Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2044

Search results for: fiber contents

2044 Biomass and Biogas Yield of Maize as Affected by Nitrogen Rates with Varying Harvesting under Semi-Arid Condition of Pakistan

Authors: Athar Mahmood, Asad Ali


Management considerations including harvesting time and nitrogen application considerably influence the biomass yield, quality and biogas production. Therefore, a field study was conducted to determine the effect of various harvesting times and nitrogen rates on the biomass yield, quality and biogas yield of maize crop. This experiment was consisted of various harvesting times i.e., harvesting after 45, 55 and 65 days of sowing (DAS) and nitrogen rates i.e., 0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 respectively. The data indicated that maximum plant height, leaf area, dry matter (DM) yield, protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and biogas yield were recorded 65 days after sowing while lowest was recorded 45 days after sowing. In contrary to that significantly higher chlorophyll contents were observed at 45 DAS. In case of nitrogen rates maximum plant height, leaf area, and DM yield, protein contents, ash contents, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and chlorophyll contents were determined with nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg ha-1, while minimum was observed when no N was applied. Therefore, harvesting 65 DAS and N application @ 200 kg ha-1 can be suitable for getting the higher biomass and biogas production.

Keywords: chemical composition, fiber contents, biogas, nitrogen, harvesting time

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2043 Improvement of Low Delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Hemp Cultivars for High Fiber Content

Authors: Sarita Pinmanee, Saipan Krapbia, Rataya Yanaphan


Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is multi-purpose crop delivering fibers, shives, and seed. The fiber is used today for special paper, insulation material, and biocomposites. This research was to improve low delta-9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) hemp variety for high fiber contents. Mass selection for increased fiber content in four low THC Thai cultivars (including RPF1, RPF2, RPF3, and RPF4) was carried out in highland areas in the northern Thailand. Research work was conducted for three consecutive growing seasons during 2012 to 2014 at Pangda Royal Agricultural Station, Samoeng District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Results of selection indicated that after selecting for three successive generations, the average fiber content of four low THC Thai cultivars increased to 28-36 %. The resulted of selection was found that fiber content of RPF1, RPF2, RPF3 and RPF4 increased to 20.6, 19.1, 19.9 and 22.8%, respectively. In addition, THC contents of these four varieties were 0.07, 0.138, 0.08 and 0.072 % respectively. As well, mass selection method was considered as an effective and suitable method for improving this fiber content.

Keywords: Hemp, mass selection, fiber content, low THC content

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2042 The Effect of Fermented Organic Feed into Nutritive Contents of Kampong Chicken Meat

Authors: Wahyu Widodo, Imbang Dwi Rahayu, Adi Sutanto


The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of the fermented organic feed to dry matter, ash, organic matter, protein, fat and crude fiber contents of kampong chicken meat. The research had conducted at January until June, 2016. One hundreds chickens were used in this research. Experimental method and completely randomized design were used to support this research. We had 4 treatment namely P0: organic feed without fermentation, P1: Organic feed with fermented rice bran, P2: Organic feed with fermented corn, P3: Organic feed with fermented rice bran and corn with 5 replication. The conclusion was the treatment had not a significant effect in the dry matter, ash, organic matter and protein contents of chicken meat. On the other hand, it had a significant effect in the fat and crude fiber contents of chicken meat.

Keywords: corn, fermented organic feed, nutritive contents, rice bran

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2041 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu


According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutectic

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2040 Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Rajib Sarkar


Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.

Keywords: damping, fiber reinforced soil, numerical modelling, shear modulus

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2039 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park


With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

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2038 Utilization of Soymilk Residue for Wheat Flour Substitution in Gyoza skin

Authors: Naruemon Prapasuwannakul


Soy milk residue is obtained as a byproduct from soy milk and tofu production with little economic value. It contains high protein and fiber as well as various minerals and phyto-chemical compounds. The objective of this research was to substitute soy milk residue for wheat flour in gyoza skin in order to enhance value of soy milk residue and increase protein and fiber content of gyoza skin. Wheat flour was replaced with soy milk residue from 0 to 40%. The soy milk residue prepared in this research contains 26.92% protein, 3.58% fiber, 2.88% lipid, 6.29% ash and 60.33% carbohydrate. The results showed that increasing soy milk residue decreased lightness (L*value), tensile strength and sensory attributes but increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*), protein and fiber contents of product. The result also showed that the gyoza skin substituted with 30% soy milk residue was the most acceptable (p≤0.05) and its protein and fiber content increased up to 45 % and 867 % respectively.

