Search results for: livestock
329 Livestock Activity Monitoring Using Movement Rate Based on Subtract Image
Authors: Keunho Park, Sunghwan Jeong
Abstract:The 4th Industrial Revolution, the next-generation industrial revolution, which is made up of convergence of information and communication technology (ICT), is no exception to the livestock industry, and various studies are being conducted to apply the livestock smart farm. In order to monitor livestock using sensors, it is necessary to drill holes in the organs such as the nose, ears, and even the stomach of the livestock to wear or insert the sensor into the livestock. This increases the stress of livestock, which in turn lowers the quality of livestock products or raises the issue of animal ethics, which has become a major issue in recent years. In this paper, we conducted a study to monitor livestock activity based on vision technology, effectively monitoring livestock activity without increasing animal stress and violating animal ethics. The movement rate was calculated based on the difference images between the frames, and the livestock activity was evaluated. As a result, the average F1-score was 96.67.
Keywords: barn monitoring, livestock, machine vision, smart farmProcedia PDF Downloads 69
328 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences
Authors: Diep Thanh Tung
Abstract:This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, meta-frontier, Malmquist, technical efficiency, livestock productionProcedia PDF Downloads 603
327 Factors Associated with the Acceptance and Rejection of Rural Livestock Insurance in Garmsar: Semnan Province
Authors: Ali Ashraf Hamedi Oghul Beyk
Abstract:The main objective of the study is to determine the factors which influence the acceptance or rejection of rural livestock insurance in Garmsar. The research method is descriptive one. There are two groups of research populations: 1467 cases in acceptance group and 7000 cases in rejection group. The sample population is 320 cases among 8467 ones. Data collection instrument is questionnaire. The validity of the questionnaire was measured by faculty members and other agriculture experts and also reliability of it determined through Cronbach alpha which was %83. Correlation between acceptance and rejection of investigated population. According to the findings of the research, between educational level, basic income from farm-related communication channels, contacts of experts and acceptance and rejection of livestock insurance at %5 & the mortality rate, loan awareness of the objectives of the livestock insurance benefits %1 there is a meaningful relationship. Mann-Whitney test shows the different educational levels, different awareness and interest to livestock insurance between the two groups. Besides, the T-test shows the livestock losses rate in two groups.
Keywords: insurance, livestock, Garmsar, SemnanProcedia PDF Downloads 290
326 Factors Affecting Households' Decision to Allocate Credit for Livestock Production: Evidence from Ethiopia
Authors: Kaleb Shiferaw, Berhanu Geberemedhin, Dereje Legesse
Abstract:Access to credit is often viewed as a key to transform semi-subsistence smallholders into market oriented producers. However, only a few studies have examined factors that affect farmers’ decision to allocate credit on farm activities in general and livestock production in particular. A trivariate probit model with double selection is employed to identify factors that affect farmers’ decision to allocate credit on livestock production using data collected from smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. After controlling for two sample selection bias – taking credit for the production season and decision to allocate credit on farm activities – land ownership and access to a livestock centered extension service are found to have a significant (p<0.001) effect on farmers decision to use credit for livestock production. The result showed farmers with large land holding, and access to a livestock centered extension services are more likely to utilize credit for livestock production. However since the effect of land ownership squared is negative the effect of land ownership for those who own a large plot of land lessens. The study highlights the fact that improving access to credit does not automatically translate into more productive households. Improving farmers’ access to credit should be followed by a focused extension services.
Keywords: livestock production, credit access, credit allocation, household decision, double sample selectionProcedia PDF Downloads 257
325 Human-Tiger Conflict in Chitwan National Park, Nepal
Authors: Abishek Poudel
Abstract:Human-tiger conflicts are serious issues of conflicts between local people and park authority and the conflicting situation potentially play negative role in park management. The study aimed (1) To determine the trend and nature of human-tiger conflicts (2) To understand people's perception and mitigation measures towards tiger conservation. Both primary and secondary information were used to determine human- tiger conflicts in Chitwan National Park. Systematic random sampling with 5% intensity was done to collect the perception of the villagers regarding human-tiger conflicts. The study sites were selected based on frequencies of incidences of human attacks and livestock depredation viz. Rajahar and Ayodhyapuri VDCs respectively. The trend of human casualties by tiger has increased in last five year whereas the trend of livestock has decreased. Reportedly, between 2008 and 2012, tigers killed 22 people, injured 10 and killed at least 213 livestock. Conflict was less common in the park and more intense in the sub-optimal habitats of Buffer Zone. Goat was the most vulnerable livestock followed by cattle. The livestock grazing and human intrusion into tiger habitat were the causes of conflicts. Developing local stewardship and support for tiger conservation, livestock insurance, and compensation policy simplification may help reduce human-tiger conflicts.
Keywords: livestock depredation, sub optimal habitat, human-tiger, local stewardshipProcedia PDF Downloads 371
324 Rural Development through Women Participation in Livestock Care and Management in District Faisalabad
Authors: Arfan Riasat, M. Iqbal Zafar, Gulfam Riasat
Abstract:Pakistani women actively participate in livestock management activities, along with their normal domestic chores. The study was designed to measure the position and contribution of rural women, their constraints in livestock management activities and mainly how the rural women contribute for development in the district Faisalabad. It was envisioned that women participation in livestock activities have rarely been investigated. A multistage random sampling technique was used to collect the data from Tehsil Summandry of the district selected at random. Two union councils were taken by using simple random sampling technique. Four Chak (village) from each union council were selected at random and fifteen woman were further selected randomly from each selected chak. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income of one to two lac. They are living in joint family system. Their main occupation is agriculture and they spend long hours in whole livestock related activities to support their families. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they had to face problems and constraints in livestock activities in the context of decision making, medication, awareness, training along with social and economic issues. Analysis indicated that education level of women, income of household, age were significantly associated with level of participation. Women participation in livestock activities increased production and they were involved in income generating activities for better economic conditions of their families.
