Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Joel Bonales

50 Life Cycle Assessment of Biogas Energy Production from a Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant in Central Mexico

Authors: Joel Bonales, Venecia Solorzano, Carlos Garcia

Abstract:

A great percentage of the wastewater generated in developing countries don’t receive any treatment, which leads to numerous environmental impacts. In response to this, a paradigm change in the current wastewater treatment model based on large scale plants towards a small and medium scale based model has been proposed. Nevertheless, small scale wastewater treatment (SS-WTTP) with novel technologies such as anaerobic digesters, as well as the utilization of derivative co-products such as biogas, still presents diverse environmental impacts which must be assessed. This study consisted in a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed to a SS-WWTP which treats wastewater from a small commercial block in the city of Morelia, Mexico. The treatment performed in the SS-WWTP consists in anaerobic and aerobic digesters with a daily capacity of 5,040 L. Two different scenarios were analyzed: the current plant conditions and a hypothetical energy use of biogas obtained in situ. Furthermore, two different allocation criteria were applied: full impact allocation to the system’s main product (treated water) and substitution credits for replacing Mexican grid electricity (biogas) and clean water pumping (treated water). The results showed that the analyzed plant had bigger impacts than what has been reported in the bibliography in the basis of wastewater volume treated, which may imply that this plant is currently operating inefficiently. The evaluated impacts appeared to be focused in the aerobic digestion and electric generation phases due to the plant’s particular configuration. Additional findings prove that the allocation criteria applied is crucial for the interpretation of impacts and that that the energy use of the biogas obtained in this plant can help mitigate associated climate change impacts. It is concluded that SS-WTTP is a environmentally sound alternative for wastewater treatment from a systemic perspective. However, this type of studies must be careful in the selection of the allocation criteria and replaced products, since these factors have a great influence in the results of the assessment.

Keywords: biogas, life cycle assessment, small scale treatment, wastewater treatment

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49 Realization and Characterization of TiN Coating and Metal Working Application

Authors: Nadjette Belhamra, Abdelouahed Chala, Ibrahim Guasmi

Abstract:

Titanium nitride coatings have been extensively used in industry, such as in cutting tools. TiN coating were deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on carbide insert at a temperature between 850°C and 1100°C, which often exceeds the hardening treatment temperature of the metals. The objective of this work is to realize, to characterize of TiN coating and to apply it in the turning of steel 42CrMo4 under lubrification. Various experimental techniques were employed for the microstructural characterization of the coatings, e. g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) model JOEL JSM-5900 LV, equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results show that TiN-coated demonstrate a good wear resistance.

Keywords: hard coating TiN, carbide inserts, machining, turning, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
48 Experimental and Analytical Design of Rigid Pavement Using Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: J. Joel Bright, P. Peer Mohamed, M. Aswin SAangameshwaran

Abstract:

The increasing usage of concrete produces 80% of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Hence, this results in various environmental effects like global warming. The amount of the carbon dioxide released during the manufacture of OPC due to the calcination of limestone and combustion of fossil fuel is in the order of one ton for every ton of OPC produced. Hence, to minimize this Geo Polymer Concrete was introduced. Geo polymer concrete is produced with 0% cement, and hence, it is eco-friendly and it also uses waste product from various industries like thermal power plant, steel manufacturing plant, and paper waste materials. This research is mainly about using Geo polymer concrete for pavement which gives very high strength than conventional concrete and at the same time gives way for sustainable development.

Keywords: activator solution, GGBS, fly ash, metakaolin

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
47 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere

Abstract:

A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
46 Design of a Pulse Generator Based on a Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) for Ultrasonic Applications

Authors: Pedro Acevedo, Carlos Díaz, Mónica Vázquez, Joel Durán

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a pulse generator based on the Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) module. In this module, using programmable logic is possible to implement different pulses which are required for ultrasonic applications, either in a single channel or multiple channels. This module can operate with programmable frequencies from 3-74 MHz; its programming may be versatile covering a wide range of ultrasonic applications. It is ideal for low-power ultrasonic applications where PZT or PVDF transducers are used.

