Search results for: separation
1134 A New Criterion for Removal of Fouling Deposit
Abstract:The key to improve surface cleaning of the fouling is understanding of the mechanism of separation process of the deposit from the surface. The authors give basic principles of characterization of separation process and introduce a corresponding criterion. The developed criterion is a measure for the moment of separation of the deposit from the surface. For this purpose a new measurement technique is described.
Keywords: cleaning, fouling, separation, criterionProcedia PDF Downloads 387
1133 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Tire-Road Separation in Quarter-car Model
Authors: Quy Dang Nguyen, Reza Nakhaie Jazar
Abstract:The paper investigates vibration dynamics of tire-road separation for a quarter-car model; this separation model is developed to be close to the real situation considering the tire is able to separate from the ground plane. A set of piecewise linear mathematical models is developed and matches the in-contact and no-contact states to be considered as mother models for further investigations. The bound dynamics are numerically simulated in the time response and phase portraits. The separation analysis may determine which values of suspension parameters can delay and avoid the no-contact phenomenon, which results in improving ride comfort and eliminating the potentially dangerous oscillation. Finally, model verification is carried out in the MSC-ADAMS environment.
Keywords: quarter-car vibrations, tire-road separation, separation analysis, separation dynamics, ride comfort, ADAMS validationProcedia PDF Downloads 25
1132 Hydrothermal Synthesis of ZIF-7 Crystals and Their Composite ZIF-7/CS Membranes for Water/Ethanol Separation
Authors: Kai-Sheng Ji, Yi-Feng Lin
Abstract:The pervaporation process for solvent and water separation has attracted research attention due to its lower energy consumption compared with conventional distillation processes. The membranes used for the pervaporation approach should exhibit high flux and separation factors. In this study, the ZIF-7 crystal particles were successfully incorporated into chitosan (CS) membranes to form ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes. The as-prepared ZIF-7/CS mixed-matrix membranes were used to separate mixtures of water/ethanol at 25℃ in the pervaporation process. The mixed-matrix membranes with different ZIF-7 wt% incorporation showed better separation efficiency than the pristine CS membranes because of the smaller pore size of the mixed-matrix membranes. The separation factor and the flux of the ZIF-7/CS membranes clearly exceed the upper limit of the previously reported CS-based and mixed-matrix membranes.
Keywords: pervaporation, chitosan, ZIF-7, memberane separationProcedia PDF Downloads 346
1131 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation
Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa
Abstract:An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.
Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation, dimensional domainsProcedia PDF Downloads 435
1130 Sustainable Separation of Nicotine from Its Aqueous Solutions
Authors: Zoran Visak, Joana Lopes, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak
Abstract:Within this study, the separation of nicotine from its aqueous solutions, using inorganic salt sodium chloride or ionic liquid (molten salt) ECOENG212® as salting-out media, was carried out. Thus, liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary solutions (nicotine+water+NaCl) and (nicotine+water+ECOENG212®) were determined at ambient pressure, 0.1 MPa, at three temperatures. The related phase diagrams were constructed in two manners: by adding the determined cloud-points and by the chemical analysis of phases in equilibrium (tie-line data). The latter were used to calculate two important separation parameters - partition coefficients of nicotine and separation factors. The impacts of the initial compositions of the mother solutions and of temperature on the liquid-liquid phase separation and partition coefficients were analyzed and discussed. The results obtained clearly showed that both investigated salts are good salting-out media for the efficient and sustainable separation of nicotine from its solutions with water. However, when compared, sodium chloride exhibited much better separation performance than the ionic liquid.
Keywords: nicotine, liquid-liquid separation, inorganic salt, ionic liquidProcedia PDF Downloads 238
1129 The Effects of Early Maternal Separation on Risky Choice in Rats
Authors: Osvaldo Collazo, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos
Abstract:Early maternal separation has been shown to bring about many negative effects on behavior in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early maternal separation on risky choice in rats. One group of male and female Wistar rats was exposed to an early maternal separation protocol while a control group was left undisturbed. Then both groups were exposed to a series of behavioral tests, including a test of risky choice, where one alternative offered a constant reward while the other offered a variable reward. There was a difference between groups when they chose between a variable and a constant reward delay, but no other difference was significant. These results suggest that early maternal separation may be related to a greater preference for shorter delays, which is characteristic of more impulsive choices.