Keywords: women, participation, livestock, management, rural developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 345
323 Radiation Usage Impact of on Anti-Nutritional Compounds (Antitrypsin and Phytic Acid) of Livestock and Poultry Foods
Authors: Mohammad Khosravi, Ali Kiani, Behroz Dastar, Parvin Showrang
Abstract:Review was carried out on important anti-nutritional compounds of livestock and poultry foods and the effect of radiation usage. Nowadays, with advancement in technology, different methods have been considered for the optimum usage of nutrients in livestock and poultry foods. Steaming, extruding, pelleting, and the use of chemicals are the most common and popular methods in food processing. Use of radiation in food processing researches in the livestock and poultry industry is currently highly regarded. Ionizing (electrons, gamma) and non-ionizing beams (microwave and infrared) are the most useable rays in animal food processing. In recent researches, these beams have been used to remove and reduce the anti-nutritional factors and microbial contamination and improve the digestibility of nutrients in poultry and livestock food. The evidence presented will help researchers to recognize techniques of relevance to them. Simplification of some of these techniques, especially in developing countries, must be addressed so that they can be used more widely.
Keywords: antitrypsin, gamma anti-nutritional components, phytic acid, radiationProcedia PDF Downloads 277
322 Mineral Status of Feeds and Fodder and Its Subsequent Effect on Plasma of Livestock and Its Products in Red Lateritic Zone of West Bengal, India
Authors: S. K. Pyne, M. Mondal, G. Samanta
Abstract:A survey was carried out in red lateritic zone of West Bengal to compare the mineral status in plasma of livestock grazing over red lateritic region. Sufficient number of samples of soil, feeds, fodder and blood were collected from four districts of red lateritic zone namely, West Midnapore, Birbhum, Bankura and Purulia respectively. The samples were analysed for Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe). Concentration of Cu, Mn and Fe in soil were above the minimum critical level, whereas, Zn deficiency is wide spread in red lateritic soil. Paddy straw is deficient in Ca, P, Zn and Mn in the region. Green fodders are also deficient in P, Cu, Zn. The richness of iron (Fe) in soil, feeds, fodder and tree leaves is the characteristics of this region. Phosphorus is deficient in plasma of all categories of livestock with the exception of bullock. Cu is deficient in plasma of calf. Plasma Mn and Fe were higher (p<0.01) in the animals of red lateritic zone. The study reveals that the overall deficiency of phosphorus in different categories of livestock and there is need of dietary supplementation.
Keywords: mineral, red lateritic zone, grazing livestock, plasmaProcedia PDF Downloads 267
321 Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine
Authors: Sitti Nurani Sirajuddin, Ikrar Moh. Saleh, Kasmiyati Kasim
Abstract:The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the manufacture of liquid organic fertilizer totaled 42 people. Data were collected through observation and interview. Data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the perception of livestock farmers of using liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine provide additional revenue benefits, cost minimization farming, reducing environmental pollution which not contrary to the customs.
Keywords: liquid organic fertilizer, perceptions, farmers, beef cattleProcedia PDF Downloads 402
320 A Review on Potential Utilization of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as Livestock Feed with Particular Emphasis to Developing Countries in Africa
Authors: Shigdaf Mekuriaw, Firew Tegegne, A. Tsunekawa, Dereje Tewabe
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to make a comprehensive review on the use of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a potential livestock feed and argue its utilization as complementary strategy to other control methods. Water Hyacinth is one of the most noxious plant invaders of rivers and lakes. Such weeds cause environmental disaster and interfere with economic and recreational activities such as water transportation and fishing. Economic impacts of the weed in seven African countries have been estimated at between 20-50 million US$ every year. It would, therefore, be prudent to suggest utilization as a complementary control method. The majority of people in developing countries are dependent on traditional and inefficient crop-livestock production system that constrains their ability to enhance economic productivity and quality of life. Livestock in developing countries faces shortage of feed, especially during the long dry seasons. Existing literature shows the use of water hyacinth as livestock and fish feed. The chemical composition of water hyacinth varies considerably. Due to its relatively high crude protein (CP) content (5.8-20.0%), water hyacinth can be considered as a potential protein supplement for livestock which commonly feed cereal crop residues whose contribution as source of feed is increasing in Africa. Though the effects of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) present in water hyacinth is not investigated, their concentrations are not above threshold hinder its utilization as livestock feed. In conclusion, water hyacinth could provide large quantities of nutritious feed for animals. Like other feeds, water hyacinth may not be offered as a sole feed and based on existing literature its optimum inclusion level reaches 50%.
