Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: M. Zielinska

11 Impact of Kinesio Taping on Masseter Muscle: An Electromyographic Study

Authors: Joanna E. Owczarek, Izabela Zielinska


The incidence of temporomandibular disorders is 50% up to 80%. Kinesio taping (KT) is treatment method for musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of KT on masseter muscles’ tone evaluated by electromyography. 30 adults (aged 22±2.1) were examined. The tone of masseters before and after 4 days KT application on sternocleidomastoideus muscle was measured during resting mandibular position and clenching. Noraxon DTS device was used. Masseter muscles’ tone during clenching after KT application was relevently lower in comparison to its tone before the KT.

Keywords: electromyography, kinesio taping, masseter muscle, TMD

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10 Kinesio Taping in Treatment Patients with Intermittent Claudication

Authors: Izabela Zielinska


Kinesio Taping is classified as physiotherapy method supporting rehabilitation and modulating some physiological processes. It is commonly used in sports medicine and orthopedics. This sensory method has influence on muscle function, pain sensation, intensifies lymphatic system as well as improves microcirculation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Kinesio Taping in patients with ongoing treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD). The study group comprised 60 patients (stadium II B at Fontain's scale). All patients were divided into two groups (30 person/each), where 12 weeks long treadmill training was administrated. In the second group, the Kinesio Taping was applied to support the function of the gastrocnemius muscle. The measurements of distance and time until claudication pain, blood flow of arteries in lower limbs and ankle brachial index were taken under evaluation. Examination performed after Kinesio Taping therapy showed statistically significant increase in gait parameters and muscle strength in patients with intermittent claudication. The Kinesio Taping method has clinically significant effects on enhancement of pain-free distance and time until claudication pain in patients with peripheral artery disease. Kinesio Taping application can be used to support non-invasive treatment in patients with intermittent claudication. Kinesio Taping can be employed as an alternative way of therapy for patients with orthopedic or cardiac contraindications to be treated with treadmill training.

Keywords: intermittent claudication, kinesiotaping, peripheral artery disease, treadmill training

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9 Influence of Brazing Process Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Nickel Based Superalloy

Authors: M. Zielinska, B. Daniels, J. Gabel, A. Paletko


A common nickel based superalloy Inconel625 was brazed with Ni-base braze filler material (AMS4777) containing melting-point-depressants such as B and Si. Different braze gaps, brazing times and forms of braze filler material were tested. It was determined that the melting point depressants B and Si tend to form hard and brittle phases in the joint during the braze cycle. Brittle phases significantly reduce mechanical properties (e. g. tensile strength) of the joint. Therefore, it is important to define optimal process parameters to achieve high strength joints, free of brittle phases. High ultimate tensile strength (UTS) values can be obtained if the joint area is free of brittle phases, which is equivalent to a complete isothermal solidification of the joint. Isothermal solidification takes place only if the concentration of the melting point depressant in the braze filler material of the joint is continuously reduced by diffusion into the base material. For a given brazing temperature, long brazing times and small braze filler material volumes (small braze gaps) are beneficial for isothermal solidification. On the base of the obtained results it can be stated that the form of the braze filler material has an additional influence on the joint quality. Better properties can be achieved by the use of braze-filler-material in form of foil instead of braze-filler-material in form of paste due to a reduced amount of voids and a more homogeneous braze-filler-material-composition in the braze-gap by using foil.

Keywords: diffusion brazing, microstructure, superalloy, tensile strength

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8 Layer-By-Layer Deposition of Poly(Ethylene Imine) Nanolayers on Polypropylene Nonwoven Fabric: Electrostatic and Thermal Properties

