Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: desulfurization

30 Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels Using Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: T. Zaki, Fathi S. Soliman

Abstract:

Desulfurization process is required by most, if not all refineries, to achieve ultra-low sulfur fuel, that contains less than 10 ppm sulfur. A lot of research works and many effective technologies have been studied to achieve deep desulfurization process in moderate reaction environment, such as adsorption desulfurization (ADS), oxidative desulfurization (ODS), biodesulfurization and extraction desulfurization (EDS). Extraction desulfurization using deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is considered as simple, cheap, highly efficient and environmentally friend process. In this work, four DESs were designed and synthesized. Choline chloride (ChCl) was selected as typical hydrogen bond acceptors (HBA), and ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gl), urea (Ur) and thiourea (Tu) were selected as hydrogen bond donors (HBD), from which a series of deep eutectic solvents were synthesized. The experimental data showed that the synthesized DESs showed desulfurization affinities towards the thiophene species in cyclohexane solvent. Ethylene glycol molecules showed more affinity to create hydrogen bond with thiophene instead of choline chloride. Accordingly, ethylene glycol choline chloride DES has the highest extraction efficiency.

Keywords: DES, desulfurization, green solvent, extraction

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29 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Novel Trihexyltetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

Authors: Swapnil A. Dharaskar, Kailas L. Wasewar, Mahesh N. Varma, Diwakar Z. Shende

Abstract:

Owing to the stringent environmental regulations in many countries for production of ultra low sulfur petroleum fractions intending to reduce sulfur emissions results in enormous interest in this area among the scientific community. The requirement of zero sulfur emissions enhances the prominence for more advanced techniques in desulfurization. Desulfurization by extraction is a promising approach having several advantages over conventional hydrodesulphurization. Present work is dealt with various new approaches for desulfurization of ultra clean gasoline, diesel and other liquid fuels by extraction with ionic liquids. In present paper experimental data on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride has been presented. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized ionic liquid. Further, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of ionic liquids were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on removal of dibenzothiphene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 84.5% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30OC under the mild reaction conditions. Phosphonium ionic liquids could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in present paper explore the significant insights of phosphonium based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

Keywords: ionic liquid, PPIL, desulfurization, liquid fuel, extraction

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28 Numerical Investigation of Multiphase Flow Structure for the Flue Gas Desulfurization

Authors: Cheng-Jui Li, Chien-Chou Tseng

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This study adopts Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to build the multiphase flow numerical model where the interface between the flue gas and desulfurization liquid can be traced by Eulerian-Eulerian model. Inside the tower, the contact of the desulfurization liquid flow from the spray nozzles and flue gas flow can trigger chemical reactions to remove the sulfur dioxide from the exhaust gas. From experimental observations of the industrial scale plant, the desulfurization mechanism depends on the mixing level between the flue gas and the desulfurization liquid. In order to significantly improve the desulfurization efficiency, the mixing efficiency and the residence time can be increased by perforated sieve trays. Hence, the purpose of this research is to investigate the flow structure of sieve trays for the flue gas desulfurization by numerical simulation. In this study, there is an outlet at the top of FGD tower to discharge the clean gas and the FGD tower has a deep tank at the bottom, which is used to collect the slurry liquid. In the major desulfurization zone, the desulfurization liquid and flue gas have a complex mixing flow. Because there are four perforated plates in the major desulfurization zone, which spaced 0.4m from each other, and the spray array is placed above the top sieve tray, which includes 33 nozzles. Each nozzle injects desulfurization liquid that consists of the Mg(OH)2 solution. On each sieve tray, the outside diameter, the hole diameter, and the porosity are 0.6m, 20 mm and 34.3%. The flue gas flows into the FGD tower from the space between the major desulfurization zone and the deep tank can finally become clean. The desulfurization liquid and the liquid slurry goes to the bottom tank and is discharged as waste. When the desulfurization solution flow impacts the sieve tray, the downward momentum will be converted to the upper surface of the sieve tray. As a result, a thin liquid layer can be developed above the sieve tray, which is the so-called the slurry layer. And the volume fraction value within the slurry layer is around 0.3~0.7. Therefore, the liquid phase can't be considered as a discrete phase under the Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. Besides, there is a liquid column through the sieve trays. The downward liquid column becomes narrow as it interacts with the upward gas flow. After the flue gas flows into the major desulfurization zone, the flow direction of the flue gas is upward (+y) in the tube between the liquid column and the solid boundary of the FGD tower. As a result, the flue gas near the liquid column may be rolled down to slurry layer, which developed a vortex or a circulation zone between any two sieve trays. The vortex structure between two sieve trays results in a sufficient large two-phase contact area. It also increases the number of times that the flue gas interacts with the desulfurization liquid. On the other hand, the sieve trays improve the two-phase mixing, which may improve the SO2 removal efficiency.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Eulerian-Eulerian Model, Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), perforated sieve tray

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27 The Evaluation of Fuel Desulfurization Performance of Choline-Chloride Based Deep Eutectic Solvents with Addition of Graphene Oxide as Catalyst

Authors: Chiau Yuan Lim, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid, Fai Kait Chong

Abstract:

Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) is used in various applications due to its simplicity in synthesis procedure, biodegradable, inexpensive and easily available chemical ingredients. Graphene Oxide is a popular catalyst that being used in various processes due to its stacking carbon sheets in layer which theoretically rapid up the catalytic processes. In this study, choline chloride based DESs were synthesized and ChCl-PEG(1:4) was found to be the most effective DES in performing desulfurization, which it is able to remove up to 47.4% of the sulfur content in the model oil in just 10 minutes, and up to 95% of sulfur content after repeat the process for six times. ChCl-PEG(1:4) able to perform up to 32.7% desulfurization on real diesel after 6 multiple stages. Thus, future research works should focus on removing the impurities on real diesel before utilising DESs in petroleum field.