Keywords: Africa, livestock feed, water bodies, water hyacinth and weed control methodProcedia PDF Downloads 288
319 Reorientation of Sustainable Livestock Management: A Case Study Applied to Wastes Management in Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia
Authors: Raka Rahmatulloh, Mohammad Ilham Nugraha, Muhammad Ifan Fathurrahman
Abstract:The agricultural sector covers a wide area, one of them is livestock subsector that supply needs of the food source of animal protein. Animal protein is produced by the main livestock production such as meat, milk, eggs, etc. Besides the main production, livestock would produce metabolic residue, so called livestock wastes. Characteristics of livestock wastes can be either solid (feces), liquid (urine), and gas (methane) which turned out to be useful and has economical value when well-processed and well-controlled. Nowadays, this livestock wastes is considered as a source of pollutants, especially water pollution. If the source of pollutants used in an integrated way, it will have a positive impact on organic farming and a healthy environment. Management of livestock wastes can be integrated with the farming sector to the planting and caring that rely on fertilizers. Most Indonesian farmers still use chemical fertilizers, where the use of it in the long term will disturb the ecological balance of the environment. One of the main efforts is to use organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizer that conducted by the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University. The method is to use the solid waste of livestock and agricultural wastes into liquid organic fertilizer, feed additive, biogas and vermicompost through decomposition. The decomposition takes as long as 14 days including aeration and extraction process using water as a nutrients solvent media which contained in decomposes and disinfection media to release pathogenic microorganisms in decomposes. Liquid organic fertilizer has highly efficient for the farmers to have a ratio of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) 25/1 to 30/1 and neutral pH (6.5-7.5) which is good for plant growth. Feed additive may be given to improve the digestibility of feed so that substances can be easily absorbed by the body for production. Biogas contains methane (CH4), which has a high enough heat to produce electricity. Vermicompost is an overhaul of waste organic material that has excellent structure, porosity, aeration, drainage, and moisture holding capacity. Based on the case study above, an integrated livestock wastes management program strongly supports the Indonesian government in the achievement of sustainable livestock development.
Keywords: integrated, livestock wastes, organic fertilizer, sustainable livestock developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 355
318 Evaluation of Biogas Potential from Livestock in Malawi
Authors: Regina Kulugomba, Richard Blanchard, Harold Mapoma, Gregory Gamula, Stanley Mlatho
Abstract:Malawi is a country with low energy access with only 10% of people having access to electricity and 97% of people relying on charcoal and fuel wood. The over dependence on the traditional biomass has brought in a number of negative consequences on people’s health and the environment. To curb the situation, the Government of Malawi (GoM), through its national policy of 2018 and charcoal strategies of 2007, identified biogas as a suitable alternative energy source for cooking. The GoM intends to construct tubular digesters across the country and one of the most crucial factors is the availability of livestock manure. The study was conducted to assess biogas potential from livestock manure by using Quantum Geographic information system (QGIS) software. Potential methane was calculated based on the population of livestock, amount of manure produced per capita and year, total solids, biogas yield and availability coefficient. The results of the study estimated biogas potential at 687 million m3 /year. Districts identified with highest biogas potential were Lilongwe, Ntcheu, Mangochi, Neno, Mwanza, Blantyre, Chiradzulu and Mulanje. The information will help investors and the Government of Malawi to locate potential sites for biogas plants installation.
Keywords: biogas, energy, feedstock, livestockProcedia PDF Downloads 23
317 Understanding the Diversity of Antimicrobial Resistance among Wild Animals, Livestock and Associated Environment in a Rural Ecosystem in Sri Lanka
Authors: B. M. Y. I. Basnayake, G. G. T. Nisansala, P. I. J. B. Wijewickrama, U. S. Weerathunga, K. W. M. Y. D. Gunasekara, N. K. Jayasekera, A. W. Kalupahana, R. S. Kalupahana, A. Silva- Fletcher, K. S. A. Kottawatta
Abstract:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has attracted significant attention worldwide as an emerging threat to public health. Understanding the role of livestock and wildlife with the shared environment in the maintenance and transmission of AMR is of utmost importance due to its interactions with humans for combating the issue in one health approach. This study aims to investigate the extent of AMR distribution among wild animals, livestock, and environment cohabiting in a rural ecosystem in Sri Lanka: Hambegamuwa. One square km area at Hambegamuwa was mapped using GPS as the sampling area. The study was conducted for a period of five months from November 2020. Voided fecal samples were collected from 130 wild animals, 123 livestock: buffalo, cattle, chicken, and turkey, with 36 soil and 30 water samples associated with livestock and wildlife. From the samples, Escherichia coli (E. coli) was isolated, and their AMR profiles were investigated for 12 antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method following the CLSI standard. Seventy percent (91/130) of wild animals, 93% (115/123) of livestock, 89% (32/36) of soil, and 63% (19/30) of water samples were positive for E. coli. Maximum of two E. coli from each sample to a total of 467 were tested for the sensitivity of which 157, 208, 62, and 40 were from wild animals, livestock, soil, and water, respectively. The highest resistance in E. coli from livestock (13.9%) and wild animals (13.3%) was for ampicillin, followed by streptomycin. Apart from that, E. coli from livestock and wild animals revealed resistance mainly against tetracycline, cefotaxime, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, and nalidixic acid at levels less than 10%. Ten cefotaxime resistant E. coli were reported from wild animals, including four elephants, two land monitors, a pigeon, a spotted dove, and a monkey which was a significant finding. E. coli from soil samples reflected resistance primarily against ampicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline at levels less than in livestock/wildlife. Two water samples had cefotaxime resistant E. coli as the only resistant isolates out of 30 water samples tested. Of the total E. coli isolates, 6.4% (30/467) was multi-drug resistant (MDR) which included 18, 9, and 3 isolates from livestock, wild animals, and soil, respectively. Among 18 livestock MDRs, the highest (13/ 18) was from poultry. Nine wild animal MDRs were from spotted dove, pigeon, land monitor, and elephant. Based on CLSI standard criteria, 60 E. coli isolates, of which 40, 16, and 4 from livestock, wild animal, and environment, respectively, were screened for Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers. Despite being a rural ecosystem, AMR and MDR are prevalent even at low levels. E. coli from livestock, wild animals, and the environment reflected a similar spectrum of AMR where ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and cefotaxime being the predominant antimicrobials of resistance. Wild animals may have acquired AMR via direct contact with livestock or via the environment, as antimicrobials are rarely used in wild animals. A source attribution study including the effects of the natural environment to study AMR can be proposed as this less contaminated rural ecosystem alarms the presence of AMR.
