Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 512

Search results for: circular bio-economy

512 Perspectives on Sustainable Bioeconomy in the Baltic Sea Region

Authors: Susanna Vanhamäki, Gabor Schneider, Kati Manskinen

Abstract:

‘Bioeconomy’ is a complex concept that cuts across many sectors and covers several policy areas. To achieve an overall understanding and support a successful bioeconomy, a cross-sectorial approach is necessary. In practice, due to the concept’s wide scope and varying international approaches, fully understanding bioeconomy is challenging on policy level. This paper provides a background of the topic through an analysis of bioeconomy strategies in the Baltic Sea region. Expert interviews and a small survey were conducted to discover the current and intended focuses of these countries’ bioeconomy sectors. The research shows that supporting sustainability is one of the keys in developing the future bioeconomy. The results highlighted that the bioeconomy has to be sustainable and based on circular economy principles. Currently, traditional bioeconomy sectors like food, wood, fish & waters as well as fuel & energy, which are in the core of national bioeconomy strategies, are best known and are considered more relevant than other bioeconomy industries. However, there is increasing potential for novel sectors, such as textiles and pharmaceuticals. The present research indicates that the opportunities presented by these bioeconomy sectors should be recognised and promoted. Education, research and innovation can play key roles in developing transformative and sustainable improvements in primary production and renewable resources. Furthermore, cooperation between businesses and educators is important.

Keywords: bioeconomy, circular economy, policy, strategy

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511 South Korean Discourse on Bioecomomy in the Sector of Agriculture

Authors: Mi Sun Park

Abstract:

Biotechnology provides us with technological solutions to resource-based challenges facing the global society. A bioeconomy or bio-based economy emerged as all economic activities derived from biotechnology. This paper aims to understand discourses on bioeconomy in the sector of agriculture with three dimensions; media discourse, science discourse, and policy discourse. For achieving research goals, content analysis was applied to this research. Media articles, academic journal articles and policy documents published from 2000 to 2016 were collected in South Korea. The text was coded and analyzed with the categories of speakers and their arguments. The research findings indicate that powerful actors and key messages of bioeconomy in South Korean agriculture. Differences and similarities among media, science, and policy were examined. Therefore this case study can contribute to understanding dynamic interaction and interfaces of media, science and policy discourse on biotechnology in the sector of agriculture.

Keywords: media, discourse, bioeconomy, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
510 Harmonising the Circular Economy: An Analysis of 160 Papers

Authors: M. Novak, J. Dufourmount, D. Wildi, A. Sutherland, L. Sosa, J. Zimmer, E. Szabo

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The circular economy has grounded itself amongst scholars and practitioners operating across governments and enterprises. The aim of this paper is to augment the circular economy concept by identifying common core and enabling circular business models. To this aim, we have analysed over 150 papers regarding circular activities and identified 8 clusters of business models and enablers. We have mapped and harmonised the most prominent frameworks conceptualising the circular economy. Our findings indicate that circular economy core business models include regenerative in addition to reduce, reuse and recycle activities. We further find enabling activities in design, digital technologies, knowledge development and sharing, multistakeholder collaborations, and extended corporate responsibility initiatives in various forms. We critically contrast the application of these business models across the European and African contexts. Overall, we find that seemingly varied circular economy definitions distill the same conceptual business models. We hope to contribute towards the coherence of the circular economy concept, and the continuous development of practical guidance to select and implement circular strategies.

Keywords: Circular economy, content analysis, business models, definitions, enablers, frameworks

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
509 Non-Circular Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers Chainring Failure Analysis

Authors: A. Elmikaty, Z. Thanawarothon, L. Mezeix

Abstract:

This paper presents a finite element model to simulate the teeth failure of non-circular composite chainring. Model consists of the chainring and a part of the chain. To reduce the size of the model, only the first 11 rollers are simulated. In order to validate the model, it is firstly applied to a circular aluminum chainring and evolution of the stress in the teeth is compared with the literature. Then, effect of the non-circular shape is studied through three different loading positions. Strength of non-circular composite chainring and failure scenario is investigated. Moreover, two composite lay-ups are proposed to observe the influence of the stacking. Results show that composite material can be used but the lay-up has a large influence on the strength. Finally, loading position does not have influence on the first composite failure that always occurs in the first tooth.

