Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5632

Search results for: mesophilic temperature

5632 Anaerobic Digestion of Green Wastes at Different Solids Concentrations and Temperatures to Enhance Methane Generation

Authors: A. Bayat, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham


Two major categories of green waste are fruit and vegetable (FV) waste and garden and yard (GY) waste. Although, anaerobic digestions (AD) is able to manage FV waste; there is less confidence in the conditions for AD to handle GY wastes (grass, leaves, trees and bush trimmings); mainly because GY contains lignin and other recalcitrant organics. GY in the dry state (TS ≥ 15 %) can be digested at mesophilic temperatures; however, little methane data has been reported under thermophilic conditions, where conceivably better methane yields could be achieved. In addition, it is suspected that at lower solids concentrations, the methane yield could be increased. As such, the aim of this research is to find the temperature and solids concentration conditions that produce the most methane; under two different temperature regimes (mesophilic, thermophilic) and three solids states (i.e. 'dry', 'semi-dry' and 'wet'). Twenty liters of GY waste was collected from a public park located in the northern district in Tehran. The clippings consisted of freshly cut grass as well as dry branches and leaves. The GY waste was chopped before being fed into a mechanical blender that reduced it to a paste-like consistency. An initial TS concentration of approximately 38 % was achieved. Four hundred mL of anaerobic inoculum (average total solids (TS) concentration of 2.03 ± 0.131 % of which 73.4% were volatile solid (VS), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) of 4.59 ± 0.3 g/L) was mixed with the GY waste substrate paste (along with distilled water) to achieve a TS content of approximately 20 %. For comparative purposes, approximately 20 liters of FV waste was ground in the same manner as the GY waste. Since FV waste has a much higher natural water content than GY, it was dewatered to obtain a starting TS concentration in the dry solid-state range (TS ≥ 15 %). Three samples were dewatered to an average starting TS concentration of 32.71 %. The inoculum was added (along with distilled water) to dilute the initial FV TS concentrations down to semi-dry conditions (10-15 %) and wet conditions (below 10 %). Twelve 1-L batch bioreactors were loaded simultaneously with either GY or FV waste at TS solid concentrations ranging from 3.85 ± 1.22 % to 20.11 ± 1.23 %. The reactors were sealed and were operated for 30 days while being immersed in water baths to maintain a constant temperature of 37 ± 0.5 °C (mesophilic) or 55 ± 0.5 °C (thermophilic). A maximum methane yield of 115.42 (L methane/ kg VS added) was obtained for the GY thermophilic-wet AD combination. Methane yield was enhanced by 240 % compared to the GY waste mesophilic-dry condition. The results confirm that high temperature regimes and small solids concentrations are conditions that enhance methane yield from GY waste. A similar trend was observed for the anaerobic digestion of FV waste. Furthermore, a maximum value of VS (53 %) and sCOD (84 %) reduction was achieved during the AD of GY waste under the thermophilic-wet condition.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, mesophilic, total solids concentration

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5631 The Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion at 45⁰C

Authors: Nuruol S. Mohd, Safia Ahmed, Rumana Riffat, Baoqiang Li


Anaerobic digestion at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures have been widely studied and evaluated by numerous researchers. Limited extensive research has been conducted on anaerobic digestion in the intermediate zone of 45°C, mainly due to the notion that limited microbial activity occurs within this zone. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the performance and the capability of anaerobic digestion at 45°C in producing class A biosolids, in comparison to a mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion system operated at 35°C and 55°C, respectively. In addition to that, the investigation on the possible inhibition factors affecting the performance of the digestion system at this temperature will be conducted as well. The 45°C anaerobic digestion systems were not able to achieve comparable methane yield and high-quality effluent compared to the mesophilic system, even though the systems produced biogas with about 62-67% methane. The 45°C digesters suffered from high acetate accumulation, but sufficient buffering capacity was observed as the pH, alkalinity and volatile fatty acids (VFA)-to-alkalinity ratio were within recommended values. The accumulation of acetate observed in 45°C systems were presumably due to the high temperature which contributed to high hydrolysis rate. Consequently, it produced a large amount of toxic salts that combined with the substrate making them not readily available to be consumed by methanogens. Acetate accumulation, even though contributed to 52 to 71% reduction in acetate degradation process, could not be considered as completely inhibitory. Additionally, at 45°C, no ammonia inhibition was observed and the digesters were able to achieve volatile solids (VS) reduction of 47.94±4.17%. The pathogen counts were less than 1,000 MPN/g total solids, thus, producing Class A biosolids.

