Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13809

Search results for: harvesting time

13809 Biomass and Biogas Yield of Maize as Affected by Nitrogen Rates with Varying Harvesting under Semi-Arid Condition of Pakistan

Authors: Athar Mahmood, Asad Ali


Management considerations including harvesting time and nitrogen application considerably influence the biomass yield, quality and biogas production. Therefore, a field study was conducted to determine the effect of various harvesting times and nitrogen rates on the biomass yield, quality and biogas yield of maize crop. This experiment was consisted of various harvesting times i.e., harvesting after 45, 55 and 65 days of sowing (DAS) and nitrogen rates i.e., 0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 respectively. The data indicated that maximum plant height, leaf area, dry matter (DM) yield, protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and biogas yield were recorded 65 days after sowing while lowest was recorded 45 days after sowing. In contrary to that significantly higher chlorophyll contents were observed at 45 DAS. In case of nitrogen rates maximum plant height, leaf area, and DM yield, protein contents, ash contents, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and chlorophyll contents were determined with nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg ha-1, while minimum was observed when no N was applied. Therefore, harvesting 65 DAS and N application @ 200 kg ha-1 can be suitable for getting the higher biomass and biogas production.

Keywords: chemical composition, fiber contents, biogas, nitrogen, harvesting time

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13808 A Review on Investigating the Relations between Water Harvesting and Water Conflicts

Authors: B. Laurita


The importance of Water Harvesting (WH) as an effective mean to deal with water scarcity is universally recognized. The collection and storage of rainwater, floodwater or quick runoff and their conversion to productive uses can ensure water availability for domestic and agricultural use, enabling a lower exploitation of the aquifer, preventing erosion events and providing significant ecosystem services. At the same time, it has been proven that it can reduce the insurgence of water conflicts if supported by a cooperative process of planning and management. On the other hand, the construction of water harvesting structures changes the hydrological regime, affecting upstream-downstream dynamics and changing water allocation, often causing contentions. Furthermore, dynamics existing between water harvesting and water conflict are not properly investigated yet. Thus, objective of this study is to analyze the relations between water harvesting and the insurgence of water conflicts, providing a solid theoretical basis and foundations for future studies. Two search engines were selected in order to perform the study: Google Scholar and Scopus. Separate researches were conducted on the mutual influences between water conflicts and the four main water harvesting techniques: rooftop harvesting, surface harvesting, underground harvesting, runoff harvesting. Some of the aforementioned water harvesting techniques have been developed and implemented on scales ranging from the small, household-sided ones, to gargantuan dam systems. Instead of focusing on the collisions related to large-scale systems, this review is aimed to look for and collect examples of the effects that the implementation of small water harvesting systems has had on the access to the water resource and on water governance. The present research allowed to highlight that in the studies that have been conducted up to now, water harvesting, and in particular those structures that allow the collection and storage of water for domestic use, is usually recognized as a positive, palliative element during contentions. On the other hand, water harvesting can worsen and, in some cases, even generate conflicts for water management. This shows the necessity of studies that consider both benefits and negative influences of water harvesting, analyzing its role respectively as triggering or as mitigating factor of conflicting situations.

Keywords: arid areas, governance, water conflicts, water harvesting

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13807 Development of a Harvest Mechanism for the Kahramanmaraş Chili Pepper

Authors: O. E. Akay, E. Güzel, M. T. Özcan


The pepper has quite a rich variety. The development of a single harvesting machine for all kinds of peppers is a difficult research topic. By development of harvesting mechanisms, we could be able to facilitate the pepper harvesting problems. In this study, an experimental harvesting machine was designed for chili pepper. Four-bar mechanism was used for the design of the prototype harvesting machine. At the result of harvest trials, 80% of peppers were harvested and 8% foreign materials were collected. These results have provided some tips on how to apply to large-scale pepper Four-bar mechanism of the harvest machine.

Keywords: kinematic simulation, four bar linkage, harvest mechanization, pepper harvest

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13806 Demonstration of Powering up Low Power Wireless Sensor Network by RF Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Lim Teck Beng, Thiha Kyaw, Poh Boon Kiat, Lee Ngai Meng


This work presents discussion on the possibility of merging two emerging technologies in microwave; wireless power transfer (WPT) and RF energy harvesting. The current state of art of the two technologies is discussed and the strength and weakness of the two technologies is also presented. The equivalent circuit of wireless power transfer is modeled and explained as how the range and efficiency can be further increased by controlling certain parameters in the receiver. The different techniques of harvesting the RF energy from the ambient are also extensive study. Last but not least, we demonstrate that a low power wireless sensor network (WSN) can be power up by RF energy harvesting. The WSN is designed to transmit every 3 minutes of information containing the temperature of the environment and also the voltage of the node. One thing worth mention is both the sensors that are used for measurement are also powering up by the RF energy harvesting system.