Keywords: early maternal separation, impulsivity, risky choice, variabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 190
1128 From a Distance: A Grounded Theory Study of Incarcerated Filipino Elderly's Separation Anxiety
Authors: Allan B. de Guzman, Rochelle Gabrielle R. Gatan, Ira Bianca Mae G. Gesmundo, Astley Justine H. Golosinda
Abstract:Background: While in prison, the elderly, like the younger prisoners, face specific problems and deprivations arising directly from their imprisonment, one of which is forced separation from family and loved ones. Despite the numerous studies that examined the impact of separation and separation anxiety on the emotions and behavior of young individuals, little is known about separation anxiety in the elderly population. Objective: This grounded theory study purports to describe the process of separation anxiety among incarcerated Filipino elderly men. Method: Individual interviews and participant observations were conducted with 25 incarcerated elderly Filipino men who are first-time prisoners, sentenced to lifetime imprisonment and were analyzed using constant comparative method. Results: Following Strauss and Corbin’s protocol, a four-part process emerged to describe the studied layer of human experience. The Tectonic Model of Separation Anxiety among incarcerated Filipino elderly men comprises of four phases: Winkling, Wilting, Weeding, and Weaving. Conclusion: This study has inductively and creatively explored the process of separation anxiety among the Filipino incarcerated elderly men. Findings of this study invite nurses and other clinicians to identify developmentally appropriate strategies and interventions for this vulnerable and neglected sector of society.
Keywords: elderly, grounded theory, separation anxiety, Filipino, incarceratedProcedia PDF Downloads 284
1127 Deep Eutectic Solvent/ Polyimide Blended Membranes for Anaerobic Digestion Gas Separation
Authors: Glemarie C. Hermosa, Sheng-Jie You, Chien Chih Hu
Abstract:Efficient separation technologies are required for the removal of carbon dioxide from natural gas streams. Membrane-based natural gas separation has emerged as one of the fastest growing technologies, due to the compactness, higher energy efficiency and economic advantages which can be reaped. The removal of Carbon dioxide from gas streams using membrane technology will also give the advantage like environmental friendly process compared to the other technologies used in gas separation. In this study, Polyimide membranes, which are mostly used in the separation of gases, are blended with a new kind of solvent: Deep Eutectic Solvents or simply DES. The three types of DES are used are choline chloride based mixed with three different hydrogen bond donors: Lactic acid, N-methylurea and Urea. The blending of the DESs to Polyimide gave out high permeability performance. The Gas Separation performance for all the membranes involving CO2/CH4 showed low performance while for CO2/N2 surpassed the performance of some studies. Among the three types of DES used the solvent Choline Chloride/Lactic acid exhibited the highest performance for both Gas Separation applications. The values are 10.5 for CO2/CH4 selectivity and 60.5 for CO2/N2. The separation results for CO2/CH4 may be due to the viscosity of the DESs affecting the morphology of the fabricated membrane thus also impacts the performance. DES/blended Polyimide membranes fabricated are novel and have the potential of a low-cost and environmental friendly application for gas separation.
Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, gas separation, polyimide blends, polyimide membranesProcedia PDF Downloads 235
1126 Graphene/ZnO/Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Film for Separation of Oil-Water Mixture
Authors: Suboohi Shervani, Jingjing Ling, Jiabin Liu, Tahir Husain
Abstract:Offshore oil-spill has become the most emerging problem in the world. In the current paper, a graphene/ZnO/polymer nanocomposite thin film is coated on stainless steel mesh via layer by layer deposition method. The structural characterization of materials is determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and separation efficiency have been measured via gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC-FID). TPHs are reduced to 2 ppm and separation efficiency of the nanocomposite coated mesh is reached ≥ 99% for the final sample. The nanocomposite coated mesh acts as a promising candidate for the separation of oil- water mixture.