Keywords: 45°C anaerobic digestion, acetate accumulation, class A biosolids, salt toxicity

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5630 A Study of the Effects of Temperatures and Optimum pH on the Specific Methane Production of Perennial Ryegrass during Anaerobic Digestion Process under a Discontinuous Daily Feeding Condition

Authors: Uchenna Egwu, Paul Jonathan Sallis


Perennial ryegrass is an abundant renewable lignocellulosic biofuel feedstock for biomethane production through anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, six anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were set up in three pairs. Each pair of the CSTRs was then used to study the effects of operating temperatures – psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic, and optimum pH on the specific methane production (SMP) of the ryegrass during AD under discontinuous daily feeding conditions. The reactors were fed at an organic loading rate (OLR) ranging from 1-1.5 kgVS.L⁻¹d⁻¹ and hydraulic residence time, HRT=20 days for 140 days. The pH of the digesters was maintained at the range of 6.8-7.2 using 1 M NH₄HCO₃ solution, but this was replaced with biomass ash-extracts from day 105-140. The results obtained showed that the mean SMP of ryegrass measured between HRT 3 and 4 were 318.4, 425.4 and 335 N L CH₄ kg⁻¹VS.d⁻¹ for the psychrophilic (25 ± 2°C), mesophilic (40 ± 1°C) and thermophilic (60 ± 1°C) temperatures respectively. It was also observed that the buffering ability of the reactors increased with operating temperature, probably due to an increase in the solubility of ammonium bicarbonate (NH₄HCO₃) with temperature. The reactors also achieved a mean VS destruction of 61.9, 68.5 and 63.5%, respectively, which signifies that the mesophilic reactors achieved the highest specific methane production (SMP), while the psychrophilic reactors achieved the lowest. None of the reactors attained steady-state condition due to the discontinuous daily feeding times, and therefore, such feeding practice may not be the most effective for maximum biogas production over long periods of time. The addition of NH₄HCO₃ as supplement provided a good buffering condition in these AD digesters, but the digesters failed in the long run due to inhibition from the accumulation of free ammonia, which later led to decrease in pH, acidification, and souring of the digesters. However, the addition of biomass ash extracts was shown to potentially revive failed AD reactors by providing an adequate buffering and essential trace nutrient supplements necessary for optimal bacterial growth.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, discontinuous feeding, perennial ryegrass, specific methane production, supplements, temperature

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5629 Modelling the Anaerobic Digestion of Esparto Paper Industry Wastewater Effluent in a Batch Digester Using IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1)

Authors: Boubaker Fezzani, Ridha Ben Cheikh, Tarek Rouissi


In this work the original ADM1, implemented in the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink, was modified and adapted and applied to reproduce the experimental results of the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of Esperto paper industry wastewater in a batch digester. The data set from lab-scale experiment runs were used to calibrate and validate the model. The simulations’ results indicated that the modified ADM1 was able to predict reasonably well the steady state results of gas flows, methane and carbon dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) observed with all influents concentrations.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, mathematical modelling, Simulation, ADM1, batch digester, esparto paper industry effluent, mesophilic temperature

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5628 Temperature Susceptibility for Optimal Biogas Production

Authors: Ujjal Chattaraj, Pbharat Saikumar, Thinley Dorji


Earth is going to be a planet where no further life can sustain if people continue to pollute the environment. We need energy and fuels everyday for heating and lighting purposes in our life. It’s high time we know this problem and take measures at-least to reduce pollution and take alternative measures for everyday livelihood. Biogas is one of them. It is very essential to define and control the parameters for optimization of biogas production. Biogas plants can be made of different size, but it is very vital to make a biogas which will be cost effective, with greater efficiency (more production) and biogas plants that will sustain for a longer period of time for usage. In this research, experiments were carried out only on cow dung and Chicken manure depending on the substrates people out there (Bhutan) used. The experiment was done within 25 days and was tested for different temperatures and found out which produce more amount. Moreover, it was also statistically tested for their dependency and non-dependency which gave clear idea more on their production.