Keywords: CFRP, composite failure, FEA, non-circular chainring

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
508 Relationships between Actors within Business Ecosystems That Adopt Circular Strategies: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Sophia Barquete, Adriana H. Trevisan, Janaina Mascarenhas

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The circular economy (CE) aims at the cycling of resources through restorative and regenerative strategies. To achieve circularity, coordination of several actors who have different responsibilities is necessary. The interaction among multiple actors allows the connection between the CE and business ecosystem research fields. Although fundamental, the relationships between actors within an ecosystem to foster circularity are not deeply explored in the literature. The objective of this study was to identify the possibilities of cooperation, competition, or even coopetition among the members of business ecosystems that adopt circular strategies. In particular, the motivations that make these actors interact to achieve a circular economy were investigated. A systematic literature review was adopted to select business ecosystem cases that adopt circular strategies. As a result, several motivations were identified for actors to engage in relationships within ecosystems, such as sharing knowledge and infrastructure, developing products with a circular design, promoting reverse logistics, among others. The results suggest that partnerships between actors are, in fact, important for the implementation of circular strategies. In order to achieve a complete and circular solution, actors must be able to clearly understand their roles and relationships within the network so that they can establish new partnerships or reframe those already established.

Keywords: business ecosystem, circular economy, cooperation, coopetition, competition

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507 Implementing Two Rotatable Circular Polarized Glass Made Window to Reduce the Amount of Electricity Usage by Air Condition System

Authors: Imtiaz Sarwar

Abstract:

Air conditioning in homes may account for one-third of the electricity during period in summer when most of the energy is required in large cities. It is not consuming only electricity but also has a serious impact on environment including greenhouse effect. Circular polarizer filter can be used to selectively absorb or pass clockwise or counter-clock wise circularly polarized light. My research is about putting two circular polarized glasses parallel to each other and make a circular window with it. When we will place two circular polarized glasses exactly same way (0 degree to each other) then nothing will be noticed rather it will work as a regular window through which all light and heat can pass on. While we will keep rotating one of the circular polarized glasses, the angle between the glasses will keep increasing and the window will keep blocking more and more lights. It will completely block all the lights and a portion of related heat when one of the windows will reach 90 degree to another. On the other hand, we can just open the window when fresh air is necessary. It will reduce the necessity of using Air condition too much or consumer will use electric fan rather than air conditioning system. Thus, we can save a significant amount of electricity and we can go green.

Keywords: circular polarizer, window, air condition, light, energy

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506 Towards Sustainable Evolution of Bioeconomy: The Role of Technology and Innovation Management