Keywords: AMR, Escherichia coli, livestock, wildlifeProcedia PDF Downloads 127
316 Key Determinants of Human-Wolf (Canis lupus) Conflict in Shabestar County's Villages of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran
Authors: Nader Habibzadeh
Abstract:Developing effective and well-targeted conservation strategies is dependent upon fully understanding the complexities of the local situation. We attempted to discern the main likely wolf-human conflict contributing variables in households of Shabestar county’s villages. Data were collected through questions in 53 semi-structured interviews in 36 villages across Shabestar district in summer 2014. The results suggested that people who have reportedly suffered livestock depredation and who have alternative income sources to livestock, are likely to be particularly hostile toward wildlife. With rapid assessment of households using these few key variables we are able to identify likely conflict hotspots and target conflict resolution efforts in those villages. Based on these results, the most important initial strategies for reducing conflict would be reducing the number of livestock killed by wolf, increasing opportunities to generate income only from livestock holdings rather than alternative income sources.
Keywords: human-wildlife conflict, wolf (Canis lupus), Shabestar, IranProcedia PDF Downloads 239
315 Relocation of Livestocks in Rural of Canakkale Province Using Remote Sensing and GIS
Authors: Melis Inalpulat, Levent Genc, Unal Kizil, Tugce Civelek
Abstract:Livestock production is one of the most important components of rural economy. Due to the urban expansion, rural areas close to expanding cities transform into urban districts during the time. However, the legislations have some restrictions related to livestock farming in such administrative units since they tend to create environmental concerns like odor problems resulted from excessive manure production. Therefore, the existing animal operations should be moved from the settlement areas. This paper was focused on determination of suitable lands for livestock production in Canakkale province of Turkey using remote sensing (RS) data and GIS techniques. To achieve the goal, Formosat 2 and Landsat 8 imageries, Aster DEM, and 1:25000 scaled soil maps, village boundaries, and village livestock inventory records were used. The study was conducted using suitability analysis which evaluates the land in terms of limitations and potentials, and suitability range was categorized as Suitable (S) and Non-Suitable (NS). Limitations included the distances from main and crossroads, water resources and settlements, while potentials were appropriate values for slope, land use capability and land use land cover status. Village-based S land distribution results were presented, and compared with livestock inventories. Results showed that approximately 44230 ha area is inappropriate because of the distance limitations for roads and etc. (NS). Moreover, according to LULC map, 71052 ha area consists of forests, olive and other orchards, and thus, may not be suitable for building such structures (NS). In comparison, it was found that there are a total of 1228 ha S lands within study area. The village-based findings indicated that, in some villages livestock production continues on NS areas. Finally, it was suggested that organized livestock zones may be constructed to serve in more than one village after the detailed analysis complemented considering also political decisions, opinion of the local people, etc.
Keywords: GIS, livestock, LULC, remote sensing, suitable landsProcedia PDF Downloads 224
314 Direct and Indirect Impacts of Predator Conflict in Kanha National Park, India
Authors: Diane H. Dotson, Shari L. Rodriguez
Abstract:Habitat for predators is on the decline worldwide, which often brings humans and predators into conflict over remaining shared space and common resources. While the direct impacts of human predator conflict on humans (i.e., attacks on livestock or humans resulting in injury or death) are well documented, the indirect impacts of conflict on humans (i.e., downstream effects such as fear, stress, opportunity costs, PTSD) have not been addressed. We interviewed 437 people living in 54 villages on the periphery of Kanha National Park, India, to assess the amount and severity of direct and indirect impacts of predator conflict. While 58% of livestock owners believed that predator attacks on livestock guards occurred frequently and 62% of those who collect forest products believed that predator attacks on those collecting occurred frequently, less than 20% of all participants knew of someone who had experienced an attack. Data related to indirect impacts suggest that such impacts are common; 76% of participants indicated they were afraid a predator will physically injure them. Livestock owners reported that livestock guarding took time away from their primary job (61%) and getting enough sleep (73%), and believed that it increased their vulnerability to illnesses (80%). These results suggest that the perceptions of risk of predator attack are likely inflated, yet the costs of human predator impacts may be substantially higher than previously estimated, particularly related to human well-being, making the implementation of appropriate and effective conservation and conflict mitigation strategies and policies increasingly urgent.