Keywords: digester, mesophilic temperature, organic manure, statistical analysis, thermophilic temperature, t-test

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5627 Purification and Characterization of Phycoerythrin from a Mesophilic Cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17

Authors: Sandeep Kaur


Phycoerythrin (PE) from the mesophilic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17, a good producer of phycobiliproteins, has been characterized in terms of their unit assembly and stability. The phycoerythrin was extracted by freeze-thawing the cells in water, concentrated by ammonium sulphate fractionation and purified by anion exchange chromatography. The purification process resulted in 2.90 fold increase in phycoerythrin purity reaching to 1.54. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of purified PE demonstrated three protein bands of 14.3, 27.54 and 39.81 kDa. The native PE also showed one band of 125.87 kDa, assumed to be a dimer (αβ)2γ based on results of non-denaturing PAGE. Lyophilized powder PE was more stable compared to phycoerythrin in the solution. The half-life of dry PE is 80 days when stored at 4 °C under dark. The phycoerythrin from this organism has potential applications in food as natural colour and as a fluorescent marker.

Keywords: characterization, Nostoc piscinale, phycoerythrin, purification

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5626 Effect of Microstructure on Transition Temperature of Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI)

Authors: A. Ozel


The ductile to brittle transition temperature is a very important criterion that is used for selection of materials in some applications, especially in low-temperature conditions. For that reason, in this study transition temperature of as-cast and austempered unalloyed ductile iron in the temperature interval from -60 to +100 degrees C have been investigated. The microstructures of samples were examined by light microscope. The impact energy values obtained from the experiments were found to depend on the austempering time and temperature.

Keywords: Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Charpy test, microstructure, transition temperature

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5625 M. J. Rodríguez, F. M. Sánchez, B. Velardo, P. Calvo, M. J. Serradilla, J. Delgado, J. M. López

Authors: Q. Rzina, M. Lahrouni, S. Rida, N. Saadaoui, Y. Almossaid, K. Oufdou, K. Fares


Many organic solid wastes are produced in the world. Poultry manure (PM), municipal organic wastes (MOW) and sugar beet lime sludge (LS) are produced in large quantities in Morocco. The co-composting of these organic wastes was investigated. The recycling and the valorization of such wastes is environmentally and economically beneficial especially for PM which is known source of bacterial pathogens. The aerobic biodegradation process was carried out by using three windrows of variable compositions: C1 prepared without LS (only MOW were composted with PM), C2 prepared from MOW plus PM and10% LS; and the last one C3 from MOW plus PM and 20% LS. The main process physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) and microbiological populations (mesophilic and thermophilic flora, total coliform, fecal coliform, Streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus and mesophilic fungi) were monitored over three months to ascertain the compost maturity and to ensure the compost hygienic aspect. The final products were characterized by their relatively high organic matter content, and low C/N ratio of 10.6-10.9. The organic matter degradation was reached approximately 59% for C2 and C3. In addition, the monitoring of the microbial population showed that the produced composts are mature and hygienic. The agronomic valorization of the final composts was tested on radish plant with tree level of composts and poultry manure without composting. The primary results of field trial showed a growth of radish plant biomass and root development without any phytotoxicity detected which reflects the quality of the composts produced. As for poultry manure it allowed to have a better results than other composts because of its readily available nitrogen.

Keywords: compost, municipal organic wastes, poultry manure, radish crop, sugar beet lime sludge

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5624 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Bagasse for Biogas Recovery