Keywords: energy harvesting, wireless power transfer, wireless sensor network and magnetic coupled resonator

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13805 Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions

Authors: Hector A. Tinoco, Cesar Garcia-Diaz, Olga L. Ocampo-Lopez


In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.

Keywords: hard disk drive, energy harvesting, voice coil motor, energy harvester, gait motions

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13804 Current Harvesting Methods for Jatropha curcas L.

Authors: Luigi Pari, Alessandro Suardi, Enrico Santangelo


In the last decade Jatropha curcas L. (an oleaginous crop native to Central America and part of South America) has raised particular interest owing to of its properties and uses. Its capsules may contain up to 40% in oil and can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The harvesting phase is made difficult by the physiological traits of the specie, because fruits are in bunches and do not ripen simultaneously. Three harvesting methodologies are currently diffused and differ for the level of mechanization applied: manual picking, semi-mechanical harvesting, and mechanical harvesting. The manual picking is the most common in the developing countries but it is also the most time consuming and inefficient. Mechanical harvesting carried out with modified grape harvesters has the higher productivity, but it is very costly as initial investment and requires appropriate schemes of cultivation. The semi-mechanical harvesting method is achieved with shaker tools employed to facilitate the fruit detachment. This system resulted much cheaper than the fully mechanized one and quite flexible for small and medium scale applications, but it still requires adjustments for improving the productive performance. CRA-ING, within the European project Jatromed ( has carried out preliminary studies on the applicability of such approach, adapting an olive shaker to harvest Jatropha fruits. The work is a survey of the harvesting methods currently available for Jatropha, show the pros and cons of each system, and highlighting the criteria to be considered for choosing one respect another. The harvesting of Jatropha curcas L. remains a big constrains for the spread of the species as energy crop. The approach pursued by CRA-ING can be considered a good compromise between the fully mechanized harvesters and the exclusive manual intervention. It is an attempt to promote a sustainable mechanization suited to the social context of developing countries by encouraging the concrete involvement of local populations.

Keywords: jatropha curcas, energy crop, harvesting, central america, south america

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13803 An Electromechanical Device to Use in Road Pavements to Convert Vehicles Mechanical Energy into Electrical Energy

Authors: Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira, Paulo Fael


With the growing need for alternative energy sources, research into energy harvesting technologies has increased considerably in recent years. The particular case of energy harvesting on road pavements is a very recent area of research, with different technologies having been developed in recent years. However, none of them have presented high conversion efficiencies nor technical or economic viability. This paper deals with the development of a mechanical system to implement on a road pavement energy harvesting electromechanical device, to transmit energy from the device surface to an electrical generator. The main goal is to quantify the energy harvesting, transmission and conversion efficiency of the proposed system and compare it with existing systems. Conclusions about the system’s efficiency are presented.

Keywords: road pavement, energy harvesting, energy conversion, system modelling

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13802 Insect Outbreaks, Harvesting and Wildfire in Forests: Mathematical Models for Coupling Disturbances

Authors: M. C. A. Leite, B. Chen-Charpentier, F. Agusto


A long-term goal of sustainable forest management is a relatively stable source of wood and a stable forest age-class structure has become the goal of many forest management practices. In the absence of disturbances, this forest management goal could easily be achieved. However, in the face of recurring insect outbreaks and other disruptive processes forest planning becomes more difficult, requiring knowledge of the effects on the forest of a wide variety of environmental factors (e.g., habitat heterogeneity, fire size and frequency, harvesting, insect outbreaks, and age distributions). The association between distinct forest disturbances and the potential effect on forest dynamics is a complex matter, particularly when evaluated over time and at large scale, and is not well understood. However, gaining knowledge in this area is crucial for a sustainable forest management. Mathematical modeling is a tool that can be used to broader the understanding in this area. In this talk we will introduce mathematical models formulation incorporating the effect of insect outbreaks either as a single disturbance in the forest population dynamics or coupled with other disturbances: either wildfire or harvesting. The results and ecological insights will be discussed.