Keywords: oil spill, graphene, oil-water separation, nanocompositeProcedia PDF Downloads 89
1125 Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose Membranes from Nata de Coco for CO2/CH4 Separation
Authors: Yanin Hosakun, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Thanyalak Chaisuwan
Abstract:Carbon dioxide removal from natural gas is an important process because the existence of carbon dioxide in natural gas contributes to pipeline corrosion, reduces the heating value, and takes up volume in the pipeline. In this study, bacterial cellulose was chosen for the CO2/CH4 gas separation membrane due to its unique structure and prominent properties. Additionally, it can simply be obtained by culturing the bacteria so called “Acetobacter xylinum” through fermentation of coconut juice. Bacterial cellulose membranes with and without silver ions were prepared and studied for the separation performance of CO2 and CH4.
Keywords: bacterial cellulose, CO2, CH4 separation, membrane, nata de cocoProcedia PDF Downloads 175
1124 CFD-DEM Modelling and Analysis of the Continuous Separation of Sized Particles Using Inertial Microfluidics
Authors: Hui Zhu, Yuan Wang, Shibo Kuang, Aibing Yu
Abstract:The inertial difference induced by the microfluidics inside a curved micro-channel has great potential to provide a fast, inexpensive, and portable solution to the separation of micro- and sub-micro particles in many applications such as aerosol collections, airborne bacteria and virus detections, as well as particle sortation. In this work, the separation behaviors of different sized particles inside a reported curved micro-channel have been studied by a combined approach of computational fluid dynamics for gas and discrete element model for particles (CFD-DEM). The micro-channel is operated by controlling the gas flow rates at all of its branches respectively used to load particles, introduce gas streams, collect particles of various sizes. The validity of the model has been examined by comparing by the calculated separation efficiency of different sized particles against the measurement. On this basis, the separation mechanisms of the inertial microfluidic separator are elucidated in terms of the interactions between particles, between particle and fluid, and between particle and wall. The model is then used to study the effect of feed solids concentration on the separation accuracy and efficiency. The results obtained from the present study demonstrate that the CFD-DEM approach can provide a convenient way to study the particle separation behaviors in micro-channels of various types.
Keywords: CFD-DEM, inertial effect, microchannel, separationProcedia PDF Downloads 237
1123 Source Separation for Global Multispectral Satellite Images Indexing
Authors: Aymen Bouzid, Jihen Ben Smida
Abstract:In this paper, we propose to prove the importance of the application of blind source separation methods on remote sensing data in order to index multispectral images. The proposed method starts with Gabor Filtering and the application of a Blind Source Separation to get a more effective representation of the information contained on the observation images. After that, a feature vector is extracted from each image in order to index them. Experimental results show the superior performance of this approach.
Keywords: blind source separation, content based image retrieval, feature extraction multispectral, satellite imagesProcedia PDF Downloads 334
1122 Prediction of Turbulent Separated Flow in a Wind Tunel
Authors: Karima Boukhadia
Abstract:In the present study, the subsonic flow in an asymmetrical diffuser was simulated numerically using code CFX 11.0 and its generator of grid ICEM CFD. Two models of turbulence were tested: K- ε and K- ω SST. The results obtained showed that the K- ε model singularly over-estimates the speed value close to the wall and that the K- ω SST model is qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental results of Buice and Eaton 1997. They also showed that the separation and reattachment of the fluid on the tilted wall strongly depends on its angle of inclination and that the length of the zone of separation increases with the angle of inclination of the lower wall of the diffuser.
Keywords: asymmetric diffuser, separation, reattachment, tilt angle, separation zoneProcedia PDF Downloads 515
1121 Development of Polybenzoxazine Membranes on Al2O3 Support for Water-Ethanol Separation via Pervaporation Technique
Authors: Chonlada Choedchun, Ni-on Saelim, Panupong Chuntanalerg, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Sujitra Wongkasemjit
Abstract:Bioethanol is one of the candidates to replace fossil fuels. Membrane technique is one of the attractive processes to produce high purity of ethanol. In this work, polybenzoxazine (PBZ) membrane successfully synthesized from bisphenol-A (BPA), formaldehyde, and two different types of multifunctionalamines: tetraethylenepentamine (tepa), and diethylenetriamine (deta), was evaluated for water-ethanol separation. The membrane thickness was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Pervaporation technique was carried out to find separation performance. It was found that the optimum PBZ concentration for the preparation of the membranes is 25%. The dipping cycles of PBZ-tepa and PBZ-deta was found to be 4 and 5, giving the total permeation flux of 28.97 and 14.75 g/m2.h, respectively. The separation factor of both membranes was higher than 10,000.