Keywords: direct impacts, indirect impacts, human-predator conflict, IndiaProcedia PDF Downloads 85
313 Transmission Dynamics of Lumpy Skin Disease in Ethiopia
Authors: Wassie Molla, Klaas Frankena, Mart De Jong
Abstract:Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe viral disease of cattle, which often occurs in epidemic form. It is caused by lumpy skin disease virus of the genus capripoxvirus of family poxviridae. Mathematical models play important role in the study of infectious diseases epidemiology. They help to explain the dynamics and understand the transmission of an infectious disease within a population. Understanding the transmission dynamics of lumpy skin disease between animals is important for the implementation of effective prevention and control measures against the disease. This study was carried out in central and north-western part of Ethiopia with the objectives to understand LSD outbreak dynamics, quantify the transmission between animals and herds, and estimate the disease reproduction ratio in dominantly crop-livestock mixed and commercial herd types. Field observation and follow-up study were undertaken, and the transmission parameters were estimated based on a SIR epidemic model in which individuals are susceptible (S), infected and infectious (I), and recovered and immune or dead (R) using the final size and generalized linear model methods. The result showed that a higher morbidity was recorded in infected crop-livestock (24.1%) mixed production system herds than infected commercial production (17.5%) system herds whereas mortality was higher in intensive (4.0%) than crop-livestock (1.5%) system and the differences were statistically significant. The transmission rate among animals and between herds were 0.75 and 0.68 per week, respectively in dominantly crop-livestock production system. The transmission study undertaken in dominantly crop-livestock production system highlighted the presence of statistically significant seasonal difference in LSD transmission among animals. The reproduction numbers of LSD in dominantly crop-livestock production system were 1.06 among animals and 1.28 between herds whereas it varies from 1.03 to 1.31 among animals in commercial production system. Though the R estimated for LSD in different production systems at different localities is greater than 1, its magnitude is low implying that the disease can be easily controlled by implementing the appropriate control measures.
Keywords: commercial, crop-livestock, Ethiopia, LSD, reproduction number, transmissionProcedia PDF Downloads 225
312 Water Access and Food Security: A Cross-Sectional Study of SSA Countries in 2017
Authors: Davod Ahmadi, Narges Ebadi, Ethan Wang, Hugo Melgar-Quiñonez
Abstract:Compared to the other Least Developed Countries (LDCs), major countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have limited access to the clean water. People in this region, and more specifically females, suffer from acute water scarcity problems. They are compelled to spend too much of their time bringing water for domestic use like drinking and washing. Apart from domestic use, water through affecting agriculture and livestock contributes to the food security status of people in vulnerable regions like SSA. Livestock needs water to grow, and agriculture requires enormous quantities of water for irrigation. The main objective of this study is to explore the association between access to water and individuals’ food security status. Data from 2017 Gallup World Poll (GWP) for SSA were analyzed (n=35,000). The target population in GWP is the entire civilian, non-institutionalized, aged 15 and older population. All samples selection is probability based and nationally representative. The Gallup surveys an average of 1,000 samples of individuals per country. Three questions related to water (i.e., water quality, availability of water for crops and availability of water for livestock) were used as the exposure variables. Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES) was used as the outcome variable. FIES measures individuals’ food security status, and it is composed of eight questions with simple dichotomous responses (1=Yes and 0=No). Different statistical analyses such as descriptive, crosstabs and binary logistic regression, form the basis of this study. Results from descriptive analyses showed that more than 50% of the respondents had no access to enough water for crops and livestock. More than 85% of respondents were categorized as “food insecure”. Findings from cross-tabulation analyses showed that food security status was significantly associated with water quality (0.135; P=0.000), water for crops (0.106; P=0.000) and water for livestock (0.112; P=0.000). In regression analyses, the probability of being food insecure increased among people who expressed no satisfaction with water quality (OR=1.884 (OR=1.768-2.008)), not enough water for crops (OR=1.721 (1.616-1.834)) and not enough water for livestock (OR=1.706 (1.819)). In conclusion, it should note that water access affects food security status in SSA.
Keywords: water access, agriculture, livestock, FIESProcedia PDF Downloads 86
311 Impact of Extension Services Pastoralists’ Vulnerability to Climate Change in Northern Guinea Savannah of Nigeria
Authors: Sidiqat A. Aderinoye-Abdulwahab, Lateef L. Adefalu, Jubril O. Animashaun
Abstract:Pastoralists in Nigeria are situated in dry regions - where water and pasture for livestock are particularly scarce, as well as areas with poor availability of social amenities and infrastructure. This study therefore explored how extension service could be used to reduce the exposure of nomads to effects of seasonality, climate change, and the poor environmental conditions. The study was carried out in Northern guinea Savannah region of Nigeria because pastoralists have settled there in large numbers due to desertification and low rainfall in the arid regions. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to arrive at the selection of two states (Kwara and Nassarawa) in the region. A total of 63 respondents were randomly chosen using simple random sampling. Focus group discussions and questionnaire were used to gather information while the data was analysed using content analysis. The facilities required by the sampled households are milking machine, cheese making machine, and preservatives to increase the shelf life of cheese. Whilst, the extension service required are demonstration on cheese making, training and seminars on animal husbandry. Additionally, livestock of pastoralists often encroach on farmers’ plots which usually result in pastoralist-farmer conflicts. The study thus recommends diversification of economic activity from livestock to non-livestock related activities as well as creation of grazing routes to reduce pastoralist/farmer conflict.