Keywords: age-structured forest population, disturbances interaction, harvesting insects outbreak dynamics, mathematical modeling

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13801 Rectenna Modeling Based on MoM-GEC Method for RF Energy Harvesting

Authors: Soulayma Smirani, Mourad Aidi, Taoufik Aguili


Energy harvesting has arisen as a prominent research area for low power delivery to RF devices. Rectennas have become a key element in this technology. In this paper, electromagnetic modeling of a rectenna system is presented. In our approach, a hybrid technique was demonstrated to associate both the method of auxiliary sources (MAS) and MoM-GEC (the method of moments combined with the generalized equivalent circuit technique). Auxiliary sources were used in order to substitute specific electronic devices. Therefore, a simple and controllable model is obtained. Also, it can easily be interconnected to form different topologies of rectenna arrays for more energy harvesting. At last, simulation results show the feasibility and simplicity of the proposed rectenna model with high precision and computation efficiency.

Keywords: computational electromagnetics, MoM-GEC method, rectennas, RF energy harvesting

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13800 Piezoelectric Micro-generator Characterization for Energy Harvesting Application

Authors: José E. Q. Souza, Marcio Fontana, Antonio C. C. Lima


This paper presents analysis and characterization of a piezoelectric micro-generator for energy harvesting application. A low-cost experimental prototype was designed to operate as piezoelectric micro-generator in the laboratory. An input acceleration of 9.8m/s2 using a sine signal (peak-to-peak voltage: 1V, offset voltage: 0V) at frequencies ranging from 10Hz to 160Hz generated a maximum average power of 432.4μW (linear mass position = 25mm) and an average power of 543.3μW (angular mass position = 35°). These promising results show that the prototype can be considered for low consumption load application as an energy harvesting micro-generator.

Keywords: piezoelectric, micro-generator, energy harvesting, cantilever beam

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13799 Economic Analysis of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Dairy Cattle

Authors: Sandra Cecilia Muhirirwe, Bart Van Der Bruggen, Violet Kisakye


Economic analysis of Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems is vital in search of a cost-effective solution to water unreliability, especially in low-income countries. There is little literature focusing on the financial aspects of RWH for dairy farmers. The main purpose was to assess the economic viability of rainwater harvesting for diary framers in the Rwenzori region. The study focused on the use of rainwater harvesting systems from the rooftop and collection in above surface tanks. Daily rainfall time series for 12 years was obtained across nine gauging stations. The daily water balance equation was used for optimal sizing of the tank. Economic analysis of the investment was carried out based on the life cycle costs and the accruing benefits for the period of 15 years. Roof areas were varied from 75m2 as the minimum required area to 500m2 while maintaining the same number of cattle and keeping the daily water demand constant. The results show that the required rainwater tank sizes are very large and may be impractical to install due to the strongly varying terrain and the initial cost of investment. In all districts, there is a significant reduction of the volume of the required tank with an increasing collection area. The results further show that increasing the collection area has a minor effect on reducing the required tank size. Generally, for all rainfall areas, the reliability increases with an increase in the roof area. The results indicate that 100% reliability can only be realized with very large collection areas that are impractical to install. The estimated benefits outweigh the cost of investment. The Present Net Value shows that the investment is economically viable and investment with a short payback of a maximum of 3 years for all the time series in the study area.

Keywords: dairy cattle, optimisation, rainwater harvesting, economic analysis

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13798 Cooperative Communication of Energy Harvesting Synchronized-OOK IR-UWB Based Tags

Authors: M. A. Mulatu, L. C. Chang, Y. S. Han


Energy harvesting tags with cooperative communication capabilities are emerging as possible infrastructure for internet of things (IoT) applications. This paper studies about the \ cooperative transmission strategy for a network of energy harvesting active networked tags (EnHANTs), that is adapted to the available energy resource and identification request. We consider a network of EnHANT-equipped objects to communicate with the destination either directly or by cooperating with neighboring objects. We formulate the the problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) under synchronised On/Off keying (S-OOK) pulse modulation format. The simulation results are provided to show the the performance of the cooperative transmission policy and compared against the greedy and conservative policies of single-link transmission.

Keywords: cooperative communication, transmission strategy, energy harvesting, Markov decision process, value iteration

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13797 Study of Linear Generator for Vibration Energy Harvesting of Frequency more than 50Hz