Keywords: Gyoza skin, sensory, soymilk residue, wheat flour

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2037 Ultradrawing and Ultimate Pensile Properties of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Nanocomposite Fibers Filled with Cellulose Nanofibers

Authors: Zhong-Dan Tu, Wang-Xi Fan, Yi-Chen Huang, Jen-Taut Yeh


Novel ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)/cellulose nanofiber (CNF) (F100CNFy) and UHMWPE/modified cellulose nanofiber (MCNF) (F100MCNFxy) as-prepared nanocomposite fibers were prepared by spinning F100CNFy and F100MCNFxy gel solutions, respectively. Cellulose nanofibers were successfully prepared by proper acid treatment of cotton fibers using sulfuric acid solutions. The best prepared CNF is with specific surface areas around 120 m2/g and a nanofiber diameter of 20 nm. Modified cellulose nanofiber was prepared by grafting maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) onto cellulose nanofibers. The achievable draw ratio (Dra) values of each F100MCNFxy as-prepared fiber series specimens approached a maximal value as their MCNF contents reached the optimal value at 0.05 phr. In which, the maximum Dra value obtained for F100MCNFx0.05 as-prepared fiber specimen prepared at the optimal MCNF content reached another maximum value as the weight ratio of PE-g-MAH to CNF approach an optimal value at 6. Similar to those found for the achievable drawing properties of the as-prepared fibers, the orientation factor, tensile strength (σ f) and initial modulus (E) values of drawn F100MCNF6y fiber series specimens with a fixed draw ratio reach a maximal value as their MCNF contents approach the optimal value, wherein the σ f and E values of the drawn F100MCNFxy fiber specimens are significantly higher than those of the drawn F100 fiber specimens and corresponding drawn F100CNFy fiber specimens prepared at the same draw ratios and CNF contents but without modification. To understand the interesting ultradrawing, thermal, orientation and tensile properties of F100CNFy and F100MCNFxy fiber specimens, Fourier transform infra-red, specific surface areas, and transmission electron microcopic analyses of the original and modified CNF nanofillers were performed in this study.

Keywords: ultradrawing, cellulose nanofibers, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene, nanocomposite fibers

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2036 Determination of in Situ Degradation Kinetics of Some Legumes Waste Unused for Human Consumption

Authors: Şevket Evci, Mehmet Akif Karsli


The aim of this study is to determine nutrient contents, in situ ruminal degradation kinetics and protein fractions of screenings bean (B), chick pea (ChP), red lentil (RL) and green lentil (GL) that is used as residue in grain legume packing industry. For this purpose, four samples of each legumes species-a total of 16 samples, collected from different parts of our country were utilized. Feedstuffs used in the experiment were incubated for 0, 2 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours in the rumen of 3 ruminally cannulated Akkaraman rams as duplicate. The nutrient contents, in situ ruminal dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) degradabilities and fractions, and escape protein contents were evaluated. The highest OM and CP contents were observed in RL (P<0.05). Chick pea had the highest ether extract (EE) content and EE values were 3.47, 6.72, 2.26, 8.66 % for RL, B, GL and ChP, respectively (P<0.05). Crude fiber (CF), ADF, and NDF contents were the highest in RL and the lowest in ChP. CF values were 24.03, 10.80, 4.09 and 3.57 % for RL, GL, B and ChP (P<0.05). Acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content of samples did not differ. Escape protein content was the highest in RL and the lowest in B (P<0.05). After 48 h incubation, the lowest OM and CP degradabilities were observed in RL. While the highest OM degradability was seen in ChP the highest CP degradability was observed in B (P<0.05). The lowest water soluble OM and CP contents were observed in RL whereas the highest potentially degradable OM and CP contents were seen in B and ChP (P<0.05). Both rate of OM and CP degradations (k-1) did not differ among samples (P>0.05). In conclusion, it was noted that feedstuffs (GL, ChP and B) used in the experiment except RL had a greater ruminal degradibilities of both OM and CP and moreover, had a higher escape protein contents, except B. It was thought that these feedstuffs can be substituted with some of common protein sources used in animal nutrition.