Authors: Ronald Orth, Johanna Haunschild, Sara Tsog

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The bioeconomy is an inter- and cross-disciplinary field covering a large number and wide scope of existing and emerging technologies. It has a great potential to contribute to the transformation process of industry landscape and ultimately drive the economy towards sustainability. However, bioeconomy per se is not necessarily sustainable and technology should be seen as an enabler rather than panacea to all our ecological, social and economic issues. Therefore, to draw and maximize benefits from bioeconomy in terms of sustainability, we propose that innovative activities should encompass not only novel technologies and bio-based new materials but also multifocal innovations. For multifocal innovation endeavors, innovation management plays a substantial role, as any innovation emerges in a complex iterative process where communication and knowledge exchange among relevant stake holders has a pivotal role. The knowledge generation and innovation are although at the core of transition towards a more sustainable bio-based economy, to date, there is a significant lack of concepts and models that approach bioeconomy from the innovation management approach. The aim of this paper is therefore two-fold. First, it inspects the role of transformative approach in the adaptation of bioeconomy that contributes to the environmental, ecological, social and economic sustainability. Second, it elaborates the importance of technology and innovation management as a tool for smooth, prompt and effective transition of firms to the bioeconomy. We conduct a qualitative literature study on the sustainability challenges that bioeconomy entails thus far using Science Citation Index and based on grey literature, as major economies e.g. EU, USA, China and Brazil have pledged to adopt bioeconomy and have released extensive publications on the topic. We will draw an example on the forest based business sector that is transforming towards the new green economy more rapidly as expected, although this sector has a long-established conventional business culture with consolidated and fully fledged industry. Based on our analysis we found that a successful transition to sustainable bioeconomy is conditioned on heterogenous and contested factors in terms of stakeholders , activities and modes of innovation. In addition, multifocal innovations occur when actors from interdisciplinary fields engage in intensive and continuous interaction where the focus of innovation is allocated to a field of mutually evolving socio-technical practices that correspond to the aims of the novel paradigm of transformative innovation policy. By adopting an integrated and systems approach as well as tapping into various innovation networks and joining global innovation clusters, firms have better chance of creating an entire new chain of value added products and services. This requires professionals that have certain capabilities and skills such as: foresight for future markets, ability to deal with complex issues, ability to guide responsible R&D, ability of strategic decision making, manage in-depth innovation systems analysis including value chain analysis. Policy makers, on the other hand, need to acknowledge the essential role of firms in the transformative innovation policy paradigm.

Keywords: bioeconomy, innovation and technology management, multifocal innovation, sustainability, transformative innovation policy

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505 Out-of-Plane Free Vibrations of Circular Rods

Authors: Faruk Firat Çalim, Nurullah Karaca, Hakan Tacettin Türker

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In this study, out-of-plane free vibrations of a circular rods is investigated theoretically. The governing equations for naturally twisted and curved spatial rods are obtained using Timoshenko beam theory and rewritten for circular rods. Effects of the axial and shear deformations are considered in the formulations. Ordinary differential equations in scalar form are solved analytically by using transfer matrix method. The circular rods of the mass matrix are obtained by using straight rod of consistent mass matrix. Free vibrations frequencies obtained by solving eigenvalue problem. A computer program coded in MATHEMATICA language is prepared. Circular beams are analyzed through various examples for free vibrations analysis. Results are compared with ANSYS results based on finite element method and available in the literature.

Keywords: circular rod, out-of-plane free vibration analysis, transfer matrix method

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
504 Territories' Challenges and Opportunities to Promote Circular Economy in the Building Sector

Authors: R. Tirado, G. Habert, A. Mailhac, S. Laurenceau

Abstract:

The rapid development of cities implies significant material inflows and outflows. The construction sector is one of the main consumers of raw materials and producers of waste. The waste from the building sector, for its quantity and potential for recovery, constitutes significant deposits requiring major efforts, by combining different actors, to achieve the circular economy's objectives. It is necessary to understand and know the current construction actors' knowledge of stocks, urban metabolism, deposits, and recovery practices in this context. This article aims to explore the role of local governments in planning strategies by facilitating a circular economy. In particular, the principal opportunities and challenges of communities for applying the principles of the circular economy in the building sector will be identified. The approach used for the study was to conduct semi-structured interviews with those responsible for circular economy projects within local administrations of some communities in France. The results show territories' involvement in the inclusion and application of the principles of the circular economy in the building sector. The main challenges encountered are numerous, hence the importance of having identified and described them so that the different actors can work to meet them.

Keywords: building stock, circular economy, interview, local authorities

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503 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions

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502 Simultaneous Measurement of Pressure and Temperature Profile of Lubricating Oil-Film along Orthogonally Displaced Non-Circular Journal Bearing: An Experimental Study

Authors: Amit Singla, Amit Chauhan

Abstract:

The non-circular journal bearings provide better thermal stability and lesser oil-film temperature rise as compared to circular journal bearings. Experimentation on simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature of lubricated oil-film along the profile of the bearing will help the designer to design journal bearings. In this paper, pressure and temperature of oil-film along orthogonally displaced non-circular journal bearing have been measured on a designed journal bearing test rig. The orthogonal non-circular journal bearing has been fabricated by displacing two circular halves away from the centers in the orthogonal direction. The data acquisition for oil film pressure and temperature has been carried out at journal speed=3000 rpm and by increasing the static radial load from 500 N to 2000 N in steps of 500 N using three different grades of oil (ISOVG 32, 68, and 150) named as oil-1, oil-2, and oil-3 respectively. The results show that the oil-film pressure and temperature increases with increase in radial load and change of lubricating oil towards increasing viscosity. Further, two lobes in the pressure and temperature profiles have been obtained which accounts for better thermal stability as it reduces cavitation zone inside the bearing.

Keywords: cavitation, non-circular journal bearing, orthogonally displaced, thermal stability

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501 Experimental Measurements of Mean and Turbulence Quantities behind the Circular Cylinder by Attaching Different Number of Tripping Wires

Authors: Amir Bak Khoshnevis, Mahdieh Khodadadi, Aghil Lotfi

Abstract:

For a bluff body, roughness elements in simulating a turbulent boundary layer, leading to delayed flow separation, a smaller wake, and lower form drag. In the present work, flow past a circular cylinder with using tripping wires is studied experimentally. The wind tunnel used for modeling free stream is open blow circuit (maximum speed = 30m/s and maximum turbulence of free stream = 0.1%). The selected Reynolds number for all tests was constant (Re = 25000). The circular cylinder selected for this experiment is 20 and 400mm in diameter and length, respectively. The aim of this research is to find the optimal operation mode. In this study installed some tripping wires 1mm in diameter, with a different number of wires on the circular cylinder and the wake characteristics of the circular cylinder is studied. Results showed that by increasing number of tripping wires attached to the circular cylinder (6, 8, and 10, respectively), The optimal angle for the tripping wires with 1mm in diameter to be installed on the cylinder is 60̊ (or 6 wires required at angle difference of 60̊). Strouhal number for the cylinder with tripping wires 1mm in diameter at angular position 60̊ showed the maximum value.

Keywords: wake of circular cylinder, trip wire, velocity defect, strouhal number

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500 Defuzzification of Periodic Membership Function on Circular Coordinates

Authors: Takashi Mitsuishi, Koji Saigusa

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This paper presents circular polar coordinates transformation of periodic fuzzy membership function. The purpose is identification of domain of periodic membership functions in consequent part of IF-THEN rules. The proposed methods are applied to the simple color construct system.

Keywords: periodic membership function, polar coordinates transformation, defuzzification, circular coordinates

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499 Selective Excitation of Circular Helical Modes in Graded Index Fibers

Authors: S. Al-Sowayan

Abstract:

The impact of selective excitation of circular helical modes of graded-index fibers on its capacity is analyzed using a model for propagation delay variation with launch offset and angle that resulted from misalignment of source and fiber axis. Results show that promising technique to improve graded-index fiber capacities.

Keywords: fiber measurements, fiber optic, communications, circular helical modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
498 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma

Abstract:

The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
497 Comparative Study of Dynamic Effect on Analysis Approaches for Circular Tanks Using Codal Provisions

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Aishwarya Alok, P. R. Maiti

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Liquid storage tanks have become widespread during the recent decades due to their extensive usage. Analysis of liquid containing tanks is known to be complex due to hydrodynamic force exerted on tank which makes the analysis a complex one. The objective of this research is to carry out analysis of liquid domain along with structural interaction for various geometries of circular tanks considering seismic effects. An attempt has been made to determine hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall considering impulsive and convective components of liquid mass. To get a better picture, a comparative study of Draft IS 1893 Part 2, ACI 350.3 and Eurocode 8 for Circular Shaped Tank has been performed. Further, the differences in the magnitude of shear and moment at base as obtained from static (IS 3370 IV) and dynamic (Draft IS 1892 Part 2) analysis of ground supported circular tank highlight the need for us to mature from the old code to a newer code, which is more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: liquid filled containers, circular tanks, IS 1893 (part 2), seismic analysis, sloshing

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
496 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: Gopi Ram, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

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A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO, and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: circular arrays, first null beam width, side lobe level, FFA

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
495 Evaluating of Turkish Earthquake Code (2007) for FRP Wrapped Circular Concrete Cylinders

Authors: Guler S., Guzel E., Gulen M.

