Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Dāvids Vardanjans

4 Mathematical Modelling of Biogas Dehumidification by Using of Counterflow Heat Exchanger

Authors: Staņislavs Gendelis, Andris Jakovičs, Jānis Ratnieks, Aigars Laizāns, Dāvids Vardanjans

Abstract:

Dehumidification of biogas at the biomass plants is very important to provide the energy efficient burning of biomethane at the outlet. A few methods are widely used to reduce the water content in biogas, e.g. chiller/heat exchanger based cooling, usage of different adsorbents like PSA, or the combination of such approaches. A quite different method of biogas dehumidification is offered and analyzed in this paper. The main idea is to direct the flow of biogas from the plant around it downwards; thus, creating additional insulation layer. As the temperature in gas shell layer around the plant will decrease from ~ 38°C to 20°C in the summer or even to 0°C in the winter, condensation of water vapor occurs. The water from the bottom of the gas shell can be collected and drain away. In addition, another upward shell layer is created after the condensate drainage place on the outer side to further reducing heat losses. Thus, counterflow biogas heat exchanger is created around the biogas plant. This research work deals with the numerical modelling of biogas flow, taking into account heat exchange and condensation on cold surfaces. Different kinds of boundary conditions (air and ground temperatures in summer/winter) and various physical properties of constructions (insulation between layers, wall thickness) are included in the model to make it more general and useful for different biogas flow conditions. The complexity of this problem is fact, that the temperatures in both channels are conjugated in case of low thermal resistance between layers. MATLAB programming language is used for multiphysical model development, numerical calculations and result visualization. Experimental installation of a biogas plant’s vertical wall with an additional 2 layers of polycarbonate sheets with the controlled gas flow was set up to verify the modelling results. Gas flow at inlet/outlet, temperatures between the layers and humidity were controlled and measured during a number of experiments. Good correlation with modelling results for vertical wall section allows using of developed numerical model for an estimation of parameters for the whole biogas dehumidification system. Numerical modelling of biogas counterflow heat exchanger system placed on the plant’s wall for various cases allows optimizing of thickness for gas layers and insulation layer to ensure necessary dehumidification of the gas under different climatic conditions. Modelling of system’s defined configuration with known conditions helps to predict the temperature and humidity content of the biogas at the outlet.

Keywords: biogas dehumidification, numerical modelling, condensation, biogas plant experimental model

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3 Creator and Creation: Mary Shelley’s Monstrous ‘Last Men’ in 'Frankenstein' and 'The Last Man'

Authors: Courtney Laurey Davids

Abstract:

Mary Shelley’s two 19th century novels, the seminal Frankenstein (1818) and the less popular The Last Man (1826) draw on Gothic elements that invite a futuristic questioning and critique of man’s fallibility and propensity to be the author of his own demise be it by transgressing natural law through a scientific endeavour or ‘birthing’ a plague. Recent scholarship about ‘prophetic’ voices in fiction considers The Last Man an influential but overlooked novel deserving of renewed scholarly interest. Through close textual analysis and comparative reading, this paper seeks to explore the continuities (and discontinuities) in thematic concern of creator and creation in Frankenstein and The Last Man, emblematic in the oppositional characters of Victor Frankenstein and the Creature and Adrian, Earl of Windsor and Lionel Verney, his ‘creation’ in The Last Man. It argues that the creator/creation dynamic between Frankenstein and the Creature is to an extent revisited and inverted in Adrian and Verney but presented as no less problematic in The Last Man’s critique of man’s inevitable folly despite nurturing and acceptance of the marginalised figure. Drawing on Romanticism ideals of nature, its foregrounding of a scourging pandemic as punishment for man’s self-dislocation and with nature is a mirroring of Frankenstein and the Creature’s own plague-like deterioration and alienation from self and nature. In a sense, both Verney and the Creature as solitary figures at the novels' denouement are ‘last men’, having learned much about man and society and upon whom the moral injunction rests. In Verney, however, the moral warning coupled with the hope that man can yet be saved offers a different reading perhaps from Frankenstein regarding the creator/creation dichotomy.

Keywords: creator/creation, Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, The Gothic, The Last Man

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2 Building Deep: Mystery And Sensuality In The Underground World

Authors: Rene Davids

Abstract:

Urban undergrounds spaces such as parking garages or metro stations are perceived as interludes before reaching desired destinations, as commodities devoid of aesthetic value. Within the encoded space of the city, commercial underground spaces are the closest expression to pure to structures of consumption and commodity. Even in the house, the cellar is associated with castoffs and waste or, as scholar Mircea Eliade has pointed out at best, with a place to store abandoned household and childhood objects, which lie forgotten and on rediscovery evoke a nostalgic and uncanny sense of the past. Despite a growing body of evidence presented by an increasing number of buildings situated entirely below or semi underground that feature exemplary spatial and sensuous qualities, critics and scholars see them largely as efforts to produce efforts in producing low consumption non-renewable energy. Buildings that also free space above ground. This critical approach neglects to mention and highlight other project drivers such as the notion that the ground and sky can be considered a building’s fundamental context, that underground spaces are conducive to the exploration of pure space, namely an architecture that doesn’t have to deal with facades and or external volumes and that digging into geology can inspire the textural and spatial richness. This paper will argue that while the assessment about the reduced energy consumption of underground construction is important, it does not do justice to the qualities underground buildings can contribute to a city’s expanded urban and or landscape experiences.

Keywords: low non-renewable energy consumption, pure space, underground buildings, urban and landscape experience

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1 Effects of Wearable Garments on Postural Regulation in Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

Authors: Mei Teng Woo, Keith Davids, Jarmo Liukkonen, Jia Yi Chow, Timo Jaakkola

Abstract:

Wearable garments such as tapes, compression garments, and braces could improve proprioception and reduced postural sway. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of wearable garments on postural regulation in a sample of community-dwelling elderly individuals, aged 65 years. It was hypothesized that wearable garments such as socks would provide stimulation to lower leg mechanoreceptors, and help participants achieve better postural regulation. Participants (N=63) performed a 30-s Romberg balance test protocol under four conditions (barefoot; wearing commercial socks; wearing clinical compression socks; wearing non-clinical compression socks), in a counterbalanced order, with four levels of performance difficulty: (1) standing on a stable surface with open eyes (SO); (2) a stable surface with closed eyes (SC); (3) a foam surface with open eyes (FO); and (4) a foam surface with closed eyes (FC). Centre of pressure (CoP) measurements included postural sway area (C90 area), trace length (TL) and sway velocity. Thirty-five participants (55.6%) showed positive effects of wearing the socks (responded group). In the responded group, it was revealed that socks showed significant differences in SO, SC and FO conditions for the two CoP measurements - TL and sway velocity (p < 0.05). In contrast, in the non-responded group, barefoot condition significantly decreased the TL and velocity in the SO condition. From the positive effects observed in the responded group, it is possible that wearable garments provide sensory cues that could interact with a biological cueing system to enhance performance in the postural regulation system. This study suggests that individuals respond to the socks treatments differently and future research should be undertaken to examine the factors that benefited the responded group of participants.

Keywords: community-dwelling, elderly adults, postural regulation, wearable garments

Procedia PDF Downloads 231