Authors: Raouf Ahmed Mohamed Hassan


In Egypt, the excess sewage sludge from wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is rapidly increasing due to the continuous increase of population, urban planning and industrial developments. Also, cane bagasses constitute an important component of Urban Solid Waste (USW), especially at the south of Egypt, which are difficult to degrade under normal composting conditions. These wastes need to be environmentally managed to reduce the negative impacts of its application or disposal. In term of biogas recovery, the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge or bagasse separately is inefficient, due to the presence of nutrients and minerals. Also, the Carbone-Nitrogen Ratio (C/N) play an important role, sewage sludge has a ratio varies from 6-16, where cane bagasse has a ratio around 150, whereas the suggested optimum C/N ratio for anaerobic digestion is in the range of 20 to 30. The anaerobic co-digestion is presented as a successful methodology that combines several biodegradable organic substrates able to decrease the amount of output wastes by biodegradation, sharing processing facilities, reducing operating costs, while enabling recovery of biogas. This paper presents the study of co-digestion of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants as a type of organic wastes and bagasse as agriculture wastes. Laboratory-scale mesophilic and thermophilic digesters were operated with varied hydraulic retention times. Different percentage of sludge and bagasse are investigated based on the total solids (TS). Before digestion, the bagasse was subjected to grinding pretreatment and soaked in distilled water (water pretreatment). The effect of operating parameters (mixing, temperature) is investigated in order to optimize the process in the biogas production. The yield and the composition of biogas from the different experiments were evaluated and the cumulative curves were estimated. The conducted tests did show that there is a good potential to using the co-digestion of wastewater sludge and bagasse for biogas production.

Keywords: co-digestion, sewage sludge, bagasse, mixing, mesophilic, thermophilic

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5623 Temperature Profile Modelling in Flexible Pavement Design

Authors: Csaba Tóth, Éva Lakatos, László Pethő, Seoyoung Cho


The temperature effect on asphalt pavement structure is a crucial factor at the design stage. In this paper, by applying the German guidelines for temperature along the asphalt depth is estimated. The aim is to consider temperature profiles in different seasons in numerical modelling. The model is built with an elastic and isotropic solid element with 19 subdivisions of asphalt layers to reflect the temperature variation. Comparison with the simple three-layer pavement system (asphalt layers, base, and subgrade layers) will be followed to see the difference in result without temperature variation along with the depth. Finally, the fatigue life calculation was checked to prove the validity of the methodology of considering the temperature in the numerical modelling.

Keywords: temperature profile, flexible pavement modeling, finite element method, temperature modeling

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5622 Isolation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Libyan Traditional Fermented Milk "Laban"

Authors: M. H. Nahaisi, N. M. Almaroum


Laban is a Libyan traditional fermented milk product. This lactic fermentation has been known in many cities of Libya long time ago as stable, nutritious, refreshing drink especially during the summer. 16 naturally fermented milk samples were collected from different cities located in North West of Libya. The average pH, titratable acidity, fat and total solids were 4.16, 0.73%, 1.54% and 8.12 % respectively. Coliform, yeast and mold counts were 21×10⁴, 39×10⁴ and 41 ×10³ cfu/ ml. respectively. The average Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Mesophilic Lactobacillus / Leuconostoc and Thermophilic Lactobacillus counts were 99 ×10⁷, 96 ×10⁷, 93 ×10⁷ and 15 ×10⁷ cfu / ml. respectively. A total of one hundred forty two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were identified to the genus level as Lactobacillus (48.59%), Lactococcus (43.66%), Streptococcus (4.93%) and Leuconostoc (2.82%). Sugar fermentation tests have revealed that the most frequently Lactobacillus species was found to be Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. lactis (62.32%) followed by Lactobacillus plantarum (31.88%). Furthermore, other selected LAB isolates were identified by API 50 CH test as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactics, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris.

Keywords: traditional fermented milk, laban, lactococcus, streptococcus, mesophilic lactobacillus, thermophilic lactobacillus counts

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5621 Cellulolytic and Xylanolytic Enzymes from Mycelial Fungi

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, L. Kutateladze, T. Urushadze, R. Khvedelidze, N. Zakariashvili, M. Jobava, G. Kvesitadze