Keywords: choline chloride, deep eutectic solvent, fuel desulfurization, graphene oxide

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26 A Novel CeO2-WOx-TiO2 Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Model Fuel Oil

Authors: Corazon Virtudazo-Ligaray, Mark Daniel G. de Luna, Meng-Wei Wan, Ming-Chun Lu

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A series of ternary compound catalyst with nanocomposites of ceria, tungsten trioxide and titania (CeO2-WOx-TiO2) with different WOx mole fraction (10, 20, 30, 40) have been synthesized by sol-gel method. These nanocomposite catalysts were used for oxidative extractive desulfurization of model fuel oil, which were composed of dibenzothiophene (DBT) dissolved in toluene. The 30% hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 was used as oxidant and acetonitrile as extractant. These catalysts were characterized by SEM-EDS to determine the morphology. Catalytic oxidation results show that the catalysts have high selectivity in refractory fuel oil with organo sulfur contents. The oxidative removal of DBT increases as the HPW content increases. The nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 also shows high selectivity for DBT oxidation in the DBT–toluene acetonitrile system. The catalytic oxidative desulfurization ratio of model fuel reached to 100% with nanocomposites CeO2-WOx-TiO2 (35-30-35) mol percent catalyst nanocomposition under 333 K in 30 minutes.

Keywords: ceria, oxidative desulfurization, titania, phosphotungstic acid

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25 Extractive Desulfurization of Atmospheric Gasoil with N,N-Dimethylformamide

Authors: Kahina Bedda, Boudjema Hamada

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Environmental regulations have been introduced in many countries around the world to reduce the sulfur content of diesel fuel to ultra low levels with the intention of lowering diesel engine’s harmful exhaust emissions and improving air quality. Removal of sulfur containing compounds from diesel feedstocks to produce ultra low sulfur diesel fuel by extraction with selective solvents has received increasing attention in recent years. This is because the sulfur extraction technologies compared to the hydrotreating processes could reduce the cost of desulfurization substantially since they do not demand hydrogen, and are carried out at atmospheric pressure. In this work, the desulfurization of distillate gasoil by liquid-liquid extraction with N, N-dimethylformamide was investigated. This fraction was recovered from a mixture of Hassi Messaoud crude oils and Hassi R'Mel gas-condensate in Algiers refinery. The sulfur content of this cut is 281 ppm. Experiments were performed in six-stage with a ratio of solvent:feed equal to 3:1. The effect of the extraction temperature was investigated in the interval 30 ÷ 110°C. At 110°C the yield of refined gas oil was 82% and its sulfur content was 69 ppm.

Keywords: desulfurization, gasoil, N, N-dimethylformamide, sulfur content

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24 Sulfur Removal of Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Oxidative Desulfurization Enhanced by Fenton Process

Authors: Mahsa Ja’fari, Mohammad R. Khosravi-Nikou, Mohsen Motavassel

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A comprehensive development towards the production of ultra-clean fuels as a feed stoke is getting to raise due to the increasing use of diesel fuels and global air pollution. Production of environmental-friendly fuels can be achievable by some limited single methods and most integrated ones. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) presents vast ranges of technologies possessing suitable characteristics with regard to the Fenton process. Using toluene as a model fuel feed with dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sulfur compound under various operating conditions is the attempt of this study. The results showed that this oxidative process followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. Removal efficiency of 77.43% is attained under reaction time of 40 minutes with (Fe+2/H2O2) molar ratio of 0.05 in acidic pH environment. In this research, temperature of 50 °C represented the most influential role in proceeding the reaction.

Keywords: design of experiment (DOE), dibenzothiophene (DBT), optimization, oxidative desulfurization (ODS)

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23 Metal-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents for Extractive Desulfurization of Fuels: Analysis from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

Authors: Aibek Kukpayev, Dhawal Shah

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Combustion of sour fuels containing high amount of sulfur leads to the formation of sulfur oxides, which adversely harm the environment and has a negative impact on human health. Considering this, several legislations have been imposed to bring down the sulfur content in fuel to less than 10 ppm. In recent years, novel deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been developed to achieve deep desulfurization, particularly to extract thiophenic compounds from liquid fuels. These novel DESs, considered as analogous to ionic liquids are green, eco-friendly, inexpensive, and sustainable. We herein, using molecular dynamic simulation, analyze the interactions of metal-based DESs with model oil consisting of thiophenic compounds. The DES used consists of polyethylene glycol (PEG-200) as a hydrogen bond donor, choline chloride (ChCl) or tetrabutyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) as a hydrogen bond acceptor, and cobalt chloride (CoCl₂) as metal salt. In particular, the combination of ChCl: PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:1 and the combination of TBAC:PEG-200:CoCl₂ at a ratio 1:2:0.25 were simulated, separately, with model oil consisting of octane and thiophenes at 25ᵒC and 1 bar. The results of molecular dynamics simulations were analyzed in terms of interaction energies between different components. The simulations revealed a stronger interaction between DESs/thiophenes as compared with octane/thiophenes, suggestive of an efficient desulfurization process. In addition, our analysis suggests that the choice of hydrogen bond acceptor strongly influences the efficiency of the desulfurization process. Taken together, the results also show the importance of the metal ion, although present in small amount, in the process, and the role of the polymer in desulfurization of the model fuel.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, desulfurization, molecular dynamics simulations, thiophenes

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22 Experimental Design and Optimization of Diesel Oil Desulfurization Process by Adsorption Processes