Authors: Seong-Jin Cho, Jin Ho Kim


Energy harvesting is the technology which gathers and converts external energies such as light, vibration and heat which are disposed into reusable electrical energy and uses such electrical energy. The vibration energy harvesting is very interesting technology because it produces very high density of energy and unaffected by the climate. Vibration energy can be harvested by the electrostatic, electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems. The electrostatic system has low energy conversion efficiency, and the piezoelectric system is expensive and needs the frequent maintenance because it is made of piezoelectric ceramic. On the other hand, the electromagnetic system has a long life time and high harvesting efficiency, and it is relatively cheap. The electromagnetic harvesting system includes the linear generator and the rotary-type generator. The rotary-type generators require the additional mechanical conversion device if it uses linear motion of vibration. But, the linear generator uses directly linear motion of vibration without a mechanical conversion device, and it has uncomplicated structure and light weight compared with the rotary-type generator. Therefore, the linear electromagnetic generator can be useful in using vibration energy harvesting. The pole transformer systems need electricity sensor system for sending voltage and power information to administrator. Therefore, the battery is essential, and its regular maintenance of replacement is required. In case of the transformer of high location in mountainous areas, the person can’t easily access it resulting in high maintenance cost. To overcome these problems, we designed and developed the linear electromagnetic generator which can replace battery in electricity sensor system for sending voltage and power information of the pole transformer. And, it uses vibration energy of frequency more than 50 Hz by the pole transformer. In order to analyze the electromagnetic characteristics of small linear electric generator, a commercial electromagnetic finite element analysis program "MAXWELL" was used. Then, through the actual production and experiment of linear generator, we confirmed output power of linear generator.

Keywords: energy harvesting, frequency, linear generator, experiment

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13796 Optimization of Energy Harvesting Systems for RFID Applications

Authors: P. Chambe, B. Canova, A. Balabanian, M. Pele, N. Coeur


To avoid battery assisted tags with limited lifetime batteries, it is proposed here to replace them by energy harvesting systems, able to feed from local environment. This would allow total independence to RFID systems, very interesting for applications where tag removal from its location is not possible. Example is here described for luggage safety in airports, and is easily extendable to similar situation in terms of operation constraints. The idea is to fix RFID tag with energy harvesting system not only to identify luggage but also to supply an embedded microcontroller with a sensor delivering luggage weight making it impossible to add or to remove anything from the luggage during transit phases. The aim is to optimize the harvested energy for such RFID applications, and to study in which limits these applications are theoretically possible. Proposed energy harvester is based on two energy sources: piezoelectricity and electromagnetic waves, so that when the luggage is moving on ground transportation to airline counters, the piezo module supplies the tag and its microcontroller, while the RF module operates during luggage transit thanks to readers located along the way. Tag location on the luggage is analyzed to get best vibrations, as well as harvester better choice for optimizing the energy supply depending on applications and the amount of energy harvested during a period of time. Effects of system parameters (RFID UHF frequencies, limit distance between the tag and the antenna necessary to harvest energy, produced voltage and voltage threshold) are discussed and working conditions for such system are delimited.

Keywords: RFID tag, energy harvesting, piezoelectric, EM waves

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13795 Multifunctional Composite Structural Elements for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

Authors: Amir H. Alavi, Kaveh Barri, Qianyun Zhang


This study presents a new generation of lightweight and mechanically tunable structural composites with sensing and energy harvesting functionalities. This goal is achieved by integrating metamaterial and triboelectric energy harvesting concepts. Proof-of-concept polymeric beam prototypes are fabricated using 3D printing methods based on the proposed concept. Experiments and theoretical analyses are conducted to quantitatively investigate the mechanical and electrical properties of the designed multifunctional beams. The results show that these integrated structural elements can serve as nanogenerators and distributed sensing mediums without a need to incorporating any external sensing modules and electronics. The feasibility of design self-sensing and self-powering structural elements at multiscale for next generation infrastructure systems is further discussed.

Keywords: multifunctional structures, composites, metamaterial, triboelectric nanogenerator, sensors, structural health monitoring, energy harvesting

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13794 Optimisation of Energy Harvesting for a Composite Aircraft Wing Structure Bonded with Discrete Macro Fibre Composite Sensors

Authors: Ali H. Daraji, Ye Jianqiao


The micro electrical devices of the wireless sensor network are continuously developed and become very small and compact with low electric power requirements using limited period life conventional batteries. The low power requirement for these devices, cost of conventional batteries and its replacement have encouraged researcher to find alternative power supply represented by energy harvesting system to provide an electric power supply with infinite period life. In the last few years, the investigation of energy harvesting for structure health monitoring has increased to powering wireless sensor network by converting waste mechanical vibration into electricity using piezoelectric sensors. Optimisation of energy harvesting is an important research topic to ensure a flowing of efficient electric power from structural vibration. The harvesting power is mainly based on the properties of piezoelectric material, dimensions of piezoelectric sensor, its position on a structure and value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrodes. Larger surface area of sensor is not granted larger power harvesting when the sensor area is covered positive and negative mechanical strain at the same time. Thus lead to reduction or cancellation of piezoelectric output power. Optimisation of energy harvesting is achieved by locating these sensors precisely and efficiently on the structure. Limited published work has investigated the energy harvesting for aircraft wing. However, most of the published studies have simplified the aircraft wing structure by a cantilever flat plate or beam. In these studies, the optimisation of energy harvesting was investigated by determination optimal value of an external electric load connected between sensor electrode terminals or by an external electric circuit or by randomly splitting piezoelectric sensor to two segments. However, the aircraft wing structures are complex than beam or flat plate and mostly constructed from flat and curved skins stiffened by stringers and ribs with more complex mechanical strain induced on the wing surfaces. This aircraft wing structure bonded with discrete macro fibre composite sensors was modelled using multiphysics finite element to optimise the energy harvesting by determination of the optimal number of sensors, location and the output resistance load. The optimal number and location of macro fibre sensors were determined based on the maximization of the open and close loop sensor output voltage using frequency response analysis. It was found different optimal distribution, locations and number of sensors bounded on the top and the bottom surfaces of the aircraft wing.