Keywords: polybenzoxazine, pervaporation, permeation flux, separation factorProcedia PDF Downloads 346
1120 Separation of Mercury(Ii) from Petroleum Produced Water via Hollow Fiber Supported Liquid Membrane and Mass Transfer Modeling
Authors: Srestha Chaturabul, Wanchalerm Srirachat, Thanaporn Wannachod, Prakorn Ramakul, Ura Pancharoen, Soorathep Kheawhom
Abstract:The separation of mercury(II) from petroleum-produced water from the Gulf of Thailand was carried out using a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane system (HFSLM). Optimum parameters for feed pretreatment were 0.2 M HCl, 4% (v/v) Aliquat 336 for extractant and 0.1 M thiourea for stripping solution. The best percentage obtained for extraction was 99.73% and for recovery 90.11%, respectively. The overall separation efficiency noted was 94.92% taking account of both extraction and recovery prospects. The model for this separation developed along a combined flux principle i.e. convection–diffusion–kinetic. The results showed excellent agreement with theoretical data at an average standard deviation of 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively.
Keywords: separation, mercury(ii), petroleum produced water, hollow fiber, liquid membraneProcedia PDF Downloads 247
1119 Noise Reduction by Energising the Boundary Layer
Authors: Kiran P. Kumar, H. M. Nayana, R. Rakshitha, S. Sushmitha
Abstract:Aircraft noise is a highly concerned problem in the field of the aviation industry. It is necessary to reduce the noise in order to be environment-friendly. Air-frame noise is caused because of the quick separation of the boundary layer over an aircraft body. So, we have to delay the boundary layer separation of an air-frame and engine nacelle. By following a certain procedure boundary layer separation can be reduced by converting laminar into turbulent and hence early separation can be prevented that leads to the noise reduction. This method has a tendency to reduce the noise of the aircraft hence it can prove efficient and environment-friendly than the present Aircraft.
Keywords: airframe, boundary layer, noise, reductionProcedia PDF Downloads 397
1118 Application of extraction chromatography to the separation of Sc, Zr and Sn isotopes from target materials
Authors: Steffen Happel
Abstract:Non-standard isotopes such as Sc-44/47, Zr-89, and Sn-117mare finding interest is increasing in radiopharmaceutical applications. Methods for the separation of these elements from typical target materials were developed. The methods used in this paper are based on the use of extraction chromatographic resins such as UTEVA, TBP, and DGA resin. Information on the selectivity of the resins (Dw values of selected elements in HCl and HNO3 of varying concentration) will be presented as well as results of the method development such as elution studies, chemical recoveries, and decontamination factors. Developed methods are based on the use of vacuum supported separation allowing for fast and selective separation.
Keywords: elution, extraction chromatography, radiopharmacy, decontamination factorsProcedia PDF Downloads 381
1117 Olefin and Paraffin Separation Using Simulations on Extractive Distillation
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah
Abstract:Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with respect to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent shows an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator; moreover NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99 % pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1 : 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column, previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the proposed plates were 30, which can economize the separation process.
Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, Aspen Plus, ACN solventProcedia PDF Downloads 372
1116 Evaluation of Solid-Gas Separation Efficiency in Natural Gas Cyclones
Authors: W. I. Mazyan, A. Ahmadi, M. Hoorfar
Abstract:Objectives/Scope: This paper proposes a mathematical model for calculating the solid-gas separation efficiency in cyclones. This model provides better agreement with experimental results compared to existing mathematical models. Methods: The separation ratio efficiency, ϵsp, is evaluated by calculating the outlet to inlet count ratio. Similar to mathematical derivations in the literature, the inlet and outlet particle count were evaluated based on Eulerian approach. The model also includes the external forces acting on the particle (i.e., centrifugal and drag forces). In addition, the proposed model evaluates the exact length that the particle travels inside the cyclone for the evaluation of number of turns inside the cyclone. The separation efficiency model derivation using Stoke’s law considers the effect of the inlet tangential velocity on the separation performance. In cyclones, the inlet velocity is a very important factor in determining the performance of the cyclone separation. Therefore, the proposed model provides accurate estimation of actual cyclone separation efficiency. Results/Observations/Conclusion: The separation ratio efficiency, ϵsp, is studied to evaluate the performance of the cyclone for particles ranging from 1 microns to 10 microns. The proposed model is compared with the results in the literature. It is shown that the proposed mathematical model indicates an error of 7% between its efficiency and the efficiency obtained from the experimental results for 1 micron particles. At the same time, the proposed model gives the user the flexibility to analyze the separation efficiency at different inlet velocities. Additive Information: The proposed model determines the separation efficiency accurately and could also be used to optimize the separation efficiency of cyclones at low cost through trial and error testing, through dimensional changes to enhance separation and through increasing the particle centrifugal forces. Ultimately, the proposed model provides a powerful tool to optimize and enhance existing cyclones at low cost.