Keywords: arid region, coping strategies, livestock, livelihoodProcedia PDF Downloads 292
310 Progress, Challenges, and Prospects of Non-Conventional Feed Resources for Livestock Production in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review
Authors: Clyde Haruzivi, Olusegun Oyebade Ikusika, Thando Conference Mpendulo
Abstract:Feed scarcity, increasing demand for animal products due to the growing human population, competition for conventional feed resources for humans and animal production, and ever-increasing prices of these feed resources are major constraints to the livestock industry in Sub-Saharan Africa. As a result, the industry is suffering immensely as the cost of production is high, hence the reduced returns. Most affected are the communal and resource-limited farmers who cannot afford the cost of conventional feed resources to supplement feeds, especially in arid and semi-arid areas where the available feed resources are not adequate for maintenance and production. This has tasked researchers and animal scientists to focus on the potential of non-conventional feed resources (NCFRs). Non-conventional feed resources could fill the gap through reduced competition, cost of feed, increased supply, increased profits, and independency as farmers will be utilizing locally available feed resources. Identifying available non-conventional feed resources is vital as it creates possibilities for novel feed industries and markets and implements methods of using these feedstuffs to improve livestock production and livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, this research work analyses the progress, challenges, and prospects of some non-conventional feed resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords: non-conventional, feed resources, livestock production, food security, Sub-SaharanProcedia PDF Downloads 27
309 Fuzzy Logic Based Ventilation for Controlling Harmful Gases in Livestock Houses
Authors: Nuri Caglayan, H. Kursat Celik
Abstract:There are many factors that influence the health and productivity of the animals in livestock production fields, including temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), physical activity and particulate matter. High NH3 concentrations reduce feed consumption and cause daily weight gain. At high concentrations, H2S causes respiratory problems and CO2 displace oxygen, which can cause suffocation or asphyxiation. Good air quality in livestock facilities can have an impact on the health and well-being of animals and humans. Air quality assessment basically depends on strictly given limits without taking into account specific local conditions between harmful gases and other meteorological factors. The stated limitations may be eliminated. using controlling systems based on neural networks and fuzzy logic. This paper describes a fuzzy logic based ventilation algorithm, which can calculate different fan speeds under pre-defined boundary conditions, for removing harmful gases from the production environment. In the paper, a fuzzy logic model has been developed based on a Mamedani’s fuzzy method. The model has been built on MATLAB software. As the result, optimum fan speeds under pre-defined boundary conditions have been presented.
Keywords: air quality, fuzzy logic model, livestock housing, fan speedProcedia PDF Downloads 302
308 Lactobacillus sp. Isolates Slaughterhouse Waste as Probiotics for Broilers
Authors: Nourmalita Safitri Ningsih, Ridwan, Iqri Puspa Yunanda
Abstract:The aim of this study was to utilize the waste from slaughterhouses for chicken feed ingredients is probiotic. Livestock waste produced by livestock activities such as feces, urine, food remains, as well as water from livestock and cage cleaning. The process starts with the isolation of bacteria. Rumen fluid is taken at Slaughterhouse Giwangan, Yogyakarta. Isolation of Lactobacillus ruminus is done by using de Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium. In the sample showed a rod-shaped bacteria are streaked onto an agar plates. After it was incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours, after which it is observed. The observation of these lactic acid bacteria it will show a clear zone at about the colony. These bacterial colonies are white, round, small, shiny on the agar plate mikroenkapsul In the manufacturing process carried out by the method of freeze dried using skim milk in addition capsulated material. Then the results of these capsulated bacteria are mixed with feed for livestock. The results from the mixing of capsulated bacteria in feed are to increase the quality of animal feed so as to provide a good effect on livestock. Scanning electron microscope testing we have done show the results of bacteria have been shrouded in skim milk. It can protect the bacteria so it is more durable in use. The observation of the bacteria showed a sheath on Lactobacillus sp. Preservation of bacteria in this way makes the bacteria more durable for use. As well as skim milk can protect bacteria that are resistant to the outside environment. Results of probiotics in chicken feed showed significant weight gain in chickens. Calculation Anova (P <0.005) shows the average chicken given probiotics her weight increased.
Keywords: chicken, probiotics, waste, Lactobacillus sp, bacteriaProcedia PDF Downloads 251
307 Livestock Depredation by Large Predators: Patterns, Perceptions and Implications for Conservation and Livelihoods in Karakoram Mountain Ranges
Authors: Muhammad Zafar Khan, Babar Khan, Muhammad Saeed Awan, Farida Begum
Abstract:Livestock depredation has greater significance in pastoral societies like Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindu Kush mountain ranges. The dynamics of depredation by large predators (snow leopard and wolf) and its implications for conservation and livelihoods of local people was investigated by household surveys in Hushey valley of Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We found that, during five years (2008-12) 90% of the households in the valley had lost their livestock to snow leopard and wolf, accounting for 4.3% of the total livestock holding per year. On average each household had to bear a loss of 0.8 livestock head per year, equivalent to Pak Rupees 9,853 (US$ 101), or 10% of the average annual cash income. Majority of the predation incidences occurred during late summer in alpine pastures, mostly at night when animals were not penned properly. The prey animals in most of the cases were females or young ones. Of the total predation incidences, 60% were attributed to snow leopard, 37% to wolf, while in 3% the predator was unknown. The fear of snow leopard is greater than that of wolf. As immediate response on predation, majority of the local people (64%, n=99) preferred to report the case to their village conservation committee, 32% had no response while only 1% tended to kill the predator. The perceived causes of predation were: poor guarding practices (77%); reduction in wild prey (13%) and livestock being the favourite food of predators (10%). The most preferred strategies for predator management, according to the respondents were improved and enhanced guarding of livestock (72%), followed by increasing wild prey (18%) and lethal control (10%). To strike a balance between predator populations and pastoral livelihoods, better animal husbandry practices should be promoted including: improved guarding through collective hiring of skilled shepherds; corral improvement and use of guard dogs.