Keywords: energy harvesting, optimisation, sensor, wing

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13793 Theoretical and Numerical Investigation of a Tri-Stable Nonlinear Energy Harvesting System in Rotational Motion for Low Frequency Environment

Authors: Mei Xutao, Nakano Kimihiko


In order to enhance the energy harvesting efficiency, this paper presents a novel tri-stable energy harvesting system (TEHS), which is realized by the effect of magnetic force, in rotational motion to scavenge vibration energy. The device is meant to provide the power supply for wireless autonomous systems in low-frequency environment. The nonlinear TEHS is composed of the cantilever beam which is mounted on a rotating hub and partially covered by piezoelectric patch, a tip mass magnet in the end and two fixed magnets. A theoretical investigation using the Lagrangian formulation is derived to describe the motion of the energy harvesting system and the output voltage. Additionally, several numerical simulations were carried out to characterize the system under different external excitations and to validate its performance. The results demonstrated that TEHS owns a wide range of frequency of snap-through and high output voltage compared with the bi-stable energy harvesting system (BEHS). Moreover, some sets of experimental validations will be performed in the future work because the experimental setup is in the configuration now.

Keywords: piezoelectric beam, rotational motion, snap-through, tri-stable energy harvester

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13792 Assessment of the Effects of Water Harvesting Technology on Downstream Water Availability Using SWAT Model

Authors: Ayalkibet Mekonnen, Adane Abebe


In hydrological cycle there are many water-related human interventions that modify the natural systems. Rainwater harvesting is one such intervention that involves harnessing of water in the upstream. Water harvesting used in upstream prevents water runoff on downstream mainly disturbance on biodiversity and ecosystems. The main objectives of the study are to assess the effects of water harvesting technologies on downstream water availability in the Woreda. To address the above problem, SWAT model, cost-benefit ratio and optimal control approach was used to analyse the hydrological and socioeconomic impact and tradeoffs on water availability of the community, respectively. The downstream impacts of increasing water consumption in the upstream rain-fed areas of the Bilate and Shala Catchment are simulated using the semi-distributed SWAT model. The two land use scenarios tested at sub basin levels (1) conventional land use represents the current land use practice (Agri-CON) and (2) in-field rainwater harvesting (IRWH), improving soil water availability through rainwater harvesting land use scenario. The simulated water balance results showed that the highest peak mean monthly direct flow obtained from Agri-CON land use (127.1 m3/ha), followed by Agri-IRWH land use (11.5 mm) and LULC 2005 (90.1 m3/ha). The Agri-IRWH scenario reduced direct flow by 10% compared to Agri-CON and more groundwater flow contributed by Agri-IRWH (190 m3/ha) than Agri-CON (125 m3/ha). The overall result suggests that the water yield of the Woreda may not be negatively affected by the Agri-IRWH land use scenario. The technology in the Woreda benefited positively having an average benefit cost ratio of 4.2. Water harvesting for domestic use was not optimal that the value of the water per demand harvested was less than the amount of water needed. Storage tanks, series of check dams, gravel filled dams are an alternative solutions for water harvesting.

Keywords: water harvesting, SWAT model, land use scenario, Agri-CON, Agri-IRWH, trade off, benefit cost ratio

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13791 Absorption Control of Organic Solar Cells under LED Light for High Efficiency Indoor Power System

Authors: Premkumar Vincent, Hyeok Kim, Jin-Hyuk Bae


Organic solar cells have high potential which enables these to absorb much weaker light than 1-sun in indoor environment. They also have several practical advantages, such as flexibility, cost-advantage, and semi-transparency that can have superiority in indoor solar energy harvesting. We investigate organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) for indoor application while Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations were run to find the optimized structure. This may provide the highest short-circuit current density to acquire high efficiency under indoor illumination.