Keywords: PSoC, pulse generator, PVDF, ultrasonic transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
45 What Nigeria Education Needs

Authors: Babatunde Joel Todowede

Abstract:

The challenges of nation building and sustainable development have continued to feature prominently in the general reckoning of problems of underdevelopment in the developing countries of the world. Thus, since the attainment of political independence from the British colonial administration in 1960, one of the critical thrusts of central governance in Nigeria has been the particular policy attention of the educational sector. Of course, education is perceived as the logical bridge between the two contrasting worlds of underdevelopment and development, hence, its fundamental importance. The various public policies and practices associated with the Nigerian educational sector are specifically elaborated and critically assessed in this paper. In the final analysis, it is concluded that the educational sector should be better configured and managed in ways that the wider challenges of nation-building and sustainable development are effectively tractable.

Keywords: Nigeria education, educational need, educational plans and policies, educational challenges, corrective measures, emerging economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
44 The Effects of Current and Future Priming on Pro-Environmental Attitudes

Authors: Calvin Rong, Regina Agassian, Joel Hernandez, Mindy Engle-Friedman

Abstract:

This study assessed strategies to stimulate engagement with future environmental needs. 32 participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions which involved imagining and drawing: 1) a generic person in current life, 2) one’s self in current life or 3) one’s self in the future. Participants before and after the intervention indicated connectedness to their selves 50 years in the future on an adapted Future Self-Continuity Scale. A significant interaction (p = .03) showed no difference in connectedness into one’s future self in the control group, a decrease in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the present and an increase in connectedness in those who imagined themselves in the future. Results suggest attention to one’s present life circumstances may interfere with one’s connection with future environmental issues but imagining one’s future life may stimulate actions that result in future environmental protection.

Keywords: environmental psychology, future priming, climate change, global warming

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
43 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

Authors: Abigail Mosetsanagape Mooketsi, Itumeleng Pleasure Mongale, Joel Hinaunye Eita

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa.

Keywords: transport, infrastructure, economic growth, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
42 Correlation between Early Government Interventions in the Northeastern United States and COVID-19 Outcomes

Authors: Joel Mintz, Kyle Huntley, Waseem Wahood, Samuel Raine, Farzanna Haffizulla

Abstract:

The effect of different state government interventions on COVID-19 health outcomes is currently unknown. Stay at home (SAH) orders, all non-essential business closures and school closures in the Northeastern US were examined. A linear correlation between the peak number of new daily COVID-19 positive tests, hospitalizations and deaths per capita and the elapsed time between government issued guidance and a fixed number of COVID-19 deaths in each state was performed. Earlier government interventions were correlated with lower peak healthcare burden. Statewide closures of schools and non-essential businesses showed significantly greater (p<.001) correlation to peak COVID-19 disease burden as compared to a statewide SAH. The implications of these findings require further study to determine the effectiveness of these interventions.

Keywords: Coronavirus, epidemiology, government intervention, public health, social distancing

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41 Optimal Tracking Control of a Hydroelectric Power Plant Incorporating Neural Forecasting for Uncertain Input Disturbances

Authors: Marlene Perez Villalpando, Kelly Joel Gurubel Tun

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimal control strategy for a hydroelectric power plant subject to input disturbances like meteorological phenomena. The engineering characteristics of the system are described by a nonlinear model. The random availability of renewable sources is predicted by a high-order neural network trained with an extended Kalman filter, whereas the power generation is regulated by the optimal control law. The main advantage of the system is the stabilization of the amount of power generated in the plant. A control supervisor maintains stability and availability in hydropower reservoirs water levels for power generation. The proposed approach demonstrated a good performance to stabilize the reservoir level and the power generation along their desired trajectories in the presence of disturbances.

Keywords: hydropower, high order neural network, Kalman filter, optimal control

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40 Criteria Analysis of Residential Location Preferences: An Urban Dwellers’ Perspective

Authors: Arati Siddharth Petkar, Joel E. M. Macwan

Abstract:

Preferences for residential location are of a diverse nature. Primarily they are based on the socio-economic, socio-cultural, socio-demographic characteristics of the household. It also depends on character, and the growth potential of different areas in a city. In the present study, various criteria affecting residential location preferences from the Urban Dwellers’ perspective have been analyzed. The household survey has been conducted in two parts: Existing Buyers’ survey and Future Buyers’ survey. The analysis reveals that workplace location is the most governing criterion in deciding residential location from the majority of the urban dwellers perspective. For analyzing the importance of varied criteria, Analytical Hierarchy Process approach has been explored. The suggested approach will be helpful for urban planners, decision makers and developers, while designating a new residential area or redeveloping an existing one.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process (AHP), household, preferences, residential location preferences, residential land use, urban dwellers

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
39 Permissible Horizontal Displacements during the Construction of Vertical Shafts in Soft Soils at the Valley of Mexico: Case History

Authors: Joel M. De La Rosa R.