Authors: M. Firoz Kalam, Wilfried Schuetz, Jan Hendrik Bredehoeft

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Thiophene sulfur compounds' removal from diesel oil by batch adsorption process using commercial powdered activated carbon was designed and optimized in two-level factorial design method. This design analysis was used to find out the effects of operating parameters directing the adsorption process, such as amount of adsorbent, temperature and stirring time. The desulfurization efficiency was considered the response or output variable. Results showed that the stirring time had the largest effects on sulfur removal efficiency as compared with other operating parameters and their interactions under the experimental ranges studied. A regression model was generated to observe the closeness between predicted and experimental values. The three-dimensional plots and contour plots of main factors were generated according to the regression results to observe the optimal points.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorptive desulfurization, factorial design, process optimization

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21 Investigation of Utilization Possibility of Fluid Gas Desulfurization Waste for Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Authors: S. Kızıltas Demir, A. S. Kipcak, E. Moroydor Derun, N. Tugrul, S. Piskin

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Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGD) is a waste material arouse from coal power plants. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is a biomaterial with porous structure. In this study, FGD gypsum which retrieved from coal power plant in Turkey was characterized and HAP particles which can be used as an adsorbent in wastewater treatment application were synthesized from the FGD gypsum. The raw materials are characterized by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) techniques and produced HAP are characterized by using XRD. As a result, HAP particles were synthesized at the molar ratio of 5:10, 5:15, 5:20, 5:24, at room temperature, in alkaline medium (pH=11) and in 1 hour-reaction time. Among these conditions, 5:20 had the best result.

Keywords: FGD wastes, HAP, phosphogypsum, waste water

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20 Atomic Layer Deposition of MoO₃ on Mesoporous γ-Al₂O₃ Prepared by Sol-Gel Method as Efficient Catalyst for Oxidative Desulfurization of Refractory Dibenzothiophene Compound

Authors: S. Said, Asmaa A. Abdulrahman

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MoOₓ/Al₂O₃ based catalyst has long been widely used as an active catalyst in oxidative desulfurization reaction due to its high stability under severe reaction conditions and high resistance to sulfur poisoning. In this context, 4 & 9wt.% MoO₃ grafted on mesoporous γ-Al₂O₃ has been synthesized using the modified atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. Another MoO₃/Al₂O₃ sample was prepared by the conventional wetness impregnation (IM) method, for comparison. The effect of the preparation methods on the metal-support interaction was evaluated using different characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N₂-physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), H₂- temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction of the model fuel oil was used as a probe reaction to examine the catalytic efficiency of the prepared catalysts. ALD method led to samples with much better physicochemical properties than those of the prepared one via the impregnation method. However, the 9 wt.%MoO₃/Al₂O₃ (ALD) catalyst in the ODS reaction of model fuel oil shows enhanced catalytic performance with ~90%, which has been attributed to the more Mo⁶⁺ surface concentrations relative to Al³⁺ with large pore diameter and surface area. The kinetic study shows that the ODS of DBT follows a pseudo first-order rate reaction.

Keywords: mesoporous Al₂O₃, xMoO₃/Al₂O₃, atomic layer deposition, wetness impregnation, ODS, DBT

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19 Improvement of Diesel Oil Properties by Batch Adsorption and Simple Distillation Processes

Authors: M. Firoz Kalam, Wilfried Schuetz, Jan Hendrik Bredehoeft

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In this research, diesel oil properties, such as aniline point, density, diesel index, cetane index and cetane number before and after treatment were studied. The investigation was considered for diesel oil samples after batch adsorption process using powdered activated carbon. Batch distillation process was applied to all treated diesel oil samples for separation of the solid-liquid mixture. The diesel oil properties were studied to observe the impact of adsorptive desulfurization process on fuel quality. Results showed that the best cetane number for desulfurized diesel oil was found at the best-operating conditions 60℃, 10g activated carbon and 180 minute contact time. The best-desulfurized diesel oil cetane number was obtained around 51 while the cetane number of untreated diesel oil was 34. Results also showed that the calculated cetane number increases as the operating temperature and amounts of adsorbent increases. This behavior was same for other diesel oil properties such as aniline point, diesel index, cetane index and density. The best value for all the fuel properties was found at same operating conditions mentioned above. Thus, it can be concluded that adsorptive desulfurization using powdered activated carbon as adsorbent had significantly improved the fuel quality of diesel oil by reducing aromatic contents of diesel oil.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption, desulfurization, diesel oil, fuel quality

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18 Bayesian Optimization for Reaction Parameter Tuning: An Exploratory Study of Parameter Optimization in Oxidative Desulfurization of Thiophene

Authors: Aman Sharma, Sonali Sengupta

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The study explores the utility of Bayesian optimization in tuning the physical and chemical parameters of reactions in an offline experimental setup. A comparative analysis of the influence of the acquisition function on the optimization performance is also studied. For proxy first and second-order reactions, the results are indifferent to the acquisition function used, whereas, while studying the parameters for oxidative desulphurization of thiophene in an offline setup, upper confidence bound (UCB) provides faster convergence along with a marginal trade-off in the maximum conversion achieved. The work also demarcates the critical number of independent parameters and input observations required for both sequential and offline reaction setups to yield tangible results.