Multiple repeated soil-climatic zones in Georgia determines the diversity of microorganisms. Hundreds of microscopic fungi of different genera have been isolated from different ecological niches, including some extreme environments. Biosynthetic ability of microscopic fungi has been studied. Trichoderma ressei, representative of the Ascomycetes secrete cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes that act in synergy to hydrolyze polysaccharide polymers to glucose, xylose and arabinose, which can be fermented to biofuels. The other mesophilic strains producing cellulases are Allesheria terrestris, Chaetomium thermophile, Fusarium oxysporium, Piptoporus betulinus, Penicillium echinulatum, P. purpurogenum, Aspergillus niger, A. wentii, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus etc. In the majority of the cases the cellulases produced by strains of genus Aspergillus usually have high β-glucosidase activity and average endoglucanases levels (with some exceptions), whereas strains representing Trichoderma have high endo enzyme and low β-glucosidase, and hence has limited efficiency in cellulose hydrolysis. Six producers of stable cellulases and xylanases from mesophilic and thermophilic fungi have been selected. By optimization of submerged cultivation conditions, high activities of cellulases and xylanases were obtained. For enzymes purification, their sedimentation by organic solvents such as ethyl alcohol, acetone, isopropanol and by ammonium sulphate in different ratios have been carried out. Best results were obtained with precipitation by ethyl alcohol (1:3.5) and ammonium sulphate. The yields of enzyme according to cellulase activities were 80-85% in both cases. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Trichoderma viride X 33 is 126 U/g, from the strain Penicillium canescence D 85–185U/g and from the strain Sporotrichum pulverulentum T 5-0 110 U/g. Cellulase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus sp. Av10 is 120 U/g, xylanase activity of enzyme preparation obtained from the strain Aspergillus niger A 7-5–1155U/g and from the strain Aspergillus niger Aj 38-1250 U/g. Optimum pH and temperature of operation and thermostability, of the enzyme preparations, were established. The efficiency of hydrolyses of different agricultural residues by the microscopic fungi cellulases has been studied. The glucose yield from the residues as a result of enzymatic hydrolysis is highly determined by the ratio of enzyme to substrate, pH, temperature, and duration of the process. Hydrolysis efficiency was significantly increased as a result of different pretreatment of the residues by different methods. Acknowledgement: The Study was supported by the ISTC project G-2117, funded by Korea.

Keywords: cellulase, xylanase, microscopic fungi, enzymatic hydrolysis

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5620 An Investigation on Hot-Spot Temperature Calculation Methods of Power Transformers

Authors: Ahmet Y. Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Mustafa G. Aydeniz, Yasemin Oner, Gokhan Kalkan


In the standards of IEC 60076-2 and IEC 60076-7, three different hot-spot temperature estimation methods are suggested. In this study, the algorithms which used in hot-spot temperature calculations are analyzed by comparing the algorithms with the results of an experimental set-up made by a Transformer Monitoring System (TMS) in use. In tested system, TMS uses only top oil temperature and load ratio for hot-spot temperature calculation. And also, it uses some constants from standards which are on agreed statements tables. During the tests, it came out that hot-spot temperature calculation method is just making a simple calculation and not uses significant all other variables that could affect the hot-spot temperature.

Keywords: Hot-spot temperature, monitoring system, power transformer, smart grid

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5619 Temperature Distribution Control for Baby Incubator System Using Arduino AT Mega 2560

Authors: W. Widhiada, D. N. K. P. Negara, P. A. Suryawan


The technological advances in the field of health to be very important, especially on the safety of the baby. In this case a lot of premature infants death caused by poorly managed health facilities. Mostly the death of premature baby caused by bacteria since the temperature around the baby is not normal. Related to this, the incubator equipment needs to be important, especially in how to control the temperature in incubator. On/Off controls is used to regulate the temperature distribution in the incubator so that the desired temperature is 36 °C to stay awake and stable. The authors have been observed and analyzed the data to determine the temperature distribution in the incubator using program of MATLAB/Simulink. The output temperature distribution is obtained at 36 °C in 400 seconds using an Arduino AT 2560. This incubator is able to maintain an ambient temperature and maintain the baby's body temperature within normal limits and keep the moisture in the air in accordance with the limit values required in infant incubator.

Keywords: on/off control, distribution temperature, Arduino AT 2560, baby incubator

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5618 Childhood Respiratory Diseases Related to Indoor and Outdoor Air Temperature in Shanghai, China

Authors: Chanjuan Sun, Shijie Hong, Jialing Zhang, Yuchao Guo, Zhijun Zou, Chen Huang