Keywords: in situ, nutrient contents, ruminant, subsieve

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2035 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman


Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties

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2034 Effect of Size, Geometry and Tensile Strength of Fibers on the Flexure of Hooked Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Chuchai Sujivorakul


This research focused on the study of various parameters of fiber itself affecting on the flexure of hooked steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC). The size of HSFRC beams was 150x150 mm in cross section and 550 mm in length, and the flexural test was carried out in accordance with EN-14651 standard. The test result was the relationship between centre-point load and crack-mount opening displacement (CMOD) at the centre notch. Controlled concrete had a compressive strength of 42 MPa. The investigated variables related to the hooked fiber itself were: (a) 3 levels of aspect ratio of fibers (65, 80 and 100); (b) 2 different fiber lengths (35 mm and 60 mm); (c) 2 different tensile strength of fibers (1100 MPa and 1500 MPa); and (d) 3 different fiber-end geometries (3D 4D and 5D fibers). The 3D hooked fibers have two plastic hinges at both ends, while the 4D and 5D hooked fibers are the newly developed steel fibers by Bekaert, and they have three and four plastic hinges at both ends, respectively. The hooked steel fibers were used in concrete with three different fiber contents, i.e., 20 30 and 40 kg/m³. From the study, it was found that all variables did not seem to affect the flexural strength at limit of proportionality (LOP) of HSFRC. However, they affected the residual flexural tensile strength (fR,j). It was observed that an increase in fiber lengths and the tensile strength the fibers would significantly increase in the fR,j of HSFRC, while the aspect ratio of the fiber would slightly effect the fR,j of HSFRC. Moreover, it was found that using 5D fibers would better enhance the fR,j and flexural behavior of HSFRC than 3D and 4D fibers, because they gave highest mechanical anchorage effect created by their hooked-end geometry.

Keywords: hooked steel fibers, fiber reinforced concrete, EN-14651, flexural test

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2033 Proximate Composition and Mineral Contents of Ocimum gratissimum Leaves (African Basil)

Authors: Adebola Ajayi


Ocimum gratissimum belongs to the Lamiaceae family and is know generally as African Basil. Ocimum gratissimum leaves are widely used as local condiments in diets. The leaves were destalked sorted, washed with potable water to remove dirts, air dried for 14 days under ambient temperature and milled into powder. The proximate composition and mineral contents of Ocimum gratissimum leaves were investigated. The proximate analysis showed the moisture, crude, protein, total ash, crude fiber, crude lipid and total carbohydrate contents were 10.72±0.01%, 12.98±0.10%, 10.95±0.42, 10.21±0.04%, 4.81±0.04% and 49.01±0.25% respectively. The results of the analysis showed that Ocimum gratissimum could be a good source of important food nutrients.

Keywords: African Basil, drying, Ocimum gratissimum, proximate

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2032 Development of High Fiber Biscuit with Bamboo Shoot Powder

Authors: Beatrix Inah C. Mercado


Bamboo shoots are the immature and edible culms from bamboos which contains high amount of dietary fibers. However, in spite of these functional properties of bamboo shoots it is still underutilized. Objectives: To develop bamboo shoot powder and incorporate it to biscuits as a source of dietary fiber and antioxidant. Materials and Methods: Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was freeze-drying and grind and was incorporated to biscuits in 20% concentration. BSP and biscuits with BSP were analyzed for its proximate composition, dietary fiber, phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity. Results: BSP has 13.1 % moisture, 18.8% protein and 8% ash, 2.4g/100g total fat and 57.7% carbohydrate. BSP and biscuits with 20% BSP were good sources of dietary fiber containing 27.8g/100g and 7.1 g/100g, respectively. BSP is high in phytonutrient contents in terms of total polyphenols (1052mg gallic/100 g) and flavonoids (4046mg catechin/100g). Biscuits with BSP contained higher source of phytonutrients and antioxidant capacity as compared to biscuits without BSP. Sensory evaluation revealed that biscuits with BSP were more acceptable than biscuits without BSP. Conclusion: Bamboo shoots may be used as a potential functional ingredient in food products for broader application.