Keywords: acquisition function, Bayesian optimization, desulfurization, kinetics, thiophene

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17 Adsorptive Desulfurization of Tire Pyrolytic Oil Using Cu(I)–Y Zeolite via π-Complexation

Authors: Moshe Mello, Hilary Rutto, Tumisang Seodigeng

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The accelerating requirement to reach 0% sulfur content in liquid fuels demands researchers to seek efficient alternative technologies to challenge the predicament. In this current study, the adsorption capabilities of modified Cu(I)-Y zeolite were tested for removal of organosulfur compounds (OSC) present in TPO. The π-complexation-based adsorbent was obtained by ion exchanging Y-zeolite with Cu+ cation using liquid phase ion exchange (LPIE). Preparation of the adsorbent involved firstly ion-exchange between Na-Y zeolite with a Cu(NO3)2 aqueous solution of 0.5M for 48 hours followed by reduction of Cu2+ to Cu+. Batch studies for TPO in comparison with model diesel comprising of sulfur compounds such as thiophene (TH), benzothiophene (BTH), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophe (4,6-DMDBT) showed that modified Cu(I)-Y zeolite is an effective adsorbent for removal of OSC in liquid fuels. The effect of multiple operating conditions such as adsorbent dosage, reaction time and temperature were studied to optimize the process. For model diesel fuel, the selectivity for adsorption of sulfur compounds followed the order 4,6-DMDBT> DBT> BTH> TH. Interpretation of the results was justified using the molecular orbital theory and calculations. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used to predict adsorption of the reaction mixture. The Cu(I)-Y zeolite is fully regeneratable and this is achieved by a simple procedure of blowing the adsorbent with air at 350 °C, followed by reactivation at 450 °C in a rich helium surrounding.

Keywords: adsorption, desulfurization, TPO, zeolite

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16 Simulation of Wet Scrubbers for Flue Gas Desulfurization

Authors: Anders Schou Simonsen, Kim Sorensen, Thomas Condra

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Wet scrubbers are used for flue gas desulfurization by injecting water directly into the flue gas stream from a set of sprayers. The water droplets will flow freely inside the scrubber, and flow down along the scrubber walls as a thin wall film while reacting with the gas phase to remove SO₂. This complex multiphase phenomenon can be divided into three main contributions: the continuous gas phase, the liquid droplet phase, and the liquid wall film phase. This study proposes a complete model, where all three main contributions are taken into account and resolved using OpenFOAM for the continuous gas phase, and MATLAB for the liquid droplet and wall film phases. The 3D continuous gas phase is composed of five species: CO₂, H₂O, O₂, SO₂, and N₂, which are resolved along with momentum, energy, and turbulence. Source terms are present for four species, energy and momentum, which are affecting the steady-state solution. The liquid droplet phase experiences breakup, collisions, dynamics, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, energy transfer and wall film interactions. Numerous sub-models have been implemented and coupled to realise the above-mentioned phenomena. The liquid wall film experiences impingement, acceleration, atomization, separation, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, and energy transfer, which have all been resolved using numerous sub-models as well. The continuous gas phase has been coupled with the liquid phases using source terms by an approach, where the two software packages are couples using a link-structure. The complete CFD model has been verified using 16 experimental tests from an existing scrubber installation, where a gradient-based pattern search optimization algorithm has been used to tune numerous model parameters to match the experimental results. The CFD model needed to be fast for evaluation in order to apply this optimization routine, where approximately 1000 simulations were needed. The results show that the complex multiphase phenomena governing wet scrubbers can be resolved in a single model. The optimization routine was able to tune the model to accurately predict the performance of an existing installation. Furthermore, the study shows that a coupling between OpenFOAM and MATLAB is realizable, where the data and source term exchange increases the computational requirements by approximately 5%. This allows for exploiting the benefits of both software programs.

Keywords: desulfurization, discrete phase, scrubber, wall film

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15 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim

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Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

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14 Experimental Investigation of Absorbent Regeneration Techniques to Lower the Cost of Combined CO₂ and SO₂ Capture Process

Authors: Bharti Garg, Ashleigh Cousins, Pauline Pearson, Vincent Verheyen, Paul Feron

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The presence of SO₂ in power plant flue gases makes flue gas desulfurization (FGD) an essential requirement prior to post combustion CO₂ (PCC) removal facilities. Although most of the power plants worldwide deploy FGD in order to comply with environmental regulations, generally the achieved SO₂ levels are not sufficiently low for the flue gases to enter the PCC unit. The SO₂ level in the flue gases needs to be less than 10 ppm to effectively operate the PCC installation. The existing FGD units alone cannot bring down the SO₂ levels to or below 10 ppm as required for CO₂ capture. It might require an additional scrubber along with the existing FGD unit to bring the SO₂ to the desired levels. The absence of FGD units in Australian power plants brings an additional challenge. SO₂ concentrations in Australian power station flue gas emissions are in the range of 100-600 ppm. This imposes a serious barrier on the implementation of standard PCC technologies in Australia. CSIRO’s developed CS-Cap process is a unique solution to capture SO₂ and CO₂ in a single column with single absorbent which can potentially bring cost-effectiveness to the commercial deployment of carbon capture in Australia, by removing the need for FGD. Estimated savings of removing SO₂ through a similar process as CS-Cap is around 200 MMUSD for a 500 MW Australian power plant. Pilot plant trials conducted to generate the proof of concept resulted in 100% removal of SO₂ from flue gas without utilising standard limestone-based FGD. In this work, removal of absorbed sulfur from aqueous amine absorbents generated in the pilot plant trials has been investigated by reactive crystallisation and thermal reclamation. More than 95% of the aqueous amines can be reclaimed back from the sulfur loaded absorbent via reactive crystallisation. However, the recovery of amines through thermal reclamation is limited and depends on the sulfur loading on the spent absorbent. The initial experimental work revealed that reactive crystallisation is a better fit for CS-Cap’s sulfur-rich absorbent especially when it is also capable of generating K₂SO₄ crystals of highly saleable quality ~ 99%. Initial cost estimation carried on both the technologies resulted in almost similar capital expenditure; however, the operating cost is considerably higher in thermal reclaimer than that in crystalliser. The experimental data generated in the laboratory from both the regeneration techniques have been used to generate the simulation model in Aspen Plus. The simulation model illustrates the economic benefits which could be gained by removing flue gas desulfurization prior to standard PCC unit and replacing it with a CS-Cap absorber column co-capturing CO₂ and SO₂, and it's absorbent regeneration system which would be either reactive crystallisation or thermal reclamation.