Abstract:

In this paper, the results obtained when monitoring the horizontal deformations of the soil mass are detailed, during each of the construction stages of several vertical shafts located in the soft soils of the Valley of Mexico, by means of the flotation method. From the analysis of these results, the magnitude and percentage relationship with respect to the diameter and depth of excavation of the horizontal deformations that occurred during the monitoring period is established. Based on the horizontal deformation monitoring system and the information provided by the supervisor's site log, the construction stages that have the greatest impact on deformations are established. Additionally, an analysis of the deformations is carried out, which takes into account the resistance and deformability characteristics of the excavated soils, as well as the prevailing hydraulic conditions. This work will allow construction engineers and institutions in charge of infrastructure works in the Valley of Mexico to establish permissible ranges for horizontal deformations that can occur in very soft and saturated soils, during the different construction stages; improving response protocols to potentially dangerous behaviors.

Keywords: vertical shaft, flotation method, very soft clays, construction supervision

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
38 Diffraction-Based Immunosensor for Dengue NS1 Virus

Authors: Harriet Jane R. Caleja, Joel I. Ballesteros, Florian R. Del Mundo

Abstract:

The dengue fever belongs to the world’s major cause of death, especially in the tropical areas. In the Philippines, the number of dengue cases during the first half of 2015 amounted to more than 50,000. In 2012, the total number of cases of dengue infection reached 132,046 of which 701 patients died. Dengue Nonstructural 1 virus (Dengue NS1 virus) is a recently discovered biomarker for the early detection of dengue virus. It is present in the serum of the dengue virus infected patients even during the earliest stages prior to the formation of dengue virus antibodies. A biosensor for the dengue detection using NS1 virus was developed for faster and accurate diagnostic tool. Biotinylated anti-dengue virus NS1 was used as the receptor for dengue virus NS1. Using the Diffractive Optics Technology (dotTM) technique, real time binding of the NS1 virus to the biotinylated anti-NS1 antibody is observed. The dot®-Avidin sensor recognizes the biotinylated anti-NS1 and this served as the capture molecule to the analyte, NS1 virus. The increase in the signal of the diffractive intensity signifies the binding of the capture and the analyte. The LOD was found to be 3.87 ng/mL while the LOQ is 12.9 ng/mL. The developed biosensor was also found to be specific for the NS1 virus.

Keywords: avidin-biotin, diffractive optics technology, immunosensor, NS1

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37 Presenting Internals of Networks Using Bare Machine Technology

Authors: Joel Weymouth, Ramesh K. Karne, Alexander L. Wijesinha

Abstract:

Bare Machine Internet is part of the Bare Machine Computing (BMC) paradigm. It is used in programming application ns to run directly on a device. It is software that runs directly against the hardware using CPU, Memory, and I/O. The software application runs without an Operating System and resident mass storage. An important part of the BMC paradigm is the Bare Machine Internet. It utilizes an Application Development model software that interfaces directly with the hardware on a network server and file server. Because it is “bare,” it is a powerful teaching and research tool that can readily display the internals of the network protocols, software, and hardware of the applications running on the Bare Server. It was also demonstrated that the bare server was accessible by laptop and by smartphone/android. The purpose was to show the further practicality of Bare Internet in Computer Engineering and Computer Science Education and Research. It was also to show that an undergraduate student could take advantage of a bare server with any device and any browser at any release version connected to the internet. This paper presents the Bare Web Server as an educational tool. We will discuss possible applications of this paradigm.