Background: Studies on associations between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases are lack in China. Objectives: We aim to analyze the relationship between air temperature and childhood respiratory diseases. Methods: We conducted the on-site inspection into 454 residences and questionnaires survey. Indoor air temperature were from field inspection and outdoor air temperature were from website. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. Results: Indoor extreme hot air temperature was positively correlated with duration of a common cold (>=2 weeks), and outdoor extreme hot air temperature was also positively related with pneumonia among children. Indoor and outdoor extreme cold air temperature was a risk factor for rhinitis among children. The biggest indoor air temperature difference (indoor maximum air temperature minus indoor minimum air temperature) (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) and outdoor air temperature difference (outdoor maximum air temperature minus outdoor minimum air temperature) (Omax minus Omin) (the 4th quartile, >8oC) were positively related to pneumonia among children. Meanwhile, indoor air temperature difference (Imax minus Imin) (the 4th quartile, >4 oC) was positively correlated with diagnosed asthma among children. Air temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was negatively related with the most childhood respiratory diseases. This may be partly related to the avoidance behavior. Conclusions: Improper air temperature may affect the respiratory diseases among children.

Keywords: air temperature, extreme air temperature, air temperature difference, respiratory diseases, children

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5617 Some Extreme Halophilic Microorganisms Produce Extracellular Proteases with Long Lasting Tolerance to Ethanol Exposition

Authors: Cynthia G. Esquerre, Amparo Iris Zavaleta


Extremophiles constitute a potentially valuable source of proteases for the development of biotechnological processes; however, the number of available studies in the literature is limited compared to mesophilic counterparts. Therefore, in this study, Peruvian halophilic microorganisms were characterized to select suitable proteolytic strains that produce active proteases under exigent conditions. Proteolysis was screened using the streak plate method with gelatin or skim milk as substrates. After that, proteolytic microorganisms were selected for phenotypic characterization and screened by a semi-quantitative proteolytic test using a modified method of diffusion agar. Finally, proteolysis was evaluated using partially purified extracts by ice-cold ethanol precipitation and dialysis. All analyses were carried out over a wide range of NaCl concentrations, pH, temperature and substrates. Of a total of 60 strains, 21 proteolytic strains were selected, of these 19 were extreme halophiles and 2 were moderates. Most proteolytic strains demonstrated differences in their biochemical patterns, particularly in sugar fermentation. A total of 14 microorganisms produced extracellular proteases, 13 were neutral, and one was alkaline showing activity up to pH 9.0. Proteases hydrolyzed gelatin as the most specific substrate. In general, catalytic activity was efficient under a wide range of NaCl (1 to 4 M NaCl), temperature (37 to 55 °C) and after an ethanol exposition performed at -20 °C for 24 hours. In conclusion, this study reported 14 candidates extremely halophiles producing extracellular proteases capable of being stable and active on a wide range of NaCl, temperature and even long lasting ethanol exposition.

Keywords: biotechnological processes, ethanol exposition, extracellular proteases, extremophiles

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5616 Bacterial Contamination of Kitchen Sponges and Cutting Surfaces and Disinfection Procedures

Authors: Hayyan I Al Taweil


Background: The most common of bacterium in kitchen sponges and cutting surfaces which can play a task within the cross-contamination of foods, fomites and hands by foodborne pathogens. Aims and Objectives: This study investigated the incidence of bacterium in kitchen Sponge, and cutting surfaces. Material and methods: a complete of twenty four kitchen Sponges were collected from home kitchens and therefore the numbers of mesotrophic microorganism, coliform microorganism, E. coli, Salmonella, genus {pseudomonas|bacteria genus} and staphylococci in every kitchen Sponges were determined. Microbiological tests of all sponges for total mesophilic aerobic microorganism, S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Salmonella spp., and E. coli were performed on days 3, 7, and 14 by sampling. The sponges involved in daily use in kitchens countenosely with the dishwasher detergent a minimum of doubly daily Results: Results from the overall mesophilic aerobic microorganism, indicate a major increase within the variety of log CFU/ml. the amount of E. coli was reduced, Salmonella spp. was stabled, S. aureus was enhanced from the sponges throughout fourteen days. Genus Pseudomonas was enhanced and was the dominant micro flora within the sponges throughout fourteen days.

Keywords: Kitchen Sponges, Microbiological Contamination, Disinfection; cutting surface; , Cross-Contamination

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5615 Comparison between FEM Simulation and Experiment of Temperature Rise in Power Transformer Inner Steel Plate

Authors: Byung hyun Bae


In power transformer, leakage magnetic flux generate temperature rise of inner steel plate. Sometimes, this temperature rise can be serious problem. If temperature of steel plate is over critical point, harmful gas will be generated in the tank. And this gas can be a reason of fire, explosion and life decrease. So, temperature rise forecasting of steel plate is very important at the design stage of power transformer. To improve accuracy of forecasting of temperature rise, comparison between simulation and experiment achieved in this paper.