Keywords: combined capture, cost analysis, crystallisation, CS-Cap, flue gas desulfurisation, regeneration, sulfur, thermal reclamation

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13 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

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Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

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12 Refining Waste Spent Hydroprocessing Catalyst and Their Metal Recovery

Authors: Meena Marafi, Mohan S. Rana

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Catalysts play an important role in producing valuable fuel products in petroleum refining; but, due to feedstock’s impurities catalyst gets deactivated with carbon and metal deposition. The disposal of spent catalyst falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste that requires strict agreement with environmental regulations. The spent hydroprocessing catalyst contains Mo, V and Ni at high concentrations that have been found to be economically significant for recovery. Metal recovery process includes deoiling, decoking, grinding, dissolving and treatment with complexing leaching agent such as ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The process conditions have been optimized as a function of time, temperature and EDTA concentration in presence of ultrasonic agitation. The results indicated that optimum condition established through this approach could recover 97%, 94% and 95% of the extracted Mo, V and Ni, respectively, while 95% EDTA was recovered after acid treatment.

Keywords: atmospheric residue desulfurization (ARDS), deactivation, hydrotreating, spent catalyst

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11 A Study on Removal of SO3 in Flue Gas Generated from Power Plant

Authors: E. Y. Jo, S. M. Park, I. S. Yeo, K. K. Kim, S. J. Park, Y. K. Kim, Y. D. Kim, C. G. Park

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SO3 is created in small quantities during the combustion of fuel that contains sulfur, with the quantity produced a function of the boiler design, fuel sulfur content, excess air level, and the presence of oxidizing agents. Typically, about 1% of the fuel sulfur will be oxidized to SO3, but it can range from 0.5% to 1.5% depending on various factors. Combustion of fuels that contain oxidizing agents, such as certain types of fuel oil or petroleum coke, can result in even higher levels of oxidation. SO3 levels in the flue gas emitted by combustion are very high, which becomes a cause of machinery corrosion or a visible blue plume. Because of that, power plants firing petroleum residues need to installation of SO3 removal system. In this study, SO3 removal system using salt solution was developed and several salts solutions were tested for obtain optimal solution for SO3 removal system. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the operation parameters such as gas-liquid ratio, concentration of salts.

Keywords: flue gas desulfurization, petroleum cokes, Sulfur trioxide, SO3 removal

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10 Optimization of Effecting Parameters for the Removal of H₂S Gas in Self Priming Venturi Scrubber Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Manisha Bal, B. C. Meikap

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Highly toxic and corrosive gas H₂S is recognized as one of the hazardous air pollutants which has significant effect on the human health. Abatement of H₂S gas from the air is very necessary. H₂S gas is mainly released from the industries like paper and leather industry as well as during the production of crude oil, during wastewater treatment, etc. But the emission of H₂S gas in high concentration may cause immediate death while at lower concentrations can cause various respiratory problems. In the present study, self priming venturi scrubber is used to remove the H₂S gas from the air. Response surface methodology with central composite design has been chosen to observe the effect of process parameters on the removal efficiency of H₂S. Experiments were conducted by varying the throat gas velocity, liquid level in outer cylinder, and inlet H₂S concentration. ANOVA test confirmed the significant effect of parameters on the removal efficiency. A quadratic equation has been obtained which predicts the removal efficiency very well. The suitability of the developed model has been judged by the higher R² square value which obtained from the regression analysis. From the investigation, it was found that the throat gas velocity has most significant effect and inlet concentration of H₂S has less effect on H₂S removal efficiency.

Keywords: desulfurization, pollution control, response surface methodology, venturi scrubber

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9 A Comparative Assessment of Membrane Bioscrubber and Classical Bioscrubber for Biogas Purification

Authors: Ebrahim Tilahun, Erkan Sahinkaya, Bariş Calli̇

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Raw biogas is a valuable renewable energy source however it usually needs removal of the impurities. The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the biogas has detrimental corrosion effects on the cogeneration units. Removal of H2S from the biogas can therefore significantly improve the biogas quality. In this work, a conventional bioscrubber (CBS), and a dense membrane bioscrubber (DMBS) were comparatively evaluated in terms of H2S removal efficiency (RE), CH4 enrichment and alkaline consumption at gas residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Both bioscrubbers were fed with a synthetic biogas containing H2S (1%), CO2 (39%) and CH4 (60%). The results show that high RE (98%) was obtained in the DMBS when gas residence time was 20 min, whereas slightly lower CO2 RE was observed. While in CBS system the outlet H2S concentration was always lower than 250 ppmv, and its H2S RE remained higher than 98% regardless of the gas residence time, although the high alkaline consumption and frequent absorbent replacement limited its cost-effectiveness. The result also indicates that in DMBS when the gas residence time increased to 20 min, the CH4 content in the treated biogas enriched upto 80%. However, while operating the CBS unit the CH4 content of the raw biogas (60%) decreased by three fold. The lower CH4 content in CBS was probably caused by extreme dilution of biogas with air (N2 and O2). According to the results obtained here the DMBS system is a robust and effective biotechnology in comparison with CBS. Hence, DMBS has a better potential for real scale applications.