Keywords: bamboo shoots, phytonutrients, fiber, biscuit

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2031 A Study on the Improvement of the Bond Performance of Polypropylene Macro Fiber according to Longitudinal Shape Change

Authors: Sung-yong Choi, Woo-tai Jung, Young-hwan Park


This study intends to improve the bond performance of the polypropylene fiber used as reinforcing fiber for concrete by changing its shape into double crimped type through the enhancement its fabrication process. The bond performance of such double crimped fiber is evaluated by applying the JCI SF-8 (dog-bone shape) testing method. The test results reveal that the double crimped fiber develops bond performance improved by more than 19% compared to the conventional crimped type fiber.

Keywords: Bond, Polypropylene, fiber reinforcement, macro fiber, shape change

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2030 Investigating the Properties of Nylon Fiber Reinforced Asphalt Concrete

Authors: Hasan Taherkhani


The performance of asphalt pavements is highly dependent on the mechanical properties of asphaltic layers. Improving the mechanical properties of asphaltic mixtures by fiber reinforcement is a common method. Randomly distribution of fibers in the bituminous mixtures and placing between the particles develop reinforcing property in all directions in the mixture and improve their engineering properties. In this research, the effects of the nylon fiber length and content on some engineering properties of a typical binder course asphalt concrete have been investigated. The fibers at different contents of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% (by the weight of total mixture), each at three different lengths of 10, 25 and 40 mm have been used, and the properties of the mixtures, such as, volumetric properties, Marshall stability, flow, Marshall quotient, indirect tensile strength and moisture damage have been studied. It is found that the highest Marshall quotient is obtained by using 0.4% of 25mm long nylon fibers. The results also show that the indirect tensile strength and tensile strength ratio, which is an indication of moisture damage of asphalt concrete, decreases with increasing the length of fibers and fiber content.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, moisture damage, nylon fiber, tensile strength,

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2029 Effect of Fiber Content and Chemical Treatment on Hardness of Bagasse Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: Varun Mittal, Shishir Sinha


The present experimental study focused on the hardness behavior of bagasse fiber-epoxy composites. The relationship between bagasse fiber content and effect of chemical treatment on bagasse fiber as a function of Brinell hardness of bagasse fiber epoxy was investigated. Bagasse fiber was treated with sodium hydroxide followed by acrylic acid before they were reinforced with epoxy resin. Compared hardness properties with the untreated bagasse filled epoxy composites. It was observed that Brinell hardness increased up to 15 wt% fiber content and further decreases, however, chemical treatment also improved the hardness properties of composites.

Keywords: bagasse fiber, composite, hardness, sodium hydroxide

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2028 Influence of Chirp of High-Speed Laser Diodes and Fiber Dispersion on Performance of Non-Amplified 40-Gbps Optical Fiber Links

Authors: Ahmed Bakry, Moustafa Ahmed


We model and simulate the combined effect of fiber dispersion and frequency chirp of a directly modulated high-speed laser diode on the figures of merit of a non-amplified 40-Gbps optical fiber link. We consider both the return to zero (RZ) and non-return to zero (NRZ) patterns of the pseudorandom modulation bits. The performance of the fiber communication system is assessed by the fiber-length limitation due to the fiber dispersion. We study the influence of replacing standard single-mode fibers by non-zero dispersion-shifted fibers on the maximum fiber length and evaluate the associated power penalty. We introduce new dispersion tolerances for 1-dB power penalty of the RZ and NRZ 40-Gbps optical fiber links.

Keywords: bit error rate, dispersion, frequency chirp, fiber communications, semiconductor laser

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2027 Compressive Strength of Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Fuat Korkut


Synthetic fibers are commonly used in many civil engineering applications because of its some superior characteristics such as non-corrosive and cheapness. This study presents the results of experimental study on compressive strength of synthetic fiber reinforced concretes. Two types of polyamide (PA) synthetic fiber with the length of 12 and 54 mm are used for this study. The fiber volume ratio is kept as 0.25%, 0.75%, and 0.75% in all mixes. The plain concrete compressive strength is 36.2 MPa. The test results clearly show that the increase in compressive strength for synthetic fiber reinforced concretes is significant. The greatest increase in compressive strength is 23% for PA synthetic fiber reinforced concretes with 0.75% fiber volume.