Keywords: bare machine computing, online research, network technology, visualizing network internals

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36 An Improved Image Steganography Technique Based on Least Significant Bit Insertion

Authors: Olaiya Folorunsho, Comfort Y. Daramola, Joel N. Ugwu, Lawrence B. Adewole, Olufisayo S. Ekundayo

Abstract:

In today world, there is a tremendous rise in the usage of internet due to the fact that almost all the communication and information sharing is done over the web. Conversely, there is a continuous growth of unauthorized access to confidential data. This has posed a challenge to information security expertise whose major goal is to curtail the menace. One of the approaches to secure the safety delivery of data/information to the rightful destination without any modification is steganography. Steganography is the art of hiding information inside an embedded information. This research paper aimed at designing a secured algorithm with the use of image steganographic technique that makes use of Least Significant Bit (LSB) algorithm for embedding the data into the bit map image (bmp) in order to enhance security and reliability. In the LSB approach, the basic idea is to replace the LSB of the pixels of the cover image with the Bits of the messages to be hidden without destroying the property of the cover image significantly. The system was implemented using C# programming language of Microsoft.NET framework. The performance evaluation of the proposed system was experimented by conducting a benchmarking test for analyzing the parameters like Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The result showed that image steganography performed considerably in securing data hiding and information transmission over the networks.

Keywords: steganography, image steganography, least significant bits, bit map image

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
35 Strength Properties of Concrete Paving Blocks with Fly Ash and Glass Powder

Authors: Joel Santhosh, N. Bhavani Shankar Rao

Abstract:

Problems associated with construction site have been known for many years. Construction industry has to support a world of continuing population growth and economic development. The rising costs of construction materials and the need to adhere to sustainability, alternative construction techniques and materials are being sought. To increase the applications of concrete paving blocks, greater understanding of products produced with locally available materials and indigenously produced mineral admixtures is essential. In the present investigation, concrete paving blocks may be produced with locally available aggregates, cement, fly ash and waste glass powder as the mineral admixture. The ultimate aim of this work is to ascertain the performance of concrete paving blocks containing fly ash and glass powder and compare it with the performance of conventional concrete paving blocks. Mix design is carried out to form M40 grade of concrete by using IS: 10262: 2009 and specification given by IRC: SP: 63: 2004. The paving blocks are tested in accordance to IS: 15658: 2006. It showed that the partial replacement of cement by fly ash and waste glass powder satisfies the minimum requirement as specified by the Indian standard IS: 15658: 2006 for concrete paving blocks to be used in non traffic, light traffic and medium-heavy traffic areas. The study indicated that fly ash and waste glass powder can effectively be used as cement replacement without substantial change in strength.

Keywords: paving block, fly ash, glass powder, strength, abrasion resistance, durability

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
34 Using SMS Mobile Technology to Assess the Mastery of Subject Content Knowledge of Science and Mathematics Teachers of Secondary Schools in Tanzania

Authors: Joel S. Mtebe, Aron Kondoro, Mussa M. Kissaka, Elia Kibga

Abstract:

Sub-Saharan Africa is described as the second fastest growing mobile phone penetration in the world more than in the United States or the European Union. Mobile phones have been used to provide a lot of opportunities to improve people’s lives in the region such as in banking, marketing, entertainment, and paying various bills such as water, TV, and electricity. However, the potential of using mobile phones to enhance teaching and learning has not been explored. This study presents an experience of developing and delivering SMS quizzes questions that were used to assess mastery of the subject content knowledge of science and mathematics secondary school teachers in Tanzania. The SMS quizzes were used as a follow up support mechanism to 500 teachers who participated in a project to upgrade subject content knowledge of science and mathematics subjects. Quizzes of 10-15 questions were sent to teachers each week for 8 weeks and the results were analyzed using SPSS. The results showed that chemistry and biology had better performance compared to mathematics and physics. Teachers reported some challenges that led to poor performance, invalid answers, and non-responses and they are presented. This research has several practical implications for those who are implementing or planning to use mobile phones for teaching and learning especially in rural secondary schools in sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: mobile learning, elearning, educational technolgies, SMS, secondary education, assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
33 Suicide Intervention Experiences and Practices of School Counselors: Basis for Development of Practice Guidelines

Authors: Joel C. Navarez

Abstract:

The current study investigated the Filipino school counselor’s knowledge, attitudes, and competencies in suicide intervention as well as their experiences and practices in suicide intervention. The study also aimed to develop and standardize suicide intervention guidelines. The study has two (2) phases. Phase 1 utilized the descriptive and generic qualitative inquiry methods of research. Purposive and convenience sampling was applied, and participants were college counselors from the National Capital Region (NCR), Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Results revealed that counselors do not have high level of knowledge on suicidal behaviors, have some negative attitudes toward suicidal behavior, and need to acquire better intervention skills. The findings also showed that the trainings received by counselors are not enough to advance their suicide intervention skills, which would help enhance positive attitudes towards suicide risk assessment and management. Some common experiences of the counselors in suicide intervention were focused on the areas of accountability, stigmatizing attitudes of parents, and confidentiality issues. Phase 2 of the study was the development of suicide intervention practice guidelines using the Delphi process. The tentative guideline was based on the content analysis of interventions taken from literature and from the actual intervention practices of counselors, as seen from the findings of the qualitative study of Phase 1. After three (3) Delphi rounds and the consensus from sixteen (16) mental health experts, 145 recommended actions can be implemented by school counselors in suicide.