Keywords: power transformer, steel plate, temperature rise, experiment, simulation

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5614 Treatment of Poultry Slaughterhouse Wastewater by Mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) Coupled with UF Membrane

Authors: Moses Basitere, Marshal Sherene Sheldon, Seteno Karabo Obed Ntwampe, Debbie Dejager


In South Africa, Poultry slaughterhouses consume largest amount of freshwater and discharges high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of bench-scale mesophilic Static Granular Bed Reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with ultra-filtration (UF) membrane as a post-treatment for poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse was characterized by chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 2000 and 6000 mg/l, average biological oxygen demand (BOD) of 2375 mg/l and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554 mg/l. A continuous SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 6 weeks at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and an Organic loading rate. The results showed an average COD removal was greater than 90% for both the SGBR anaerobic digester and ultrafiltration membrane. The total suspended solids and fats oil and grease (FOG) removal was greater than 95%. The SGBR reactor coupled with UF membrane showed a greater potential to treat poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

Keywords: chemical oxygen demand, poultry slaughterhouse wastewater, static granular bed reactor, ultrafiltration, wastewater

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5613 A Statistical Analysis on Relationship between Temperature Variations with Latitude and Altitude regarding Total Amount of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Iran

Authors: Masoumeh Moghbel


Nowadays, carbon dioxide which is produced by human activities is considered as the main effective factor in the global warming occurrence. Regarding to the role of CO2 and its ability in trapping the heat, the main objective of this research is study the effect of atmospheric CO2 (which is recorded in Manaloa) on variations of temperature parameters (daily mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature) in 5 meteorological stations in Iran which were selected according to the latitude and altitude in 40 years statistical period. Firstly, the trend of temperature parameters was studied by Regression and none-graphical Man-Kendal methods. Then, relation between temperature variations and CO2 were studied by Correlation technique. Also, the impact of CO2 amount on temperature in different atmospheric levels (850 and 500 hpa) was analyzed. The results illustrated that correlation coefficient between temperature variations and CO2 in low latitudes and high altitudes is more significant rather than other regions. it is important to note that altitude as the one of the main geographic factor has limitation in affecting the temperature variations, so that correlation coefficient between these two parameters in 850 hpa (r=0.86) is more significant than 500 hpa (r = 0.62).

Keywords: altitude, atmospheric carbon dioxide, latitude, temperature variations

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5612 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) and Waste Activated Sludge in Batch Mode

Authors: Rubia Gaur, Surindra Suthar


The present study investigates the anaerobic co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge (WAS) of different proportions with acclimatized anaerobic granular sludge (AAGS) as inoculum in mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments were performed in 500 mL capacity reagent bottles at 300C temperature. Varied combinations of pre-treated duckweed biomass with constant volume of anaerobic inoculum (AAGS - 100 mL) and waste activated sludge (WAS - 22.5 mL) were devised into five batch tests. The highest methane generation was observed with batch study, T4. The Gompertz model fits well on the experimental data of the batch study, T4. The values of correlation coefficient were achieved relatively higher (R2 ≥ 0.99). The co-digestion without pre-treatment of both duckweed and WAS shows poor generation of methane gas.

Keywords: aquatic weed, biogas, biomass, Gompertz equation, waste activated sludge

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5611 Influence of Temperature on Properties of MOSFETs

Authors: Azizi Cherifa, O. Benzaoui


The thermal aspects in the design of power circuits often deserve as much attention as pure electric components aspects as the operating temperature has a direct influence on their static and dynamic characteristics. MOSFET is fundamental in the circuits, it is the most widely used device in the current production of semiconductor components using their honorable performance. The aim of this contribution is devoted to the effect of the temperature on the properties of MOSFETs. The study enables us to calculate the drain current as function of bias in both linear and saturated modes. The effect of temperature is evaluated using a numerical simulation, using the laws of mobility and saturation velocity of carriers as a function of temperature.