Keywords: biogas, bioscrubber, desulfurization, PDMS membrane

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8 Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

Authors: P. Lestinsky, D. Jecha, V. Brummer, P. Stehlik

Abstract:

Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubber is the capture of fine particles as well as HCl, HF or SO2 removal with effect of the flue gas temperature decrease before input to the absorption column. In this paper, sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas was captured using new design replacing venturi scrubber (1st degree of wet scrubbing). The flue gas was prepared by the combustion of the carbon disulfide solution in toluene (1:1 vol.) in the flame in the reactor. Such prepared flue gas with temperature around 150 °C was processed in designed laboratory O-element scrubber. Water was used as absorbent liquid. The efficiency of SO2 removal, pressure drop and temperature drop were measured on our experimental device. The dependence of these variables on liquid-gas ratio was observed. The average temperature drop was in the range from 150 °C to 40 °C. The pressure drop was increased with increasing of a liquid-gas ratio, but not as much as for the common venturi scrubber designs. The efficiency of SO2 removal was up to 70 %. The pressure drop of our new designed wet scrubber is similar to commonly used venturi scrubbers; nevertheless the influence of amount of the liquid on pressure drop is not so significant.

Keywords: desulphurization, absorption, flue gas, modeling

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7 Optimization of Air Pollution Control Model for Mining

Authors: Zunaira Asif, Zhi Chen

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The sustainable measures on air quality management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining region. The mining operations emit various types of pollutants which have significant impacts on the environment. This study presents a stochastic control strategy by developing the air pollution control model to achieve a cost-effective solution. The optimization method is formulated to predict the cost of treatment using linear programming with an objective function and multi-constraints. The constraints mainly focus on two factors which are: production of metal should not exceed the available resources, and air quality should meet the standard criteria of the pollutant. The applicability of this model is explored through a case study of an open pit metal mine, Utah, USA. This method simultaneously uses meteorological data as a dispersion transfer function to support the practical local conditions. The probabilistic analysis and the uncertainties in the meteorological conditions are accomplished by Monte Carlo simulation. Reasonable results have been obtained to select the optimized treatment technology for PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and SO2. Additional comparison analysis shows that baghouse is the least cost option as compared to electrostatic precipitator and wet scrubbers for particulate matter, whereas non-selective catalytical reduction and dry-flue gas desulfurization are suitable for NOx and SO2 reduction respectively. Thus, this model can aid planners to reduce these pollutants at a marginal cost by suggesting control pollution devices, while accounting for dynamic meteorological conditions and mining activities.

Keywords: air pollution, linear programming, mining, optimization, treatment technologies

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6 Calcined Tertiaries Hydrotalcites as Supports of Cobalt-Molybdenum Based Catalysts for the Hydrodesulfurization Reaction of Dibenzothiophene

Authors: Edwin Oviedo, Carlos Linares, Philippe Ayrault, Sylvette Brunet

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Nowadays, light conventional crude oils are going down. Therefore, the exploitation of heavy crude oils has been increasing. Hence, a major quantity of refractory sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) should be removed. Many efforts have been carried out to modify hydrotreatment typical supports in order to increase hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions. The present work shows the synthesis of tertiaries MgFeAl(0.16), MgFeAl(0.32), CoFeAl, ZnFeAl hydrotalcites, as supports of CoMo based catalysts, where 0.16 and 0.32 are the Fe3+/Al3+ molar ratio. Solids were characterized by different techniques (XRD, CO2-TPD, H2-TPR, FT-IR, BET, Chemical Analysis and HRTEM) and tested in the DBT HDS reaction. The reactions conditions were: Temp=325°C, P=40 Bar, H2/feed=475. Results show that the catalysts CoMo/MgFeAl(0.16) and CoMo/MgFeAl(0.32), which were the most basics, reduced the sulfur content from 500ppm to less than 1 ppm, increasing the cyclohexylbenzene content, i.e. presented a higher selective toward the HYD pathway than reference catalyst CoMo/γ- Al2O3. This is suitable for improving the fuel quality due to the increase of the cetane number. These catalysts were also more active to the HDS reaction increasing the direct desulfurization (DDS) way and presented a good stability. It is advantageous when the gas oil centane number should be improved. Cobalt, iron or zinc species inside support could avoid the Co and Mo dispersion or form spinel species which could be less active to hydrodesulfuration reactions, while hydrotalcites containing Mg increases the HDS activity probably due to improved Co/Mo ratio.

Keywords: catalyst, cetane number, dibenzothiophene, diesel, hydrodesulfurization, hydrotreatment, MoS2

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5 Review of Sulfur Unit Capacity Expansion Options

Authors: Avinashkumar Karre

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Sulfur recovery unit, most commonly called as Claus process, is very significant gas desulfurization process unit in refinery and gas industries. Explorations of new natural gas fields, refining of high-sulfur crude oils, and recent crude expansion projects are needing capacity expansion of Claus unit for many companies around the world. In refineries, the sulphur recovery units take acid gas from amine regeneration units and sour water strippers, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur using the Claus process. The Claus process is hydraulically limited by mass flow rate. Reducing the pressure drop across control valves, flow meters, lines, knock-out drums, and packing improves the capacity. Oxygen enrichment helps improve the capacity by removing nitrogen, this is more commonly done on all capacity expansion projects. Typical upgrades required due to oxygen enrichment are new burners, new refractory in thermal reactor, resizing of 1st condenser, instrumentation changes, and steam/condensate heat integration. Some other capacity expansion options typically considered are tail gas compressor, replacing air blower with higher head, hydrocarbon minimization in the feed, water removal, and ammonia removal. Increased capacity related upgrades in sulfur recovery unit also need changes in the tail gas treatment unit, typical changes include improvement to quench tower duty, packing area upgrades in quench and absorber towers and increased amine circulation flow rates.