Keywords: counselor competencies, counselor development, suicide, suicide intervention

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32 Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Process and Its Influence on the Machinability of TA6V Alloy

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud

Abstract:

Titanium alloys are among the most important material in the aircraft industry, due to its low density, high strength, and corrosion resistance. However, these alloys are considered as difficult to machine because they have poor thermal properties and high reactivity with cutting tools. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process becomes even more popular through industry since it enables the design of new complex components, that cannot be manufactured by standard processes. However, the high temperature reached during the melting phase as well as the several rapid heating and cooling phases, due to the movement of the laser, induce complex microstructures. These microstructures differ from conventional equiaxed ones obtained by casting+forging. Parts obtained by SLM have to be machined in order calibrate the dimensions and the surface roughness of functional surfaces. The ball milling technique is widely applied to finish complex shapes. However, the machinability of titanium is strongly influenced by the microstructure. So the objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the SLM process, i.e. microstructure, on the machinability of titanium, compared to conventional forming processes. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, cutting forces, cutting tool wear for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut ap, feed per tooth fz, spindle speed N) in accordance with industrial practices.

Keywords: ball milling, microstructure, surface roughness, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
31 Influence of Information Technology on Financial Management Practices in Secondary School: For National Transormation in Zone C Senatorional District of Benue State

Authors: Eru Ihie Joel

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This study was carried out to investigate the influence of information technology on financial management practice in secondary schools for transformation. In Zone C Senatorial District of Benue state. The study answered four research questions and tested four hypotheses. Related literature was reviewed to show the gap to be filled in the study. The population was 196 respondents made up of principals and finance clerks of secondary schools. The descriptive survey was adopted for the study. A structured 20 item questionnaire (IITFMPSQ) was constructed and used to collect date for the study. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistic. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research question while the chi- square (x2) test of goodness of fit was used to test the hypothesis. The major findings revealed that the use of computer system significantly influences budgeting in secondary schools in zone senatorial district of Benue State for transformation. It was also established that the use of internet facilities influences the funding of secondary schools for transformation in the zone. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among other things that administrators and teachers in schools should be trained to make effective use of the computer in budgeting so as to facilitate delegations, control, evaluation, accountability for transformation. It was further suggested that the study be replicated on the effective use of information communication teaching (ITC) in teaching and learning in secondary school for transformation.

Keywords: influence, finance, management, technology

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30 Sustainable Project Management Necessarily Implemented in the Chinese Wine Market Due to Climate Variation

Authors: Ruixin Zhang, Joel Carboni, Songchenchen Gong

Abstract:

Since the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) officially became the 17 development goals set by the United Nations in 2015, it has become an inevitable trend in project management development globally. Since Sustainability and glob-alization are the main focus and trends in the 21st century, project management contains system-based optimization, and or-ganizational humanities, environmental protection, and economic development. As a populous country globally, with the advanced development of economy and technology, China becomes one of the biggest markets in the wine industry. However, the develop-ment of society also brings specific environmental issues. Climate changes have already brought severe impacts on the Chinese wine market, including consumer behavior, wine production activities, and organizational humanities. Therefore, the implementation of sustainable project management in Chinese wine market is essential. Surveys based analysis is the primary method to interpret how the climate variation effect the Chinese wine market and the importance of sustainable project management implementation for green market growth in China. This paper proposes the CWW Conceptual model that can be used in the wine industry, the new 7 Drivers Model, and SPM Framework to interpret the main drivers that impact project management implementation in the wine industry and to offer the directions to wine companies in China which would help them to achieve the green growth.