Abstract:

Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials are commonly used in construction sector to enhance the strength and ductility capacities of structural elements. The equations on confined compressive strength of FRP wrapped concrete cylinders is described in the 7th chapter of the Turkish Earthquake Code (TEC-07) that enter into force in 2007. This study aims to evaluate the applicability of TEC-07 on confined compressive strengths of circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders. To this end, a large number of data on circular FRP wrapped concrete cylinders are collected from the literature. It is clearly seen that the predictions of TEC-07 on circular FRP wrapped the FRP wrapped columns is not same accuracy for different ranges of concrete strengths.

Keywords: Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), concrete cylinders, Turkish Earthquake Code, earthquake

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494 Analyzing the Potential of Job Creation by Taking the First Step Towards Circular Economy: Case Study of Brazil

Authors: R. Conde

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The Brazilian economic projections and social indicators show a future of crisis for the country. Solutions to avoid this crisis scenario are necessary. Several developed countries implement initiatives linked to sustainability, mainly related to the circular economy, to solve their crises quickly - green recovery. This article aims to assess social gains if Brazil followed the same recovery strategy. Furthermore, with the use of data presented and recognized in the international academic society, the number of jobs that can be created, if Brazil took the first steps towards a more circular economy, was found. Moreover, in addition to the gross value in the number of jobs created, this article also detailed the number of these jobs by type of activity (collection, processing, and manufacturing) and by type of material.

Keywords: circular economy, green recovery, job creation, social gains

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
493 Optimization of Fin Type and Fin per Inch on Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of an Air Cooler

Authors: A. Falavand Jozaei, A. Ghafouri

Abstract:

Operation enhancement in an air cooler (heat exchanger) depends on the rate of heat transfer, and pressure drop. In this paper, for a given heat duty, study of the effects of FPI (fin per inch) and fin type (circular and hexagonal fins) on two parameters mentioned above is considered in an air cooler in Iran, Arvand petrochemical. A program in EES (Engineering Equations Solver) software moreover, Aspen B-JAC and HTFS+ software are used for this purpose to solve governing equations. At first the simulated results obtained from this program is compared to the experimental data for two cases of FPI. The effects of FPI from 3 to 15 over heat transfer (Q) to pressure drop ratio (Q/Δp ratio). This ratio is one of the main parameters in design, rating, and simulation heat exchangers. The results show that heat transfer (Q) and pressure drop increase with increasing FPI (fin per inch) steadily, and the Q/Δp ratio increases to FPI = 12 (for circular fins about 47% and for hexagonal fins about 69%) and then decreased gradually to FPI = 15 (for circular fins about 5% and for hexagonal fins about 8%), and Q/Δp ratio is maximum at FPI = 12. The FPI value selection between 8 and 12 obtained as a result to optimum heat transfer to pressure drop ratio. Also by contrast, between circular and hexagonal fins results, the Q/Δp ratio of hexagonal fins more than Q/Δp ratio of circular fins for FPI between 8 and 12 (optimum FPI).

Keywords: air cooler, circular and hexagonal fins, fin per inch, heat transfer and pressure drop

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492 Circular Bio-economy of Copper and Gold from Electronic Wastes

Authors: Sadia Ilyas, Hyunjung Kim, Rajiv R. Srivastava

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Current work has attempted to establish the linkages between circular bio-economy and recycling of copper and gold from urban mine by applying microbial activities instead of the smelter and chemical technologies. Thereafter, based on the potential of microbial approaches and research hypothesis, the structural model has been tested for a significance level of 99%, which is supported by the corresponding standardization co-efficient values. A prediction model applied to determine the recycling impact on circular bio-economy indicates to re-circulate 51,833 tons of copper and 58 tons of gold by 2030 for the production of virgin metals/raw-materials, while recycling rate of the accumulated e-waste remains to be 20%. This restoration volume of copper and gold through the microbial activities corresponds to mitigate 174 million kg CO₂ emissions and 24 million m³ water consumption if compared with the primary production activities. The study potentially opens a new window for environmentally-friendly biotechnological recycling of e-waste urban mine under the umbrella concept of circular bio-economy.