Keywords: indoor solar cells, indoor light harvesting, organic solar cells, P3HT:ICBA, renewable energy

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13790 Effort Dynamics with Selective Predator Harvesting of a Ratio-Dependent Predator-Prey System

Authors: Uganta Yadav, Sunita Gakkhar


Sustainable harvesting of renewable resources is a core issue in fisheries and forest management. The over-exploitation of valuable resources has led to the undesirable extinction of several biological species causing non-reversible damage to ecology and the environment. In this paper, the selective predator harvesting is considered in a predator prey system. The logistic growth of prey and ratio-dependent functional response is assumed. The dynamically varying effort is employed for selective harvesting of predator species using the Michaelis-Menten type function. The boundedness, positivity, and persistence of the nonlinear dynamical system are established. The system being non-singular about the origin, its dynamics is explored by transforming it to a regular system. It is observed that the system may collapse even with positive initial conditions attracted to one of the boundary points under certain conditions. The local stability of various other equilibrium states of the dynamic model is investigated. The region of attraction of the interior equilibrium state is obtained using Lyapunov stability. The occurrence of hopf bifurcation about the coexistence equilibrium point with respect to the parameter m (fraction of predators available for harvesting) is established. The sustainable harvesting is possible in two ways firstly, in the form of a stable interior equilibrium state, and secondly, in the form of a limit cycle. Considering the fraction m as a control variable, the optimal harvesting policy is obtained using Pontraygin’s maximum principle. The two-parameter bifurcation diagram is obtained with respect to c and d (the cost of harvesting and the death rate of predators, respectively). The two bi-stability regions of parameter space are identified. One of the regions shows the bi-stability of the origin and the effort free equilibrium state. The other region involves the bi-stability of the origin and interior equilibrium state. It is proved that for sustainable harvesting of predators, the ratio of p to c (price to cost) should be greater than a certain threshold value dependent on predator density. The analytical results are illustrated numerically with different parametric values.

Keywords: bifurcation, bistability, coexistence, optimal harvesting, stability

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13789 How to Capitalize on BioCNG at a Wastewater Plant

Authors: William G. "Gus" Simmons


Municipal and industrial wastewater plants across our country utilize anaerobic digestion as either primary treatment or as a means of waste sludge treatment and reduction. The emphasis on renewable energy and clean energy over the past several years, coupled with increasing electricity costs and increasing consumer demands for efficient utility operations has led to closer examination of the potential for harvesting the energy value of the biogas produced by anaerobic digestion. Although some facilities may have already come to the belief that harvesting this energy value is not practical or a top priority as compared to other capital needs and initiatives at the wastewater plant, we see that many are seeing biogas, and an opportunity for additional revenues, go up in flames as they continue to flare. Conversely, few wastewater plants under progressive and visionary leadership have demonstrated that harvesting the energy value from anaerobic digestion is more than “smoke and hot air”. From providing thermal energy to adjacent or on-campus operations to generating electricity and/or transportation fuels, these facilities are proving that energy harvesting can not only be profitable, but sustainable. This paper explores ways in which wastewater treatment plants can increase their value and import to the communities they serve through the generation of clean, renewable energy; also presented the processes in which these facilities moved from energy and cost sinks to sparks of innovation and pride in the communities in which they operate.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, harvesting energy, biogas, renewable energy, sustainability

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13788 Project Knowledge Harvesting: The Case of Improving Project Performance through Project Knowledge Sharing Framework

Authors: Eng Rima Al-Awadhi, Abdul Jaleel Tharayil


In a project-centric organization like KOC, managing the knowledge of the project is of critical importance to the success of the project and the organization. However, due to the very nature and complexity involved, each project engagement generates a lot of 'learnings' that need to be factored into while new projects are initiated and thus avoid repeating the same mistake. But, many a time these learnings are localized and remains as ‘tacit knowledge’ leading to scope re-work, schedule overrun, adjustment orders, concession requests and claims. While KOC follows an asset based organization structure, with a multi-cultural and multi-ethnic workforce and larger chunk of the work is carried out through complex, long term project engagement, diffusion of ‘learnings’ across assets while dealing with the natural entropy of the organization is of great significance. Considering the relatively higher number of mega projects, it's important that the issues raised during the project life cycle are centrally harvested, analyzed and the ‘learnings’ from these issues are shared, absorbed and are in-turn utilized to enhance and refine the existing process and practices, leading to improve the project performance. One of the many factors contributing to the successful completion of a project on time is the reduction in the number of variations or concessions triggered during the project life cycle. The project process integrated knowledge sharing framework discusses the knowledge harvesting methodology adopted, the challenges faced, learnings acquired and its impact on project performance. The framework facilitates the proactive identification of issues that may have an impact on the overall quality of the project and improve performance.