Keywords: Panthera unica, Canis lupus, Karakoram, human-carnivore conflict, predationProcedia PDF Downloads 194
306 Snow Leopard Conservation in Nepal: Peoples` Perception on the Verge of Rural Livelihood
Authors: Bishnu Prasad Devkota
Abstract:Peoples` perception is reflected in their attitudes and presumably their behavior towards wildlife conservation. The success of wildlife conservation initiatives in the mountains of Nepal is heavily dependent on local people. Therefore, Nepal has emphasized the involvement of local people in wildlife conservation, especially in the mountainous region. Local peoples` perception towards snow leopard conservation in six mountainous protected area of Nepal was carried out conducting 300 household surveys and 90 face to face key informant interviews. The average livestock holding was 27.74 animals per household with depredation rate of 10.6 % per household per annum. Livestock was the source of 32.74% of the total mean annual income of each household. In average, the economic loss per household per annum due to livestock depredation was US $ 490. There was significant difference in people´s perception towards snow leopard conservation in protected areas of mountainous region of Nepal. These differences were due to economic, educational and cultural factors. 54.4% local people showed preference for snow leopard conservation. The perception of local people toward snow leopard was significantly difference by the economic status of local people. Involvement of local people in conservation activities had positive impact towards wildlife conservation in the mountain region of Nepal. Timely introducing incentive programs can be a supportive way for sustaining the conservation of snow leopards in the Nepalese Himalayas.
Keywords: economic loss, livestock depredation, local people, perception, snow leopardProcedia PDF Downloads 178
305 Integrated Livestock and Cropping System and Sustainable Rural Development in India: A Case Study
Authors: Nizamuddin Khan
Abstract:Integrated livestock and cropping system is very old agricultural practice since antiquity. It is an eco-friendly and sustainable farming system in which both the resources are optimally and rationally utilized through the recycling and re-utilization of their by-products. Indian farmers follow in- farm integrated farming system unlike in developed countries where both farm and off-farm system prevailed. The data on different components of the integrated farming system is very limited and that too is not widely available in published form. The primary source is the only option for understanding the mechanism, process, evaluation and performance of integrated livestock cropping system. Researcher generated data through the field survey of sampled respondents from sampled villages from Bulandshahr district of Uttar Pradesh. The present paper aims to understand the component group of system, degree, and level of integration, level of generation of employment, income, improvement in farm ecology, the economic viability of farmers and check in rural-urban migration. The study revealed that area witnessed intra farm integration in which both livestock and cultivation of crops take place on the same farm. Buffalo, goat, and poultry are common components of integration. Wheat, paddy, sugarcane and horticulture are among the crops. The farmers are getting 25% benefit more than those who do not follow the integrated system. Livestock husbandry provides employment and income through the year, especially during agriculture offseason. 80% of farmers viewed that approximately 35% of the total expenditure incurred is met from the livestock sector. Landless, marginal and small farmers are highly benefited from agricultural integration. About 70% of farmers acknowledged that using wastes of animals and crops the soil ecology is significantly maintained. Further, the integrated farming system is helpful in reducing rural to urban migration. An incentive with credit facilities, assured marketing, technological aid and government support is urgently needed for sustainable development of agriculture and farmers.
Keywords: integrated, recycle, employment, soil ecology, sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 102
304 Exploring the Non-Verbalizable in Conservation Grazing: The Contradictions Illuminated by a ‘Go-Along’ Methodology
Authors: James Ormrod
Abstract:This paper is concerned with volunteer livestock checking. Based on a pilot study consisting of ‘go-along’ interviews with livestock checkers, it argues that there are limitations to the insights that can be generated from approaches to ‘discourse analysis’ that would focus only on the verbalizable aspects of the practice. Volunteer livestock checking takes place across Europe as part of conservation projects aimed at maintaining particular habitats through the reintroduction of grazing animals. Volunteers are variously called ‘urban shepherds’, because these practices often take place on urban fringes, or ‘lookerers’, as their role is to make visual checks on the animals. Pilot research that took place on the South Downs (a chalk downland habitat on the South Coast of the UK) involved researchers accompanying volunteers as they checked on livestock. They were asked to give an account of what they were doing and then answer semi-structured interview questions. Participants drew on popular discourses on conservation and biodiversity, as framed by the local council who run the programme. They also framed their relationships to the animals in respect to the more formal limitations of their role as identified through the conservation programme. And yet these discourses, significant as they are, do not adequately explain why volunteers are drawn to, and emotionally invested in, lookering. The methodology employed allowed participants instead to gesture to features of the landscape and to recall memories, and for the researchers to see how volunteers interacted with the animals and the landscape in embodied and emotionally loaded ways. The paper argues that a psychosocial perspective that pays attention to the contradictions and tensions made visible through this methodology helps develop a fuller understanding of volunteer livestock checking as a social practice.
Keywords: conservation, human-animal relations, lookering, volunteeringProcedia PDF Downloads 73
303 Distribution and Comparative Diversity of Nematocera within Four Livestock Types in the Plain of Mitidja Algeria
Authors: Nebri Rachid, Berrouane Fatima, Doumandji Salah Eddine
Abstract:During six months, from November 2013 to May 2014, census of Nematocera insects was conducted on four livestock: cattle, sheep, equine and cameline. The census, that took place in a station located in Mitidja plain, Algeria, revealed thirteen Nematocera species that had been observed and identified: Scatopse notata, Chironomus Sp., Sciara bicolor, Psychoda phalaenoïdes, Culex pipiens, Orthocladius Sp., Psycoda alternata, Trichocera regelationis, Culicoïdes Sp., Contarinia Sp., Ectaetia Sp., Tipula Sp., and Culicoïdes coprosus. A factorial correspondence analysis has been performed to study the distribution of the different species captured in colored traps that were placed in the four farms. The results showed the presence of three collections of Nematocera relating to the breeding type where the highest availability is in favor of the equine and the cattle. The analysis of the comparative diversity of Nematocera specimens revealed an indifferent taxonomic structure compared with the hosts. However, in terms of individuals, the supremacy is to the equine’s advantage. On the ecological arrival scale, Psycoda alternata, is undeniably the most predominant on the equines as well as on the cattle.