Authors: Dawid Stawski, Silviya Halacheva, Dorota Zielińska


The surface properties of many materials can be readily and predictably modified by the controlled deposition of thin layers containing appropriate functional groups and this research area is now a subject of widespread interest. The layer-by-layer (lbl) method involves depositing oppositely charged layers of polyelectrolytes onto the substrate material which are stabilized due to strong electrostatic forces between adjacent layers. This type of modification affords products that combine the properties of the original material with the superficial parameters of the new external layers. Through an appropriate selection of the deposited layers, the surface properties can be precisely controlled and readily adjusted in order to meet the requirements of the intended application. In the presented paper a variety of anionic (poly(acrylic acid)) and cationic (linear poly(ethylene imine), polymers were successfully deposited onto the polypropylene nonwoven using the lbl technique. The chemical structure of the surface before and after modification was confirmed by reflectance FTIR spectroscopy, volumetric analysis and selective dyeing tests. As a direct result of this work, new materials with greatly improved properties have been produced. For example, following a modification process significant changes in the electrostatic activity of a range of novel nanocomposite materials were observed. The deposition of polyelectrolyte nanolayers was found to strongly accelerate the loss of electrostatically generated charges and to increase considerably the thermal resistance properties of the modified fabric (the difference in T50% is over 20°C). From our results, a clear relationship between the type of polyelectrolyte layer deposited onto the flat fabric surface and the properties of the modified fabric was identified.

Keywords: layer-by-layer technique, polypropylene nonwoven, surface modification, surface properties

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7 Normal Weight Obesity among Female Students: BMI as a Non-Sufficient Tool for Obesity Assessment

Authors: Krzysztof Plesiewicz, Izabela Plesiewicz, Krzysztof Chiżyński, Marzenna Zielińska


Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. There are several anthropometric parameters proposed to estimate the level of obesity, but until now there is no agreement which one is the best predictor of cardiometabolic risk. Scientists defined metabolically obese normal weight, who suffer from metabolic abnormalities, the same as obese individuals, and defined this syndrome as normal weight obesity (NWO). Aim of the study: The aim of our study was to determine the occurrence of overweight and obesity in a cohort of young, adult women, using standard and complementary methods of obesity assessment and to indicate those, who are at risk of obesity. The second aim of our study was to test additional methods of obesity assessment and proof that body mass index using alone is not sufficient parameter of obesity assessment. Materials and methods: 384 young women, aged 18-32, were enrolled into the study. Standard anthropometric parameters (waist to hips ratio (WTH), waist to height ratio (WTHR)) and two other methods of body fat percentage measurement (BFPM) were used in the study: electrical bioimpendance analysis (BIA) and skinfold measurement test by digital fat body mass clipper (SFM). Results: In the study group 5% and 7% of participants had waist to hips ratio and accordingly waist to height ratio values connected with visceral obesity. According to BMI 14% participants were overweight and obese. Using additional methods of body fat assessment, there were 54% and 43% of obese for BIA and SMF method. In the group of participants with normal BMI and underweight (not overweight, n =340) there were individuals with the level of BFPM above the upper limit, for the BIA 49% (n =164) and for the SFM 36 % (n=125). Statistical analysis revealed strong correlation between BIA and SFM methods. Conclusion: BMI using alone is not a sufficient parameter of obesity assessment. High percentage of young women with normal BMI values seem to be normal weight obese.

Keywords: electrical bioimpedance, normal weight obesity, skin-fold measurement test, women

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6 Food Losses Reducing by Extending the Minimum Durability Date of Thermally Processed Products

Authors: Dorota Zielińska, Monika Trząskowska, Anna Łepecka, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocińska, Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kołożyn-Krajewska


Minimum durability date (MDD) labeled food is known to have a long shelf life. A properly stored or transported food retains its physical, chemical, microbiological, and sensory properties up to MDD. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected thermally processed products,i.e., mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna within and after MDD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the Enterobacteriaceae count and the total yeast and mold (TYMC) count on the last day of MDD and after 1 and 3 months of storage, after the MDD expired. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of MDD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of differentiators (quality features), and overall quality were defined and determined. It was found that during three months storage of tested food products, after the MDD expired, the microbiological quality slightly decreased, however, regardless of the tested sample, TVC was at the level of <3 log cfu/g, similarly, the Enterobacretiaceae, what indicates the good microbiological quality of the tested foods. The TYMC increased during storage but did not exceed 2 logs cfu/g of product. Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the tested food samples. The sensory quality of mayonnaise negatively changed during storage. After three months from the expiry of MDD, a decrease in the "fat" and "egg" taste and aroma intensity, as well as the "density" were found. The "sour" taste intensity of blueberry jam after three months of storage was slightly higher, compared to the jam tested on the last day of MDD, without affecting the overall quality. In the case of tuna samples, an increase in the "fishy" taste and aroma intensity was observed during storage, and the overall quality did not change. Tested thermally processed products (mayonnaise, jam, and canned tuna) were characterized by good microbiological and sensory quality on the last day of MDD, as well as after three months of storage under conditions recommended by the producer. These findings indicate the possibility of reducing food losses by extending or completely abolishing the MDD of selected thermal processed food products.