Keywords: urban mining, biobleaching, circular bio-economy, environmental impact

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491 Global City Typologies: 300 Cities and Over 100 Datasets

Authors: M. Novak, E. Munoz, A. Jana, M. Nelemans

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Cities and local governments the world over are interested to employ circular strategies as a means to bring about food security, create employment and increase resilience. The selection and implementation of circular strategies is facilitated by modeling the effects of strategies locally and understanding the impacts such strategies have had in other (comparable) cities and how that would translate locally. Urban areas are heterogeneous because of their geographic, economic, social characteristics, governance, and culture. In order to better understand the effect of circular strategies on urban systems, we create a dataset for over 300 cities around the world designed to facilitate circular strategy scenario modeling. This new dataset integrates data from over 20 prominent global national and urban data sources, such as the Global Human Settlements layer and International Labour Organisation, as well as incorporating employment data from over 150 cities collected bottom up from local departments and data providers. The dataset is made to be reproducible. Various clustering techniques are explored in the paper. The result is sets of clusters of cities, which can be used for further research, analysis, and support comparative, regional, and national policy making on circular cities.

Keywords: data integration, urban innovation, cluster analysis, circular economy, city profiles, scenario modelling

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490 Reduced Model Investigations Supported by Fuzzy Cognitive Map to Foster Circular Economy

Authors: A. Buruzs, M. F. Hatwágner, L. T. Kóczy

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The aim of the present paper is to develop an integrated method that may provide assistance to decision makers during system planning, design, operation and evaluation. In order to support the realization of Circular Economy (CE), it is essential to evaluate local needs and conditions which help to select the most appropriate system components and resource needs. Each of these activities requires careful planning, however, the model of CE offers a comprehensive interdisciplinary framework. The aim of this research was to develop and to introduce a practical methodology for evaluation of local and regional opportunities to promote CE.

Keywords: circular economy, factors, fuzzy cognitive map, model reduction, sustainability

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489 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Geometrical Shape of Plate Heat Exchangers on Heat Transfer Efficiency

Authors: Hamed Sanei, Mohammad Bagher Ayani

Abstract:

Optimizations of Plate Heat Exchangers (PHS) have received great attention in the past decade. In this study, heat transfer and pressure drop coefficients are compared for rectangular and circular PHS employing numerical simulations. Plates are designed to have equivalent areas. Simulations were implemented to investigate the efficiency of PHSs considering heat transfer, friction factor and pressure drop. Amount of heat transfer and pressure drop was obtained for different range of Reynolds numbers. These two parameters were compared with aim of F "weighting factor correlation". In this comparison, the minimum amount of F indicates higher efficiency. Results reveal that the F value for rectangular shape is less than circular plate, and hence using rectangular shape of PHS is more efficient than circular one. It was observed that, the amount of friction factor is correlated to the Reynolds numbers, such that friction factor decreased in both rectangular and circular plates with an increase in Reynolds number. Furthermore, such simulations revealed that the amount of heat transfer in rectangular plate is more than circular plate for different range of Reynolds numbers. The difference is more distinct for higher Reynolds number. However, amount of pressure drop in circular plate is less than rectangular plate for the same range of Reynolds numbers which is considered as a negative point for rectangular plate efficiency. It can be concluded that, while rectangular PHSs occupy more space than circular plate, the efficiency of rectangular plate is higher.