Keywords: temperature, MOSFET, mobility, transistor

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5610 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature

Authors: Sung-Uk Wee, Chang-Sung Seok, Jae-Mean Koo, Jeong-Min Lee


Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, tensile test, fatigue life, stress-strain

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5609 Centrifuge Testing to Determine the Effect of Temperature on the Adhesion Strength of Ice

Authors: Zaid A. Janjua, Barbara Turnbull, Kwing-So Choi


The adhesion of glaze ice on power infrastructure, ships and aerofoils cause monetary and structural damage. Here we investigate the influence of temperature as an important parameter affecting adhesion strength of ice. Two terms are defined to investigate this: 'freezing temperature', the temperature at which glaze ice forms; and 'ambient temperature', the temperature of the surrounding during the test. Using three metal surfaces, the adhesion strength of ice has been calculated as a value of shear stress at the point of detachment on a spinning centrifuge. Findings show that the ambient temperature has a greater influence than the freezing temperature on the adhesion strength of ice. This is because there exists an amorphous liquid-like layer at the ice-surface interface, whose bond with the surface increases in strength at lower ambient temperatures when the substrate conducts heat much faster than the ice and acts as a heat sink. The results will help us to measure the actual adhesion strength of ice to metal surfaces based on data from weather monitoring devices. Future tests envisaged focus on thermally non-conducting substrates and their influence on adhesion strength.

Keywords: ice adhesion, centrifuge, glaze ice, freezing temperature, ambient temperature

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5608 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye


Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

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5607 Vortex Separator for More Accurate Air Dry-Bulb Temperature Measurement

Authors: Ahmed N. Shmroukh, I. M. S. Taha, A. M. Abdel-Ghany, M. Attalla


Fog systems application for cooling and humidification is still limited, although these systems require less initial cost compared with that of other cooling systems such as pad-and-fan systems. The undesirable relative humidity and air temperature inside the space which have been cooled or humidified are the main reasons for its limited use, which results from the poor control of fog systems. Any accurate control system essentially needs air dry bulb temperature as an input parameter. Therefore, the air dry-bulb temperature in the space needs to be measured accurately. The Scope of the present work is the separation of the fog droplets from the air in a fogged space to measure the air dry bulb temperature accurately. The separation is to be done in a small device inside which the sensor of the temperature measuring instrument is positioned. Vortex separator will be designed and used. Another reference device will be used for measuring the air temperature without separation. A comparative study will be performed to reach at the best device which leads to the most accurate measurement of air dry bulb temperature. The results showed that the proposed devices improved the measured air dry bulb temperature toward the correct direction over that of the free junction. Vortex device was the best. It respectively increased the temperature measured by the free junction in the range from around 2 to around 6°C for different fog on-off duration.

Keywords: fog systems, measuring air dry bulb temperature, temperature measurement, vortex separator

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5606 Comparison of Mean Monthly Soil Temperature at (5 and 30 cm) Depths at Compton Experimental Site, West Midlands (UK), between 1976-2008

Authors: Aminu Mansur


A comparison of soil temperature at (5 and 30 cm) depths at a research site over the period (1976-2008) was analyzed. Based on the statistical analysis of the database of (12,045) days of individual soil temperature measurements in sandy-loam of the (salwick series) soils, the mean soil temperature revealed a statistically significant increase of about -1.1 to 10.9°C at 5 cm depth in 1976 compared to 2008. Similarly, soil temperature at 30 cm depth increased by -0.1 to 2.1°C in 2008 compared to 1976. Although, rapid increase in soil temperature at all depths was observed during that period, but a thorough assessment of these conditions suggested that the soil temperature at 5 cm depth are progressively increasing over time. A typical example of those increases in soil temperature was provided for agriculture where Miscanthus (elephant) plant that grows within the study area is adversely affected by the mean soil temperature increase. The study concluded that these observations contribute to the growing mass of evidence of global warming and knowledge on secular trends. Therefore, there was statistically significant increase in soil temperature at Compton Experimental Site between 1976-2008.

Keywords: soil temperature, warming trend, environment science, climate and atmospheric sciences

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5605 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang


For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery, CO₂ flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding

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5604 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Malika Fekih, Mohamed Saighi


A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Keywords: annular fin, dehumidification, fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, wet fin

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5603 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan


Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

Procedia PDF Downloads 153