Keywords: food wastes, food quality and safety, mayonnaise, jam, tuna

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5 Consumer Knowledge and Behavior in the Aspect of Food Waste

Authors: Katarzyna Neffe-Skocinska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Beata Bilska, Dorota Zielinska, Monika Trzaskowska, Anna Lepecka, Danuta Kolozyn-Krajewska


The aim of the study was to assess Polish consumer behavior towards food waste, including knowledge of information on food labels. The survey was carried out using the CAPI (computer assisted personal interview) method, which involves interviewing the respondent using mobile devices. The research group was a representative sample for Poland due to demographic variables: gender, age, place of residence. A total of 1.115 respondents participated in the study (51.1% were women and 48.9% were men). The questionnaire included questions on five thematic aspects: 1. General knowledge and sources of information on the phenomenon of food waste; 2. Consumption of food after the date of minimum durability; 3. The meanings of the phrase 'best before ...'; 4. Indication of the difference between the meaning of the words 'best before ...' and 'use by'; 5. Indications products marked with the phrase 'best before ...'. It was found that every second surveyed Pole met with the topic of food waste (54.8%). Among the respondents, the most popular source of information related to the research topic was television (89.4%), radio (26%) and the Internet (24%). Over a third of respondents declared that they consume food after the date of minimum durability. Only every tenth (9.8%) respondent does not pay attention to the expiry date and type of consumed products (durable and perishable products). Correctly 39.8% of respondents answered the question: How do you understand the phrase 'best before ...'? In the opinion of 42.8% of respondents, the statements 'best before ...' and 'use by' mean the same thing, while 36% of them think differently. In addition, more than one-fifth of respondents could not respond to the questions. In the case of products of the indication information 'best before ...', more than 40% of the respondents chosen perishable products, e.g., yoghurts and durable, e.g., groats. A slightly lower percentage of indications was recorded for flour (35.1%), sausage (32.8%), canned corn (31.8%), and eggs (25.0%). Based on the assessment of the behavior of Polish consumers towards the phenomenon of food waste, it can be concluded that respondents have elementary knowledge of the study subject. Noteworthy is the good conduct of most respondents in terms of compliance with shelf life and dates of minimum durability of food products. The publication was financed on the basis of an agreement with the National Center for Research and Development No. Gospostrateg 1/385753/1/NCBR/2018 for the implementation and financing of the project under the strategic research and development program social and economic development of Poland in the conditions of globalizing markets – GOSPOSTRATEG - acronym PROM.

Keywords: food waste, shelf life, dates of durability, consumer knowledge and behavior

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4 Possibility of Membrane Filtration to Treatment of Effluent from Digestate

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Magdalena Zielinska, Paulina Rusanowska


The problem with digestate management is one of the most important factors influencing on the development and operation of biogas plant. Turbidity and bacterial contamination negatively affect the growth of algae, which can limit the use of the effluent in the production of algae biomass on a large scale. These problems can be overcome by cultivating of algae species resistant to environmental factors, such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., or reducing load of organic compounds to prevent bacterial contamination. The effluent requires dilution and/or purification. One of the methods of effluent treatment is the use of a membrane technology such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), depending on the membrane pore size and the cut off point. Membranes are a physical barrier to solids and particles larger than the size of the pores. MF membranes have the largest pores and are used to remove turbidity, suspensions, bacteria and some viruses. UF membranes remove also color, odor and organic compounds with high molecular weight. In treatment of wastewater or other waste streams, MF and UF can provide a sufficient degree of purification. NF membranes are used to remove natural organic matter from waters, water disinfection products and sulfates. RO membranes are applied to remove monovalent ions such as Na⁺ or K⁺. The effluent was used in UF for medium to cultivation of two microalgae: Chlorella sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Growth rates of Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum were similar: 0.216 d⁻¹ and 0.200 d⁻¹ (Chlorella sp.); 0.128 d⁻¹ and 0.126 d⁻¹ (P. tricornutum), on synthetic medium and permeate from UF, respectively. The final biomass composition was also similar, regardless of the medium. Removal of nitrogen was 92% and 71% by Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum, respectively. The fermentation effluents after UF and dilution were also used for cultivation of algae Scenedesmus sp. that is resistant to environmental conditions. The authors recommended the development of biorafinery based on the production of algae for the biogas production. There are examples of using a multi-stage membrane system to purify the liquid fraction from digestate. After the initial UF, RO is used to remove ammonium nitrogen and COD. To obtain a permeate with a concentration of ammonium nitrogen allowing to discharge it into the environment, it was necessary to apply three-stage RO. The composition of the permeate after two-stage RO was: COD 50–60 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 300–320 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 320–340 mg/dm³, total phosphorus 53 mg/dm³. However compostion of permeate after three-stage RO was: COD < 5 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 0 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 3.5 mg/dm³, total phosphorus < 0,05 mg/dm³. Last stage of RO might be replaced by ion exchange process. The negative aspect of membrane filtration systems is the fact that the permeate is about 50% of the introduced volume, the remainder is the retentate. The management of a retentate might involve recirculation to a biogas plant.