Keywords: Algeria, availability, biodiversity, census, livestock, nematoceraProcedia PDF Downloads 391
302 Impact of Drought in Farm Level Income in the United States
Authors: Anil Giri, Kyle Lovercamp, Sankalp Sharma
Abstract:Farm level incomes fluctuate significantly due to extreme weather events such as drought. In the light of recent extreme weather events it is important to understand the implications of extreme weather events, flood and drought, on farm level incomes. This study examines the variation in farm level incomes for the United States in drought and no- drought years. Factoring heterogeneity in different enterprises (crop, livestock) and geography this paper analyzes the impact of drought in farm level incomes at state and national level. Livestock industry seems to be affected more by the lag in production of input feed for production, crops, as preliminary results show. Furthermore, preliminary results also show that while crop producers are not affected much due to drought, as price and quantity effect worked on opposite direction with same magnitude, that was not the case for livestock and horticulture enterprises. Results also showed that even when price effect was not as high the crop insurance component helped absorb much of shock for crop producers. Finally, the effect was heterogeneous for different states more on the coastal states compared Midwest region. This study should generate a lot of interest from policy makers across the world as some countries are actively seeking to increase subsidies in their agriculture sector. This study shows how subsidies absorb the shocks for one enterprise more than others. Finally, this paper should also be able to give an insight to economists to design/recommend policies such that it is optimal given the production level of different enterprises in different countries.
Keywords: farm level income, United States, crop, livestockProcedia PDF Downloads 219
301 Anthelminthic Effect of Clitoria Ternatea on Paramphistomum Cervi in Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) of Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
Authors: Bhanupriya Sanger, Kiran Roat, Gayatri Swarnakar
Abstract:Helminths including Paramphistomum Cervi (P. cervi) are a major cause of reduced production in livestock or domestic ruminant. Rajasthan is the largest state of India having a maximum number of livestock. The economy of rural people largely depends on livestock such as cow, buffalo, goat and sheep. The prevalence of P. cervi helminth parasite is extremely high in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) of Udaipur, which causes the disease paramphistomiasis. This disease mainly affects milk, meat, wool production and loss of life of buffalo. Chemotherapy is the only efficient and effective tool to cure and control the helminth P. cervi infection, as efficacious vaccines against helminth have not been developed so far. Various veterinary drugs like Albendazole have been used as the standard drug for eliminating P. cervi from buffalo, but these drugs are unaffordable and inaccessible for poor livestock farmers. The fruits, leaves and seeds of Clitoria ternatea Linn. are known for their ethno-medicinal value and commonly known as “Aprajita” in India. Seed extract of Clitoria ternatea found to have a significant anthelmintic action against Paramphistomum cervi at the dose of 35 mg/ml. The tegument of treated P. cervi was compared with controlled parasites by light microscopy. Treated P. cervi showed extensive distortion and destruction of the tegument including ruptured parenchymal cells, disruption of musculature cells, swelling and vacuolization in tegumental and sub tegumental cells. As a result, it can be concluded that the seeds of Clitoria ternatea can be used as the anthelmintic agent. Key words: Paramphistomiasis, Buffalo, Alcoholic extract, Paramphistomum cervi, Clitoria ternatea.
Keywords: buffalo, Clitoria ternatea, Paramphistomiasis, Paramphistomum cerviProcedia PDF Downloads 166
300 Meat Potential Indicators of Red Sokoto, Sahel and West African Dwarf Goat Based on Morphometrical Measurements
Authors: Ozioma Beauty Nwaodu, Adebowale E Salako, Omolara Mabel Akinyemi, Nkechi Uche, Isuama Isu, Uchechi Jane Elechi
Abstract:Goats form an integral part of livestock production in the tropics. Meat potential is determined subjectively by resource poor livestock keepers, using hand to measure the rump width (RW). Objective evaluation of meat potential in different breads of goats can overcome problems associated with subjective evaluation. Hence, the objectives were to predict meatiness in Red Sokoto (RS), Sahel and the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats, using product of the body length (BL), wither height (WH) and (RW) and to indicate the inherent size of each breed, using WH: BL ratio. These three parameters were used because they are less environmentally sensitive. A total of 2849 goats were sampled purposefully from the Akinyele and Oranyan markets in Ibadan, Oyo State Nigeria. RS showed no significant difference for BL and WH but different from the RW of both sexes (p < 0.01). Similarly WAD showed no significant difference for the BL and WH, but differed (p < 0.01) between sexes for RW. Using the ANOVA, BL:WH ratio showed no significant difference between the breeds. WAD goats have the highest mean for BL:WH ratio. Western meat livestock is primarily identified using BL:WH. The combinations of these body parameters as indicator for meat type in meat animals showed that WAD goat has more potential to lay down meat, than RS and Sahel.
Keywords: quantitative, morphologial traits, descriptive analysis, goatsProcedia PDF Downloads 115