Keywords: Chevron corrugated plate heat exchanger, heat transfer, friction factor, Reynolds numbers

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488 Investigating the Role of Circular RNA GATAD2A on H1N1 Replication

Authors: Tianqi Yu, Yingnan Ding, Yina Zhang, Yulan Liu, Yahui Li, Jing Lei, Jiyong Zhou, Suquan Song, Boli Hu

Abstract:

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical roles in various diseases. However, whether and how circular RNA regulates influenza A virus (IAV) infection is unknown. Here, we studied the role of circular RNA GATA Zinc Finger Domain Containing 2A (circ-GATAD2A) in the replication of IAV H1N1 in A549 cells. Circ-GATAD2A was formed upon H1N1 infection. Knockdown of circ-GATAD2A in A549 cells enhanced autophagy and inhibited H1N1 replication. By contrast, overexpression of circ-GATAD2A impaired autophagy and promoted H1N1 replication. Similarly, knockout of vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34) blocked autophagy and increased H1N1 replication. However, the expression of circ-GATAD2A could not further enhance H1N1 replication in VPS34 knockout cells. Collectively, these data indicated that circ-GATAD2A promotes the replication of H1N1 by inhibiting autophagy.

Keywords: autophagy, circ-GATAD2A, H1N1, replication

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487 Transition from Linear to Circular Business Models with Service Design Methodology

Authors: Minna-Maari Harmaala, Hanna Harilainen

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Estimates of the economic value of transitioning to circular economy models vary but it has been estimated to represent $1 trillion worth of new business into the global economy. In Europe alone, estimates claim that adopting circular-economy principles could not only have environmental and social benefits but also generate a net economic benefit of €1.8 trillion by 2030. Proponents of a circular economy argue that it offers a major opportunity to increase resource productivity, decrease resource dependence and waste, and increase employment and growth. A circular system could improve competitiveness and unleash innovation. Yet, most companies are not capturing these opportunities and thus the even abundant circular opportunities remain uncaptured even though they would seem inherently profitable. Service design in broad terms relates to developing an existing or a new service or service concept with emphasis and focus on the customer experience from the onset of the development process. Service design may even mean starting from scratch and co-creating the service concept entirely with the help of customer involvement. Service design methodologies provide a structured way of incorporating customer understanding and involvement in the process of designing better services with better resonance to customer needs. A business model is a depiction of how the company creates, delivers, and captures value; i.e. how it organizes its business. The process of business model development and adjustment or modification is also called business model innovation. Innovating business models has become a part of business strategy. Our hypothesis is that in addition to linear models still being easier to adopt and often with lower threshold costs, companies lack an understanding of how circular models can be adopted into their business and how customers will be willing and ready to adopt the new circular business models. In our research, we use robust service design methodology to develop circular economy solutions with two case study companies. The aim of the process is to not only develop the service concepts and portfolio, but to demonstrate the willingness to adopt circular solutions exists in the customer base. In addition to service design, we employ business model innovation methods to develop, test, and validate the new circular business models further. The results clearly indicate that amongst the customer groups there are specific customer personas that are willing to adopt and in fact are expecting the companies to take a leading role in the transition towards a circular economy. At the same time, there is a group of indifferents, to whom the idea of circularity provides no added value. In addition, the case studies clearly show what changes adoption of circular economy principles brings to the existing business model and how they can be integrated.

Keywords: business model innovation, circular economy, circular economy business models, service design

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486 Circular Economy and Remedial Frameworks in Contract Law

Authors: Reza Beheshti

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This paper examines remedies for defective manufactured goods in commercial circular economic transactions. The linear ‘take-make-dispose’ model fits well with the conventional remedial framework in which damages are considered the primary remedy. Damages under English Sales Law encourages buyers to look for a substitute seller with broadly similar goods to the ones agreed on in the original contract, enter into contract with this new seller and hence terminate the original contract. By doing so, the buyer ends the contractual relationship. This seems contrary to the core principles of the circular economy: keeping products, components, and materials in longer use, which can partly be achieved by product refurbishment. This process involves returning a product to good working condition by replacing or repairing major components that are faulty or close to failure and making ‘cosmetic’ changes to update the appearance of a product. This remedy has not been widely accepted or applied in commercial cases, which in turn flags up the secondary nature of performance-related remedies. This paper critically analyses the laws concerning the seller’s duty to cure in English law and the extent to which they correspond with core principles of the circular economy. In addition, this paper takes into account the potential of circular economic transactions being characterised as something other than sales. In such situations, the likely outcome will be a license to use products, which may limit the choice of remedy further. Consequently, this paper suggests an outline remedial framework specifically for commercial circular economic transactions in manufactured goods.