Keywords: Claus process, oxygen enrichment, sulfur recovery unit, tail gas treatment unit

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4 Desulfurization of Crude Oil Using Bacteria

Authors: Namratha Pai, K. Vasantharaj, K. Haribabu

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Our Team is developing an innovative cost effective biological technique to desulfurize crude oil. ’Sulphur’ is found to be present in crude oil samples from .05% - 13.95% and its elimination by industrial methods is expensive currently. Materials required :- Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius, potato dextrose agar, oxygen, Pyragallol and inert gas(nitrogen). Method adapted and proposed:- 1) Growth of bacteria studied, energy needs. 2) Compatibility with crude-oil. 3) Reaction rate of bacteria studied and optimized. 4) Reaction development by computer simulation. 5) Simulated work tested by building the reactor. The method being developed requires the use of bacteria Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius - an acidothermophilic heterotrophic, soil dwelling aerobic, Sulfur bacteria. The bacteria are fed to crude oil in a unique manner. Its coated onto potato dextrose agar beads, cultured for 24 hours (growth time coincides with time when it begins reacting) and fed into the reactor. The beads are to be replenished with O2 by passing them through a jacket around the reactor which has O2 supply. The O2 can’t be supplied directly as crude oil is inflammable, hence the process. Beads are made to move around based on the concept of fluidized bed reactor. By controlling the velocity of inert gas pumped , the beads are made to settle down when exhausted of O2. It is recycled through the jacket where O2 is re-fed and beads which were inside the ring substitute the exhausted ones. Crude-oil is maintained between 1 atm-270 M Pa pressure and 45°C treated with tartaric acid (Ph reason for bacteria growth) for optimum output. Bacteria being of oxidising type react with Sulphur in crude-oil and liberate out SO4^2- and no gas. SO4^2- is absorbed into H2O. NaOH is fed once reaction is complete and beads separated. Crude-oil is thus separated of SO4^2-, thereby Sulphur, tartaric acid and other acids which are separated out. Bio-corrosion is taken care of by internal wall painting (phenolepoxy paints). Earlier methods used included use of Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus species. They were found to be inefficient, time and energy consuming and reduce the fuel value as they fed on skeleton.

Keywords: alicyclobacillus acidoterrestrius, potato dextrose agar, fluidized bed reactor principle, reaction time for bacteria, compatibility with crude oil

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3 Acid Soil Amelioration Using Coal Bio-Briquette Ash and Waste Concrete in China

Authors: Y. Sakai, C. Wang

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The decrease in agricultural production due to soil deterioration has been an urgent task. Soil acidification is a potentially serious land degradation issue and it will have a major impact on agricultural productivity and sustainable farming systems. In China, acid soil is mainly distributed in the southern part, the decrease in agricultural production and heavy metal contamination are serious problems. In addition, not only environmental and health problems due to the exhaust gas such as mainly sulfur dioxide (SO₂) but also the generation of a huge amount of construction and demolition wastes with the accelerating urbanization has emerged as a social problem in China. Therefore, the need for the recycling and reuse of both desulfurization waste and waste concrete is very urgent and necessary. So we have investigated the effectiveness as acid soil amendments of both coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete. In this paper, acid soil (AS1) in Nanjing (pH=6.0, EC=1.6dSm-1) and acid soil (AS2) in Guangzhou (pH=4.1, EC=0.2dSm-1) were investigated in soil amelioration test. Soil amendments were three coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA1, BBA2 and BBA3), the waste cement fine powders (CFP) ( < 200µm (particle diameter)), waste concrete particles (WCP) ( < 4.75mm ( < 0.6mm, 0.6-1.0mm, 1.0-2.0mm, 2.0-4.75mm)), and six mixtures with two coal bio-briquette ashes (BBA2 and BBA3), CFP, WCP( < 0.6mm) and WCP(2.0-4.75mm). In acid soil amelioration test, the three BBAs, CFP and various WCPs based on exchangeable calcium concentration were added to two acid soils. The application rates were from 0 wt% to 3.5 wt% in AS1 test and from 0 wt% to 6.0 wt% in AS2 test, respectively. Soil chemical properties (pH, EC, exchangeable and soluble ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K)) before and after mixing with soil amendments were measured. In addition, Al toxicity and the balance of salts (CaO, K₂O, MgO) in soil after amelioration was evaluated. The order of pH and exchangeable Ca concentration that is effective for acid soil amelioration was WCP(0.6mm) > CFP > WCP(2.0-4.25mm) > BB1 > BB2 > BB3. In all AS 1 and AS 2 amelioration tests using three BBAs, the pH and EC increased slightly with the increase of application rate and reached to the appropriate value range of both pH and EC in BBA1 only. Because BBA1 was higher value in pH and exchangeable Ca. After that, soil pH and EC with the increase in the application rate of BBA2, BBA3 and by using CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), WC(2.0-4.75mm) as soil amendment reached to each appropriate value range, respectively. In addition, the mixture amendments with BBA2, BBA3 CFP, WC( < 0.6mm), and WC(2.0-4.75mm) could ameliorate at a smaller amount of application rate in case of BBA only. And the exchangeable Al concentration decreased drastically with the increase in pH due to soil amelioration and was under the standard value. Lastly, the heavy metal (Cd, As, Se, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mo, B, Cu, Zn) contents in new soil amendments were under control standard values for agricultural use in China. Thus we could propose a new acid soil amelioration method using coal bio-briquette ash and waste concrete in China.