Keywords: project management, sustainability, green growth, climate changes, Chinese wine market

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29 Social Responsibility in Reducing Gap between High School and 1st Year University Maths: SMU Case, South Africa

Authors: Solly M. Seeletse, Joel L. Thabane

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Students enrolling at the Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University (SMU) come mostly from the previously disadvantaged communities of South Africa. Their backgrounds are deprived in resources and modern technologies of education. Most of those admitted in the basic sciences were rejected in medicine and health related study programmes in SMU. Mathematics (maths) is the main subject for admission into SMU study programmes. However, maths results are usually low. In an attempt to help to prepare the students in the neighbourhood schools of SMU, some Maths educators partnered with local schools to communicate the needs and investigate the causes of poor maths results. They embarked on an action research to determine the level of educators’ maths education. The general aim of the research was to investigate the causes of deficiencies in maths teaching and results in the local secondary schools, focusing on teachers and learners. Asking the teachers about their education and learners about maths concepts of most difficulty, these were identified. The researchers assisted in teaching the difficult concepts. The study highlighted the most difficult concepts and the teachers’ lack of training in some content. Intervention of the researchers showed to be effective only for the very poor performing schools. Those with descent pass rates of over 50% did not benefit from it. This was the sign of lack of optimality in the methods used. The research recommendations suggested that intervention methods should be improved to be effective in all schools, and extension of the endeavours to more schools.

Keywords: action research, intervention, social responsibility, support

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
28 Compositional Dependence of Hydroxylated Indium-Oxide on the Reaction Rate of CO2/H2 Reduction

Authors: Joel Y. Y. Loh, Geoffrey A. Ozin, Charles A. Mims, Nazir P. Kherani

Abstract:

A major goal in the emerging field of solar fuels is to realize an ‘artificial leaf’ – a material that converts light energy in the form of solar photons into chemical energy – using CO2 as a feedstock to generate useful chemical species. Enabling this technology will allow the greenhouse gas, CO2, emitted from energy and manufacturing production exhaust streams to be converted into valuable solar fuels or chemical products. Indium Oxide (In2O3) with surface hydroxyl (OH) groups have been shown to reduce CO2 in the presence of H2 to CO with a reaction rate of 15 μmol gcat−1 h−1. The likely mechanism is via a Frustrated Lewis Pair sites heterolytically splitting H2 to be absorbed and form protonic and hydric sites that can dissociate CO2. In this study, we investigate the dependence of oxygen composition of In2O3 on the CO2 reduction rate. In2O3-x films on quartz fiber paper were DC sputtered with an Indium target and varying O2/Ar plasma mixture. OH surface groups were then introduced by immersing the In2O3-x samples in KOH. We show that hydroxylated In2O3-x reduces more CO2 than non-hydroxylated groups and that a hydroxylated and higher O2/Ar ratio sputtered In2O3-x has a higher reaction rate of 45 μmol gcat-1 h-1. We show by electrical resistivity-temperature curves that H2 is adsorbed onto the surface of In2O3 whereas CO2 itself does not affect the indium oxide surface. We also present activation and ionization energy levels of the hydroxylated In2O3-x under vacuum, CO2 and H2 atmosphere conditions.

Keywords: solar fuels, photocatalysis, indium oxide nanoparticles, carbon dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
27 Analysis of Rainfall and Malaria Trends in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abiodun M. Adeola, Hannes Rautenbach, Gbenga J. Abiodun, Thabo E. Makgoale, Joel O. Botai, Omolola M. Adisa, Christina M. Botai

Abstract:

There was a surge in malaria morbidity as well as mortality in 2016/2017 malaria season in malaria-endemic regions of South Africa. Rainfall is a major climatic driver of malaria transmission and has potential use for predicting malaria. Annual and seasonal trends and cross-correlation analyses were performed on time series of monthly total rainfall (derived from interpolated weather station data) and monthly malaria cases in five districts of Limpopo Province for the period of 1998 to 2017. The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5mm of rainfall was received over the period of study. The rainfall has an annual variation of about 0.46%. Rainfall amount varies among the five districts, with the north-eastern part receiving more rainfall. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that total monthly rainfall with one to two months lagged effect is significant in malaria transmission in all the five districts. The strongest correlation is noticed in Mopani (r=0.54; p-value = < 0.001), Vhembe (r=0.53; p-value = < 0.001), Waterberg (r=0.40; p-value = < 0.001), Capricorn (r=0.37; p-value = < 0.001) and lowest in Sekhukhune (r=0.36; p-value = < 0.001). More particularly, malaria morbidity showed a strong relationship with an episode of rainfall above 5-year running means of rainfall of 400 mm. Both annual and seasonal analyses showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied across the districts and it is seasonally dependent. Adequate understanding of climatic variables dynamics annually and seasonally is imperative in seeking answers to malaria morbidity among other factors, particularly in the wake of the sudden spike of the disease in the province.