Keywords: circular economy, contract law, remedies, English Sales Law

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485 Horizontal Circular Curve Computations Using a Developed Calculator

Authors: Adil Hassabo

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In this paper, a horizontal circular curve computations calculator is developed in Microsoft Windows. The developed calculator can be used for determining the necessary information required for setting out horizontal curves. Three methods are applied in the developed program namely: incremental chord method, total chord method, and the coordinates method. Computations of horizontal curves by the developed calculator is faster, easier, accurate, and less subject to errors comparable to the traditional method of calculations. Finally, the results obtained by the traditional method and by the developed calculator are presented for checking the behavior of the developed calculator.

Keywords: calculator, circular, computations, curve

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484 Effect of Out-Of-Plane Deformation on Relaxation Method of Stress Concentration in a Plate with a Circular Hole

Authors: Shingo Murakami, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

In structures, stress concentration is a factor of fatigue fracture. Basically, the stress concentration is a phenomenon that should be avoided. However, it is difficult to avoid the stress concentration. Therefore, relaxation of the stress concentration is important. The stress concentration arises from notches and circular holes. There is a relaxation method that a composite patch covers a notch and a circular hole. This relaxation method is used to repair aerial wings, but it is not systematized. Composites are more expensive than single materials. Accordingly, we propose the relaxation method that a single material patch covers a notch and a circular hole, and aim to systematize this relaxation method. We performed FEA (Finite Element Analysis) about an object by using a three-dimensional FEA model. The object was that a patch adheres to a plate with a circular hole. And, a uniaxial tensile load acts on the patched plate with a circular hole. In the three-dimensional FEA model, it is not easy to model the adhesion layer. Basically, the yield stress of the adhesive is smaller than that of adherents. Accordingly, the adhesion layer gets to plastic deformation earlier than the adherents under the yield load of adherents. Therefore, we propose the three-dimensional FEA model which is applied a nonlinear elastic region to the adhesion layer. The nonlinear elastic region was calculated by a bilinear approximation. We compared the analysis results with the tensile test results to confirm whether the analysis model has usefulness. As a result, the analysis results agreed with the tensile test results. And, we confirmed that the analysis model has usefulness. As a result that the three-dimensional FEA model was used to the analysis, it was confirmed that an out-of-plane deformation occurred to the patched plate with a circular hole. The out-of-plane deformation causes stress increase of the patched plate with a circular hole. Therefore, we investigated that the out-of-plane deformation affects relaxation of the stress concentration in the plate with a circular hole on this relaxation method. As a result, it was confirmed that the out-of-plane deformation inhibits relaxation of the stress concentration on the plate with a circular hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, patch, out-of-plane deformation, Finite Element Analysis

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483 Numerical Study of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Eccentrically Loaded Circular Footing Resting

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade

Abstract:

This article is an attempt to present a numerically study of the behaviour of an eccentrically loaded circular footing resting on sand to determine ‎its ultimate bearing capacity. A surface circular footing of diameter 12 cm (D) was used as ‎shallow foundation. For this purpose, three dimensional models consist of foundation, and medium sandy soil was modelled by ABAQUS software. Bearing capacity of footing was evaluated and the ‎effects of the load eccentricity on bearing capacity, its settlement, and modulus of subgrade reaction were studied. Three different values of load eccentricity with equal space from inside the core on the core boundary and outside the core boundary, which were respectively e=0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 cm, were considered. The results show that by increasing the load eccentricity, the ultimate load and the ‎modulus of subgrade reaction decreased.

Keywords: circular foundation, sand, eccentric loading, modulus of subgrade reaction

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