Keywords: digestate, membrane filtration, microalgae cultivation, Chlorella sp.

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3 Reactors with Effective Mixing as a Solutions for Micro-Biogas Plant

Authors: M. Zielinski, M. Debowski, P. Rusanowska, A. Glowacka-Gil, M. Zielinska, A. Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, J. Kazimierowicz


Technologies for the micro-biogas plant with heating and mixing systems are presented as a part of the Research Coordination for a Low-Cost Biomethane Production at Small and Medium Scale Applications (Record Biomap). The main objective of the Record Biomap project is to build a network of operators and scientific institutions interested in cooperation and the development of promising technologies in the sector of small and medium-sized biogas plants. The activities carried out in the project will bridge the gap between research and market and reduce the time of implementation of new, efficient technological and technical solutions. Reactor with simultaneously mixing and heating system is a concrete tank with a rectangular cross-section. In the reactor, heating is integrated with the mixing of substrate and anaerobic sludge. This reactor is solution dedicated for substrates with high solids content, which cannot be introduced to the reactor with pumps, even with positive displacement pumps. Substrates are poured to the reactor and then with a screw pump, they are mixed with anaerobic sludge. The pumped sludge, flowing through the screw pump, is simultaneously heated by a heat exchanger. The level of the fermentation sludge inside the reactor chamber is above the bottom edge of the cover. Cover of the reactor is equipped with the screw pump driver. Inside the reactor, an electric motor is installed that is driving a screw pump. The heated sludge circulates in the digester. The post-fermented sludge is collected using a drain well. The inlet to the drain well is below the level of the sludge in the digester. The biogas is discharged from the reactor by the biogas intake valve located on the cover. The technology is very useful for fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass and substrates with high content of dry mass (organic wastes). The other technology is a reactor for micro-biogas plant with a pressure mixing system. The reactor has a form of plastic or concrete tank with a circular cross-section. The effective mixing of sludge is ensured by profiled at 90° bottom of the tank. Substrates for fermentation are supplied by an inlet well. The inlet well is equipped with a cover that eliminates odour release. The introduction of a new portion of substrates is preceded by pumping of digestate to the disposal well. Optionally, digestate can gravitationally flow to digestate storage tank. The obtained biogas is discharged into the separator. The valve supplies biogas to the blower. The blower presses the biogas from the fermentation chamber in such a way as to facilitate the introduction of a new portion of substrates. Biogas is discharged from the reactor by valve that enables biogas removal but prevents suction from outside the reactor.

Keywords: biogas, digestion, heating system, mixing system

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2 Research on Reducing Food Losses by Extending the Date of Minimum Durability on the Example of Cereal Products

Authors: Monika Trzaskowska, Dorota Zielinska, Anna Lepecka, Katarzyna Neffe-Skocinska, Beata Bilska, Marzena Tomaszewska, Danuta Kolozyn-Krajewska