Keywords: cyclone efficiency, solid-gas separation, mathematical model, models error comparisonProcedia PDF Downloads 278
1115 Multi-Layer Silica Alumina Membrane Performance for Flue Gas Separation
Authors: Ngozi Nwogu, Mohammed Kajama, Emmanuel Anyanwu, Edward Gobina
Abstract:With the objective to create technologically advanced materials to be scientifically applicable, multi-layer silica alumina membranes were molecularly fabricated by continuous surface coating silica layers containing hybrid material onto a ceramic porous substrate for flue gas separation applications. The multi-layer silica alumina membrane was prepared by dip coating technique before further drying in an oven at elevated temperature. The effects of substrate physical appearance, coating quantity, the cross-linking agent, a number of coatings and testing conditions on the gas separation performance of the membrane have been investigated. Scanning electron microscope was used to investigate the development of coating thickness. The membrane shows impressive perm selectivity especially for CO2 and N2 binary mixture representing a stimulated flue gas stream
Keywords: gas separation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thicknessProcedia PDF Downloads 340
1114 Process Simulation of 1-Butene Separation from C4 Mixture by Extractive Distillation
Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdulrahman A. Al-Rabiah, Wasif Mughees
Abstract:Technical mixture of C4 containing 1-butene and n-butane are very close to each other with regard to their boiling points i.e. -6.3°C for 1-butene and -1°C for n-butane. Extractive distillation process is used for the separation of 1-butene from the existing mixture of C4. The solvent is the essential of extractive distillation, and an appropriate solvent plays an important role in the process economy of extractive distillation. Aspen Plus has been applied for the separation of these hydrocarbons as a simulator. Moreover, NRTL activity coefficient model was used in the simulation. This model indicated that the material balances in this separation process were accurate for several solvent flow rates. Mixture of acetonitrile and water used as a solvent and 99% pure 1-butene was separated. This simulation proposed the ratio of the feed to solvent as 1: 7.9 and 15 plates for the solvent recovery column. Previously feed to solvent ratio was more than this and the number of proposed plates were 30, which shows that the separation process can be economized.
Keywords: extractive distillation, 1-butene, aspen plus, ACN solventProcedia PDF Downloads 435
1113 Separation of Rare-Earth Metals from E-Wastes
Authors: Gulsara Akanova, Akmaral Ismailova, Duisek Kamysbayev
Abstract:The separation of rare earth metals (REM) from a neodymium magnet has been widely studied in the last year. The waste of computer hard disk contains 25.41 % neodymium, 64.09 % iron, and <<1 % boron. To further the separation of rare-earth metals, the magnet dissolved in open and closed systems with nitric acid. In the closed system, the magnet was dissolved in a microwave sample preparation system at different temperatures and pressures and the dissolution process lasted 1 hour. In the open system, the acid dissolution of the magnet was conducted at room temperature and the process lasted 30-40 minutes. To remove the iron in the magnet, oxalic acid was used and precipitated as oxalates under both conditions. For separation of rare earth metals (Nd, Pr and Dy) from magnet waste is used sorption method.