Keywords: correlation, malaria, rainfall, seasonal, trends

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
26 Effect of Chilling on Soundness, Micro Hardness, Ultimate Tensile Strength, and Corrosion Behavior of Nickel Alloy-Fused Silica Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: G. Purushotham, Joel Hemanth

Abstract:

An investigation has been carried out to fabricate and evaluate the strength and soundness of chilled composites consisting of nickel matrix and fused silica particles (size 40–150 μm) in the matrix. The dispersoid added ranged from 3 to 12 wt. % in steps of 3%. The resulting composites cast in moulds containing metallic and non-metallic chill blocks (MS, SiC, and Cu) were tested for their microstructure and mechanical properties. The main objective of the present research is to obtain fine grain Ni/SiO2 chilled sound composite having very good mechanical properties. Results of the investigation reveal the following: (1) Strength of the composite developed is highly dependent on the location of the casting from where the test specimens are taken and also on the dispersoid content of the composite. (2) Chill thickness and chill material, however, does significantly affect the strength and soundness of the composite. (3) Soundness of the composite developed is highly dependent on the chilling rate as well as the dispersoid content. An introduction of chilling and increase in the dispersoid content of the material both result in an increase in the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the material. The temperature gradient developed during solidification and volumetric heat capacity (VHC) of the chill used is the important parameters controlling the soundness of the composite. (4) Thermal properties of the end chills are used to determine the magnitude of the temperature gradient developed along the length of the casting solidifying under the influence of chills.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, mechanical properties, corrosion behavior, nickel alloy, fused silica, chills

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25 Development of a Direct Immunoassay for Human Ferritin Using Diffraction-Based Sensing Method

Authors: Joel Ballesteros, Harriet Jane Caleja, Florian Del Mundo, Cherrie Pascual

Abstract:

Diffraction-based sensing was utilized in the quantification of human ferritin in blood serum to provide an alternative to label-based immunoassays currently used in clinical diagnostics and researches. The diffraction intensity was measured by the diffractive optics technology or dotLab™ system. Two methods were evaluated in this study: direct immunoassay and direct sandwich immunoassay. In the direct immunoassay, human ferritin was captured by human ferritin antibodies immobilized on an avidin-coated sensor while the direct sandwich immunoassay had an additional step for the binding of a detector human ferritin antibody on the analyte complex. Both methods were repeatable with coefficient of variation values below 15%. The direct sandwich immunoassay had a linear response from 10 to 500 ng/mL which is wider than the 100-500 ng/mL of the direct immunoassay. The direct sandwich immunoassay also has a higher calibration sensitivity with value 0.002 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1) compared to the 0.004 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1 of the direct immunoassay. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the direct immunoassay were found to be 29 ng/mL and 98 ng/mL, respectively, while the direct sandwich immunoassay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8.2 ng/mL. In terms of accuracy, the direct immunoassay had a percent recovery of 88.8-93.0% in PBS while the direct sandwich immunoassay had 94.1 to 97.2%. Based on the results, the direct sandwich immunoassay is a better diffraction-based immunoassay in terms of accuracy, LOD, LOQ, linear range, and sensitivity. The direct sandwich immunoassay was utilized in the determination of human ferritin in blood serum and the results are validated by Chemiluminescent Magnetic Immunoassay (CMIA). The calculated Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.995 and the p-values of the paired-sample t-test were less than 0.5 which show that the results of the direct sandwich immunoassay was comparable to that of CMIA and could be utilized as an alternative analytical method.

Keywords: biosensor, diffraction, ferritin, immunoassay

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24 TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes

Authors: Rafał Kamiński, Joel Rech, Philippe Bertrand, Christophe Desrayaud

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.