Microbiological quality and food safety are important food characteristics. Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the provision of food information to consumers introduces the obligation to provide information on the 'use-by' date or the date of minimum durability (DMD). The second term is the date until which the properly stored or transported foodstuff retains its physical, chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The date should be preceded by 'best before'. It is used for durable products, e.g., pasta. In relation to reducing food losses, the question may be asked whether products with the date of minimum durability currently declared retain quality and safety beyond this. The aim of the study was to assess the sensory quality and microbiological safety of selected cereal products, i.e., pasta and millet after DMD. The scope of the study was to determine the markers of microbiological quality, i.e., the total viable count (TVC), the number of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family and the number of yeast and mold (TYMC) on the last day of DMD and after 1 and 3 months of storage. In addition, the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes was examined on the last day of DMD. The sensory quality of products was assessed by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), the intensity of 14 differentiators and overall quality were defined and determined. In the tested samples of millet and pasta, no pathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were found. The value of the distinguishing features of selected quality and microbiological safety indicators on the last DMD day was in the range of about 3-1 log cfu/g. This demonstrates the good microbiological quality of the tested food. Comparing the products, a higher number of microorganisms was found in the samples of millet. After 3 months of storage, TVC decreased in millet, while in pasta, it was found to increase in value. In both products, the number of bacteria from the Enterobacretiaceae family decreased. In contrast, the number of TYMCs increased in samples of millet, and in pasta decreased. The intensity of sensory characteristic in the studied period varied. It remained at a similar level or increased. Millet was found to increase the intensity and flavor of 'cooked porridge' 3 months after DMD. Similarly, in the pasta, the smell and taste of 'cooked pasta' was more intense. To sum up, the researched products on the last day of the minimum durability date were characterized by very good microbiological and sensory quality, which was maintained for 3 months after this date. Based on these results, the date of minimum durability of tested products could be extended. The publication was financed on the basis of an agreement with the National Center for Research and Development No. Gospostrateg 1/385753/1/NCBR/2018 for the implementation and financing of the project under the strategic research and development program 'social and economic development of Poland in the conditions of globalizing markets – GOSPOSTRATEG - acronym PROM'.

Keywords: date of minimum durability, food losses, food quality and safety, millet, pasta

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1 Technology for Biogas Upgrading with Immobilized Algae Biomass

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Miroslaw Krzemieniewski, Agata Glowacka-Gil, Paulina Rusanowska, Magdalena Zielinska, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska


Technologies of biogas upgrading are now perceived as competitive solution combustion and production of electricity and heat. Biomethane production will ensure broader application as energy carrier than biogas. Biomethane can be used as fuel in internal combustion engines or introduced into the natural gas transmission network. Therefore, there is a need to search for innovative, economically and technically justified methods for biogas enrichment. The aim of this paper is to present a technology solution for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass. Reactor for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass can be used for removing CO₂ from the biogas, flue gases and the waste gases especially coming from different industry sectors, e.g. from the food industry from yeast production process, biogas production systems, liquid and gaseous fuels combustion systems, hydrocarbon processing technology. The basis for the technological assumptions of presented technology were laboratory works and analyses that tested technological variants of biogas upgrading. The enrichment of biogas with a methane content of 90-97% pointed to technological assumptions for installation on a technical scale. Reactor for biogas upgrading with algae biomass is characterized by a significantly lower cubature in relation to the currently used solutions which use CO₂ removal processes. The invention, by its structure, assumes achieving a very high concentration of biomass of algae through its immobilization in capsules. This eliminates the phenomenon of lowering the pH value, i.e. acidification of the environment in which algae grow, resulting from the introduction of waste gases at a high CO₂ concentration. The system for introducing light into algae capsules is characterized by a higher degree of its use, due to lower losses resulting from the phenomenon of absorption of light energy by water. The light from the light source is continuously supplied to the formed biomass of algae or cyanobacteria in capsules by the light tubes. The light source may be sunlight or a light generator of a different wavelength of light from 300 nm to 800 nm. A portion of gas containing CO₂, accumulated in the tank and conveyed by the pump is periodically introduced into the housing of the photobioreactor tank. When conveying the gas that contains CO₂, it penetrates the algal biomass in capsules through the outer envelope, displacing, from the algal biomass, gaseous metabolic products which are discharged by the outlet duct for gases. It contributes to eliminating the negative impact of this factor on CO₂ binding processes. As a result of the cyclic dosing of gases containing carbon dioxide, gaseous metabolic products of algae are displaced and removed outside the technological system. Technology for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass is suitable for the small biogas plant. The advantages of this technology are high efficiency as well as useful algae biomass which can be used mainly as animal feed, fertilizers and in the power industry. The construction of the device allows effective removal of carbon dioxide from gases at a high CO₂ concentration.

Keywords: biogas, carbon dioxide, immobilised biomass, microalgae, upgrading

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