Keywords: acid soil, coal bio-briquette ash, soil amelioration, waste concrete

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2 Plasma Chemical Gasification of Solid Fuel with Mineral Mass Processing

Authors: V. E. Messerle, O. A. Lavrichshev, A. B. Ustimenko

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Currently and in the foreseeable future (up to 2100), the global economy is oriented to the use of organic fuel, mostly, solid fuels, the share of which constitutes 40% in the generation of electric power. Therefore, the development of technologies for their effective and environmentally friendly application represents a priority problem nowadays. This work presents the results of thermodynamic and experimental investigations of plasma technology for processing of low-grade coals. The use of this technology for producing target products (synthesis gas, hydrogen, technical carbon, and valuable components of mineral mass of coals) meets the modern environmental and economic requirements applied to basic industrial sectors. The plasma technology of coal processing for the production of synthesis gas from the coal organic mass (COM) and valuable components from coal mineral mass (CMM) is highly promising. Its essence is heating the coal dust by reducing electric arc plasma to the complete gasification temperature, when the COM converts into synthesis gas, free from particles of ash, nitrogen oxides and sulfur. At the same time, oxides of the CMM are reduced by the carbon residue, producing valuable components, such as technical silicon, ferrosilicon, aluminum and carbon silicon, as well as microelements of rare metals, such as uranium, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium. Thermodynamic analysis of the process was made using a versatile computation program TERRA. Calculations were carried out in the temperature range 300 - 4000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa. Bituminous coal with the ash content of 40% and the heating value 16,632 kJ/kg was taken for the investigation. The gaseous phase of coal processing products includes, basically, a synthesis gas with a concentration of up to 99 vol.% at 1500 K. CMM components completely converts from the condensed phase into the gaseous phase at a temperature above 2600 K. At temperatures above 3000 K, the gaseous phase includes, basically, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Na, and compounds of SiO, SiH, AlH, and SiS. The latter compounds dissociate into relevant elements with increasing temperature. Complex coal conversion for the production of synthesis gas from COM and valuable components from CMM was investigated using a versatile experimental plant the main element of which was plug and flow plasma reactor. The material and thermal balances helped to find the integral indicators for the process. Plasma-steam gasification of the low-grade coal with CMM processing gave the synthesis gas yield 95.2%, the carbon gasification 92.3%, and coal desulfurization 95.2%. The reduced material of the CMM was found in the slag in the form of ferrosilicon as well as silicon and iron carbides. The maximum reduction of the CMM oxides was observed in the slag from the walls of the plasma reactor in the areas with maximum temperatures, reaching 47%. The thusly produced synthesis gas can be used for synthesis of methanol, or as a high-calorific reducing gas instead of blast-furnace coke as well as power gas for thermal power plants. Reduced material of CMM can be used in metallurgy.

Keywords: gasification, mineral mass, organic mass, plasma, processing, solid fuel, synthesis gas, valuable components

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1 Assessment of Biofilm Production Capacity of Industrially Important Bacteria under Electroinductive Conditions

Authors: Omolola Ojetayo, Emmanuel Garuba, Obinna Ajunwa, Abiodun A. Onilude

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Introduction: Biofilm is a functional community of microorganisms that are associated with a surface or an interface. These adherent cells become embedded within an extracellular matrix composed of polymeric substances, i.e., biofilms refer to biological deposits consisting of both microbes and their extracellular products on biotic and abiotic surfaces. Despite their detrimental effects in medicine, biofilms as natural cell immobilization have found several applications in biotechnology, such as in the treatment of wastewater, bioremediation and biodegradation, desulfurization of gas, and conversion of agro-derived materials into alcohols and organic acids. The means of enhancing immobilized cells have been chemical-inductive, and this affects the medium composition and final product. Physical factors including electrical, magnetic, and electromagnetic flux have shown potential for enhancing biofilms depending on the bacterial species, nature, and intensity of emitted signals, the duration of exposure, and substratum used. However, the concept of cell immobilisation by electrical and magnetic induction is still underexplored. Methods: To assess the effects of physical factors on biofilm formation, six American typed culture collection (Acetobacter aceti ATCC15973, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027, Serratia marcescens ATCC14756, Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC19357, Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC17023, and Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633) were used. Standard culture techniques for bacterial cells were adopted. Natural autoimmobilisation potentials of test bacteria were carried out by simple biofilms ring formation on tubes, while crystal violet binding assay techniques were adopted in the characterisation of biofilm quantity. Electroinduction of bacterial cells by direct current (DC) application in cell broth, static magnetic field exposure, and electromagnetic flux were carried out, and autoimmobilisation of cells in a biofilm pattern was determined on various substrata tested, including wood, glass, steel, polyvinylchloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate. Biot Savart law was used in quantifying magnetic field intensity, and statistical analyses of data obtained were carried out using the analyses of variance (ANOVA) as well as other statistical tools. Results: Biofilm formation by the selected test bacteria was enhanced by the physical factors applied. Electromagnetic induction had the greatest effect on biofilm formation, with magnetic induction producing the least effect across all substrata used. Microbial cell-cell communication could be a possible means via which physical signals affected the cells in a polarisable manner. Conclusion: The enhancement of biofilm formation by bacteria using physical factors has shown that their inherent capability as a cell immobilization method can be further optimised for industrial applications. A possible relationship between the presence of voltage-dependent channels, mechanosensitive channels, and bacterial biofilms could shed more light on this phenomenon.

Keywords: bacteria, biofilm, cell immobilization, electromagnetic induction, substrata

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