Keywords: ball milling, selective laser melting, surface roughness, titanium, wear

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23 GIS Model for Sanitary Landfill Site Selection Based on Geotechnical Parameters

Authors: Hecson Christian, Joel Macwan

Abstract:

Landfill site selection in an urban area is a critical issue in the planning process. With the growth of the urbanization, it has a mammoth impact on the economy, ecology, and environmental health of the region. Outsized amount of wastes are produced and the problem gets soared every day. Hence, selection of ideal site for sanitary landfill is a challenge for urban planners and solid waste managers. Disposal site is a function of many parameters. Among all, Geotechnical parameters are very vital as the same is related to surrounding open land. Moreover, the accessible safe and acceptable land is also scarce. Therefore, in this paper geotechnical parameters are used to develop a GIS model to identify an ideal location for landfill purpose. Metropolitan city of Surat is highly populated and fastest growing urban area in India. The research objectives are to conduct field experiments to collect data and to transfer the facts in GIS platform to evolve a model, to find ideal location. Planners’ preferences were obtained to use analytical hierarchical process (AHP) to find weights of each parameter. Integration of GIS and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) techniques are applied to improve decision-making. It augments an environment for transformation and combination of geographical data and planners’ preferences. GIS performs deterministic overlay and buffer operations. MCDA methods evaluate alternatives based on the decision makers’ subjective values and priorities. Research results have shown many alternative locations. Economic analysis of selected site from actual operations point of view is not included in this research.

Keywords: GIS, AHP, MCDA, Geo-technical

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22 High Resolution Sandstone Connectivity Modelling: Implications for Outcrop Geological and Its Analog Studies

Authors: Numair Ahmed Siddiqui, Abdul Hadi bin Abd Rahman, Chow Weng Sum, Wan Ismail Wan Yousif, Asif Zameer, Joel Ben-Awal

Abstract:

Advances in data capturing from outcrop studies have made possible the acquisition of high-resolution digital data, offering improved and economical reservoir modelling methods. Terrestrial laser scanning utilizing LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) provides a new method to build outcrop based reservoir models, which provide a crucial piece of information to understand heterogeneities in sandstone facies with high-resolution images and data set. This study presents the detailed application of outcrop based sandstone facies connectivity model by acquiring information gathered from traditional fieldwork and processing detailed digital point-cloud data from LiDAR to develop an intermediate small-scale reservoir sandstone facies model of the Miocene Sandakan Formation, Sabah, East Malaysia. The software RiScan pro (v1.8.0) was used in digital data collection and post-processing with an accuracy of 0.01 m and point acquisition rate of up to 10,000 points per second. We provide an accurate and descriptive workflow to triangulate point-clouds of different sets of sandstone facies with well-marked top and bottom boundaries in conjunction with field sedimentology. This will provide highly accurate qualitative sandstone facies connectivity model which is a challenge to obtain from subsurface datasets (i.e., seismic and well data). Finally, by applying this workflow, we can build an outcrop based static connectivity model, which can be an analogue to subsurface reservoir studies.

Keywords: LiDAR, outcrop, high resolution, sandstone faceis, connectivity model

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21 Effects of Audit Quality and Corporate Governance on Earnings Management of Quoted Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Joel S. Akintayo, Ramat T. Salman

Abstract:

The stakeholders’ pressure on corporate managers to maintain firm’s profitability has created economic incentives for management to engage in earnings management practices. Therefore, this study examines the effects of audit quality and corporate governance on earnings management of quoted deposit money banks (DMBs) in Nigeria. This study specifically investigates the influence of audit tenure, audit fee, board independence, and board size on earnings management of DMBs. Explanatory research design was employed in carrying out the study while secondary data were sourced from the annual reports and accounts of all the 15 quoted DMBs in Nigerian Stock Exchange as at December 31, 2015 for a period of 10 years covering from 2006 to 2015. The data obtained for the study were analyzed using panel regression analysis approach. The findings reveal that board independence has a negative significant effect on earnings management at a 5% level of significance (p=0.002), while audit fee has a positive significant effect on earnings management at a 5% level of significance (p=0.013) and audit tenure has a negative significant effect on earnings management of DMBs at a 5% level of significance (p=0.003). Surprisingly, board size was statistically not significant at a 5% level of significance (p=0.086). The study concludes that high audit quality and sound corporate governance could improve the earnings quality of DMBs. Hence, the study recommends that the authorities saddled with the responsibility of banking supervision in Nigeria such the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and CBN to advise the National Assembly in Nigeria to pass into law the three years professional requirement for audit tenure.

Keywords: audit quality, audit tenure, audit fee, board independence, corporate governance, earnings management

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