Keywords: dissolution of the magnet, Neodymium magnet, rare earth metals, separation, SorptionProcedia PDF Downloads 137
1112 Solid-Liquid-Polymer Mixed Matrix Membrane Using Liquid Additive Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Dispersed in Polymeric Membrane for CO2/CH4 Separation
Authors: P. Chultheera, T. Rirksomboon, S. Kulprathipanja, C. Liu, W. Chinsirikul, N. Kerddonfag
Abstract:Gas separation by selective transport through polymeric membranes is one of the rapid growing branches of membrane technology. However, the tradeoff between the permeability and selectivity is one of the critical challenges encountered by pure polymer membranes, which in turn limits their large-scale application. To enhance gas separation performances, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been developed. In this study, MMMs were prepared by a solution-coating method and tested for CO2/CH4 separation through permeability and selectivity using a membrane testing unit at room temperature and a pressure of 100 psig. The fabricated MMMs were composed of silicone rubber dispersed with the activated carbon individually absorbed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a liquid additive. PEG emulsified silicone rubber MMMs showed superior gas separation on cellulose acetate membrane with both high permeability and selectivity compared with silicone rubber membrane and alone support membrane. However, the MMMs performed limited stability resulting from the undesirable PEG leakage. To stabilize the MMMs, PEG was then incorporated into activated carbon by adsorption. It was found that the incorporation of solid and liquid was effective to improve the separation performance of MMMs.
Keywords: mixed matrix membrane, membrane, CO₂/CH₄ separation, activated carbonProcedia PDF Downloads 271
1111 Viscoelastic Separation and Concentration of Candida Using a Low Aspect Ratio Microchannel
Authors: Seonggil Kim, Jeonghun Nam, Chae Seung Lim
Abstract:Rapid diagnosis of fungal infections is critical for rapid antifungal therapy. However, it is difficult to detect extremely low concentration fungi in blood sample. To address the limitation, separation and concentration of fungi in blood sample are required to enhance the sensitivity of PCR analysis. In this study, we demonstrated a sheathless separation and concentration of fungi, candida cells using a viscoelastic fluid. To validate the performance of the device, microparticle mixture (2 and 13 μm) was used, and those particles were successfully separated based on the size difference at high flow rate of 100 μl/min. For the final application, successful separation of the Candida cells from the white blood cells (WBCs) was achieved. Based on the viscoelastic lateral migration toward the equilibrium position, Candida cells were separated and concentrated by center focusing, while WBCs were removed by patterning into two streams between the channel center and the sidewalls. By flow cytometric analysis, the separation efficiency and the purity were evaluated as ~99% and ~ 97%, respectively. From the results, the device can be the powerful tool for detecting extremely rare disease-related cells.
Keywords: candida cells, concentration, separation, viscoelastic fluidProcedia PDF Downloads 98
1110 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation
Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah
Abstract:Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.
Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, ion-exchangeProcedia PDF Downloads 227
1109 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fibre Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation
Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah
Abstract:Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on a alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm, cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.
Keywords: MFI membrane, CO2, nanocomposite, ceramic hollow fibre, ion-exchangeProcedia PDF Downloads 416
1108 Ionic Liquid Effects on Metal Ion-Based Extractions of Olefin/Paraffin Hydrocarbon
Authors: Ellen M. Lukasik
Abstract:In coordination and support of the Center for Innovative and Strategic Transformation of Alkane Resources (CISTAR) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) at the University of Texas at Austin and under the guidance and direction of Professor Joan Brennecke, this study examined the addition of silver in an ionic liquid used to separate cyclohexane from cyclohexene. We recreated the liquid-liquid separation experimental results from the literature on cyclohexene, cyclohexane, and [allylmim][Tf2N] to verify our method, then evaluated the separation performance of silver - ionic liquid (IL) mixtures by various characterization techniques. To introduce the concepts of this research in high school education, a lesson plan was developed to instruct students on the principles of liquid-liquid separation.