Keywords: knowledge harvesting, project integrated knowledge sharing, performance improvement, knowledge management, lessons learn

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13787 Using Deep Learning Real-Time Object Detection Convolution Neural Networks for Fast Fruit Recognition in the Tree

Authors: K. Bresilla, L. Manfrini, B. Morandi, A. Boini, G. Perulli, L. C. Grappadelli


Image/video processing for fruit in the tree using hard-coded feature extraction algorithms have shown high accuracy during recent years. While accurate, these approaches even with high-end hardware are computationally intensive and too slow for real-time systems. This paper details the use of deep convolution neural networks (CNNs), specifically an algorithm (YOLO - You Only Look Once) with 24+2 convolution layers. Using deep-learning techniques eliminated the need for hard-code specific features for specific fruit shapes, color and/or other attributes. This CNN is trained on more than 5000 images of apple and pear fruits on 960 cores GPU (Graphical Processing Unit). Testing set showed an accuracy of 90%. After this, trained data were transferred to an embedded device (Raspberry Pi gen.3) with camera for more portability. Based on correlation between number of visible fruits or detected fruits on one frame and the real number of fruits on one tree, a model was created to accommodate this error rate. Speed of processing and detection of the whole platform was higher than 40 frames per second. This speed is fast enough for any grasping/harvesting robotic arm or other real-time applications.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, computer vision, deep learning, fruit recognition, harvesting robot, precision agriculture

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13786 Design Analysis of Solar Energy Panels for Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Cyril Agochi Okorowo


More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man have greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of a consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discusses solar energy as the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting the energy and recommends solar energy as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power in Nigeria supersedes supply.

Keywords: analysis, energy, design, solar

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13785 Solar Energy: The Alternative Electric Power Resource in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi


More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man has greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discuses solar energy the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting and recommends same as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power supersedes supply.

Keywords: electric, power, renewable energy, solar energy, sun, tropical

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13784 Utilization of Logging Residue to Reduce Soil Disturbance of Timber Harvesting

Authors: Juang R. Matangaran, Qi Adlan


Industrial plantation forest in Indonesia was developed in 1983, and since then, several companies have been successfully planted a total area of concessionaire approximately 10 million hectares. Currently, these plantation forests have their annual harvesting period. In the timber harvesting process, amount part of the trees generally become logging residue. Tree parts such as branches, twigs, defected stem and leaves are unused section of tree on the ground after timber harvesting. The use of heavy machines in timber harvesting area has caused damage to the forest soil. The negative impact of such machines includes loss of topsoil, soil erosion, and soil compaction. Forest soil compaction caused reduction of forest water infiltration, increase runoff and causes difficulty for root penetration. In this study, we used logging residue as soil covers on the passages passed by skidding machines in order to observe the reduction soil compaction. Bulk density of soil was measured and analyzed after several times of skidding machines passage on skid trail. The objective of the research was to analyze the effect of logging residue on reducing soil compaction. The research was taken place at one of the industrial plantation forest area of South Sumatra Indonesia. The result of the study showed that percentage increase of soil compaction bare soil was larger than soil surface covered by logging residue. The maximum soil compaction occurred after 4 to 5 passes on soil without logging residue or bare soil and after 7 to 8 passes on soil cover by logging residue. The use of logging residue coverings could reduce soil compaction from 45% to 60%. The logging residue was effective in decreasing soil disturbance of timber harvesting at the plantation forest area.

Keywords: bulk density, logging residue, plantation forest, soil compaction, timber harvesting

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13783 Rainwater Harvesting for Household Consumption in Rural Demonstration Sites of Nong Khai Province, Thailand

Authors: Shotiros Protong


In recent years, Thailand has been affected by climate change phenomenon, which is clearly seen from the season change for different times. The occurrence of violent storms, heavy rains, floods, and drought were found in several areas. In a long dry period, the water supply is not adequate in drought areas. Nowadays, it is renowned that there is a significant decrease of rainwater use for household consumption in rural area of Thailand. Rainwater harvesting is the practice of collection and storage of rainwater in storage tanks before it is lost as surface run-off. Rooftop rainwater harvesting is used to provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for livestock. Rainwater harvesting in households is an alternative for people to readily prepare water resources for their own consumptions during the drought season, can help mitigate flooding of flooded plains, and also may reduce demand on the basin and well. It also helps in the availability of potable water, as rainwater is substantially free of salts. Application of rainwater harvesting in rural water system provide a substantial benefit for both water supply and wastewater subsystems by reducing the need for clean water in water distribution systems, less generated storm water in sewer systems, and a reduction in storm water runoff polluting freshwater bodies. The combination of rainwater quality and rainfall quantity is used to determine proper rainwater harvesting for household consumption to be safe and adequate for survivals. Rainwater quality analysis is compared with the drinking water standard. In terms of rainfall quantity, the observed rainfall data are interpolated by GIS 10.5 and showed by map during 1980 to 2020, used to assess the annual yield for household consumptions.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, drinking water standard, annual yield, rainfall quantity

