper, The Octopus II module is replaced by a LoRa model to increase the coverage of the monitoring system, improve the communication performance, and prolong the network lifetime. The performance of the LoRa-based system is compared with a ZigBee-based system using three indexes: the packet receiving rate, delay time, and energy consumption, and the experiments are done in different settings (e.g. distances and environmental conditions). In the distance experiment, a pest monitoring system using the two communication specifications is deployed in an area with various obstacles, such as buildings and living creatures, and the performance of employing the two communication specifications is examined. The experiment results show that the packet receiving the rate of the LoRa-based system is 96% , which is much higher than that of the ZigBee system when the distance between any two modules is about 500m. These results indicate the capability of a LoRaWAN-based monitoring system in long range transmission and ensure the stability of the system.

Keywords: LoRaWan, oriental fruit fly, IoT, Octopus II

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