Keywords: ionic liquids, liquid-liquid separation, hydrocarbon, research experience for teachersProcedia PDF Downloads 42
1107 Crosslinked PVA/Bentonite Clay Nanocomposite Membranes: An Effective Membrane for the Separation of Azeotropic Composition of Isopropanol and Water
Authors: Soney C. George, Thomasukutty Jose, Sabu Thomas
Abstract:Membrane based separation is the most important energy –efficient separation processes. There are wide ranges of membrane based separation process such as Micro-filtration, ultra filtration, reverse osmosis, electro-dialysis etc. Among these pervaporation is one of the most promising techniques. The promising technique is in the sense that it needs an ease of process design, low energy consumption, environmentally clean, economically cost effective and easily separate azeotropic composition without losing any components, unlike distillation in a short period of time. In the present work, we developed a new bentonite clay reinforced cross-linked PVA nano-composite membranes by solution casting method. The membranes were used for the pervaporation separation of azeotropic composition of isopropanol and water mixtures. The azeotropic composition of water and isopropanol is difficult to separate and we can’t get a better separation by normal separation processes. But the better separation was achieved here using cross-linked PVA/Clay nano-composite membranes. The 2wt% bentonite clay reinforced 5vol% GA cross-linked nano-composite membranes showed better separation efficiency. The selectivity of the cross-linked membranes increases 65% upon filler loading. The water permeance is showed tremendous enhancement upon filler loading. The permeance value changes from 4100 to 8200, due to the incorporation hydrophilic bentonite clay to the cross-linked PVA membranes. The clay reinforced membranes shows better thermal stability upon filler loading was confirmed from TGA and DSC analysis. The dispersion of nanoclay in the polymeric matrix was clearly evident from the TEM analysis. The better dispersed membranes showed better separation performance. Thus the developed cross-linked PVA/Clay membranes can be effectively used for the separation of azeotropic composition of water and isopropanol.
Keywords: poly(vinyl alcohol), membrane, gluraldehyde, permeanceProcedia PDF Downloads 251
1106 The Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Anxiety and Stress Hormone in Maternally Separated Male Rats
Authors: Özge Selin Çevik, Leyla Şahin, Gülhan Örekeci Temel
Abstract:The early postnatal period is critical for the development of cognitive and emotional functions. Maternal separation is a detrimental postnatal influence, whereas environmental enrichment is a therapeutic and protective agent. It is unclear if long-term environmental enrichment can compensate for the effects of maternal separation stress on anxiety behavior. This study was designed to examine how environmental enrichment affects anxiety levels and corticosterone levels in maternally separated rats. There are six main groups in this study: control (C), maternal separation+standard cage (MS), maternal separation+enriched environment (MSE), enriched environment (E), the maternal separation that decapitated at postnatal (PN) 21 (MS21), and standard cage that decapitated at PN21 (STD21). The maternal separation procedure consisted of PN for 21 days (between 09:00 a.m and 12:00 a.m). Enriched (E, MSE) or standard cage environment rats (MS, C) spent PN (22-55) days in either enriched cages or standard cages. Anxiety and locomotor activity were examined with the open field and elevated plus-maze test. Blood corticosterone level was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results showed that maternal separation (MS) increased locomotor activity and anxiety. An enriched environment (E) did not change the locomotor activity. MSE group’s anxiety and locomotor activity did not change. Corticosterone levels increased in the maternal separation group that decapitated at the PN 21 days. Maternal separation increases anxiety. Environmental enrichment alone was insufficient to cause alterations in the anxiety level. In addition, environmental enrichment did not ameliorate the anxiety level in maternally separated rats. However, environmental enrichment decreased the locomotor activity in the maternally separated rats.
Keywords: maternal separation, environment enrichment, stress, hippocampus, anxiety, memory, ratProcedia PDF Downloads 23
1105 Performance Evaluation of an Inventive Co2 Gas Separation Inorganic Ceramic Membrane System
Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Oyoh Kechinyere, Edward Gobina
Abstract:Atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions are considered as the greatest environmental challenge the world is facing today. The challenges to control the emissions include the recovery of CO2 from flue gas. This concern has been improved due to recent advances in materials process engineering resulting in the development of inorganic gas separation membranes with excellent thermal and mechanical stability required for most gas separations. This paper therefore evaluates the performance of a highly selective inorganic membrane for CO2 recovery applications. Analysis of results obtained is in agreement with experimental literature data. Further results show the prediction performance of the membranes for gas separation and the future direction of research. The materials selection and the membrane preparation techniques are discussed. Method of improving the interface defects in the membrane and its effect on the separation performance has also been reviewed and in addition advances to totally exploit the potential usage of this innovative membrane.
Keywords: carbon dioxide, gas separation, inorganic ceramic membrane, permselectivityProcedia PDF Downloads 262