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13782 Internet of Things Edge Device Power Modelling and Optimization Simulator

Authors: Cian O'Shea, Ross O'Halloran, Peter Haigh


Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are Internet of Things (IoT) edge devices. They are becoming widely adopted in many industries, including health care, building energy management, and conditional monitoring. As the scale of WSN deployments increases, the cost and complexity of battery replacement and disposal become more significant and in time may become a barrier to adoption. Harvesting ambient energies provide a pathway to reducing dependence on batteries and in the future may lead to autonomously powered sensors. This work describes a simulation tool that enables the user to predict the battery life of a wireless sensor that utilizes energy harvesting to supplement the battery power. To create this simulator, all aspects of a typical WSN edge device were modelled including, sensors, transceiver, and microcontroller as well as the energy source components (batteries, solar cells, thermoelectric generators (TEG), supercapacitors and DC/DC converters). The tool allows the user to plug and play different pre characterized devices as well as add user-defined devices. The goal of this simulation tool is to predict the lifetime of a device and scope for extension using ambient energy sources.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, IoT, edge device, simulation, solar cells, TEG, supercapacitor, energy harvesting

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13781 Alternative Systems of Drinking Water Supply Using Rainwater Harvesting for Small Rural Communities with Zero Greenhouse Emissions

Authors: Martin Mundo-Molina


In Mexico, there are many small rural communities with serious water supply deficiencies. In Chiapas, Mexico, there are 19,972 poor rural communities, 15,712 of which have fewer than 100 inhabitants. The lack of a constant water supply is most severe in the highlands of Chiapas where the population is made up mainly of indigenous groups. The communities are on mountainous terrain with a widely dispersed population. These characteristics combine to make the provision of public utilities, such as water, electricity and sewerage, difficult with conventional means. The introduction of alternative, low-cost technologies represents means of supplying water such as through fog and rain catchment with zero greenhouse emissions. In this paper is presented the rainwater harvesting system (RWS) constructed in Yalentay, Chiapas Mexico. The RWS is able to store 1.2 M liters of water to provide drinking water to small rural indigenous communities of 500 people in the drought stage. Inside the system of rainwater harvesting there isn't photosynthesis in order to conserve water for long periods. The natural filters of the system of rainwater harvesting guarantee the drinking water for using to the community. The combination of potability and low cost makes rain collection a viable alternative for rural areas, weather permitting. The Mexican Institute of Water Technology and Chiapas University constructed a rainwater harvesting system in Yalentay Chiapas, it consists of four parts: 1. Roof of aluminum, for collecting rainwater, 2. Underground-cistern, divided in two tanks, 3. Filters, to improve the water quality and 4. The system of rainwater harvesting dignified the lives of people in Yalentay, saves energy, prevents the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, conserves natural resources such as water and air.

Keywords: appropriate technologies, climate change, greenhouse gases, rainwater harvesting

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13780 Electromechanical-Traffic Model of Compression-Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Saleh Gareh, B. C. Kok, H. H. Goh


Piezoelectric energy harvesting has advantages over other alternative sources due to its large power density, ease of applications, and capability to be fabricated at different scales: macro, micro, and nano. This paper presents an electromechanical-traffic model for roadway compression-based piezoelectric energy harvesting system. A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) electromechanical model has been developed for the piezoelectric energy harvesting unit to define its performance in power generation under a number of external excitations on road surface. Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT-5H) is selected as the piezoelectric material to be used in this paper due to its high Piezoelectric Charge Constant (d) and Piezoelectric Voltage Constant (g) values. The main source of vibration energy that has been considered in this paper is the moving vehicle on the road. The effect of various frequencies on possible generated power caused by different vibration characteristics of moving vehicle has been studied. A single unit of circle-shape Piezoelectric Cymbal Transducer (PCT) with diameter of 32 mm and thickness of 0.3 mm be able to generate about 0.8 mW and 3 mW of electric power under 4 Hz and 20 Hz of excitation, respectively. The estimated power to be generated for multiple arrays of PCT is approximately 150 kW/ km. Thus, the developed electromechanical-traffic model has enormous potential to be used in estimating the macro scale of roadway power generation system.

Keywords: piezoelectric energy harvesting, cymbal transducer, PZT (lead zirconate titanate), 2-DOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 242