Keywords: synthetic fibers, polyamide fibers, fiber volume, compressive strength

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2026 Fiber Optic Asparagine Biosensor for Fruit Juices by Co-Immobilization of L-Asparaginase and Phenol Red

Authors: Mandeep Kataria, Ritu Narula, Navneet Kaur


Asparagine is vital amino acid which is required for the development of brain and it regulates the equilibrium of central nervous system. Asparagine is the chief amino acid that forms acrylamide in baked food by reacting with reducing sugars at high temperature ( Millard Reaction i.e. amino acids and sugars give new flavors at high temperature). It can also be a parameter of freshness in fruit juices because on storage of juices at 37°C caused an 87% loss in the total free amino acids and major decrease was recorded in asparagine contents. With this significance of monitoring asparagine, in the present work a biosensor for determining asparagine in fruit juices is developed. For the construction of biosensor L-asparaginase enzyme (0.5 IU) was co-immobilized with phenol red on TEOS chitosan sol-gel plastic disc and fixed on the fiber optic tip. Tip was immersed in a cell having 5ml of substrate and absorption was noted at response time of 5 min with 10-1 - 10-10 M concentrations of asparagine at 538 nm. L-asparaginase was extracted and from Solanum nigrum Asparagine biosensor was applied fruit juices on the monitoring asparagine contents. L-asparagine concentration found to be present in fruit juices like Guava Juice, Apple Juice, Mango Juice, Litchi juice, Strawberry juice, Pineapple juice Lemon juice, and Orange juice. Hence the developed biosensor has commercial aspects in quality insurance of fruit juices.

Keywords: fiber optic biosensor, chitosan, teos, l-asparaginase

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2025 Uses and Gratification with the Website

Authors: Siriporn Meenanan


The objective of this study is to study about the uses and gratification of the sample who use the website that named which provides moral contents, inspires, and builds up the spirit. The study found that the samples mainly use this website to follow up on the dharma activities. They also use the space as the web board to discuss about dharma issues. Moreover, the contents help readers to relax and also provides the guidelines to deal with stress and uncomfortable situations properly. The samples found to be most satisfied. In other words, the samples found the contents of the website are complete, and can cover their needs. Moreover, they found that contents useful in their ways of living. In addition, they are satisfied with the beautiful and interesting design of the website and well classification of the contents that readers can easily find the information that they want.

Keywords: uses and gratification, website,, moral contents

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2024 Cotton Fiber Quality Improvement by Introducing Sucrose Synthase (SuS) Gene into Gossypium hirsutum L.

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Mukhtar Ahmed


The demand for long staple fiber having better strength and length is increasing with the introduction of modern spinning and weaving industry in Pakistan. Work on gene discovery from developing cotton fibers has helped to identify dozens of genes that take part in cotton fiber development and several genes have been characterized for their role in fiber development. Sucrose synthase (SuS) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of sucrose in a plant cell, in cotton fiber it catalyzes a reversible reaction, but preferentially converts sucrose and UDP into fructose and UDP-glucose. UDP-glucose (UDPG) is a nucleotide sugar act as a donor for glucose residue in many glycosylation reactions and is essential for the cytosolic formation of sucrose and involved in the synthesis of cell wall cellulose. The study was focused on successful Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of SuS gene in pCAMBIA 1301 into cotton under a CaMV35S promoter. Integration and expression of the gene were confirmed by PCR, GUS assay, and real-time PCR. Young leaves of SuS overexpressing lines showed increased total soluble sugars and plant biomass as compared to non-transgenic control plants. Cellulose contents from fiber were significantly increased. SEM analysis revealed that fibers from transgenic cotton were highly spiral and fiber twist number increased per unit length when compared with control. Morphological data from field plants showed that transgenic plants performed better in field conditions. Incorporation of genes related to cotton fiber length and quality can provide new avenues for fiber improvement. The utilization of this technology would provide an efficient import substitution and sustained production of long-staple fiber in Pakistan to fulfill the industrial requirements.

Keywords: agrobacterium-mediated transformation, cotton fiber, sucrose synthase gene, staple length

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2023 Performance of Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Different Pozzolanic Materials

Authors: Ahmed Fathi Mohamed, Nasir Shafiq, Muhd Fadhil Nuruddin, Ali Elheber Ahmed


Steel fiber adds to Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) to enhance it is properties and achieves the requirement. This research work focus on the using of different percentage of steel fiber in SCC mixture contains fly ash and microwave incinerator rice husk ash (MIRHA) as supplementary material. Fibers affect several characteristics of SCC in the fresh and the hardened state. To optimize fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FSCC), The possible fiber content of a given mix composition is an essential input parameter. The aim of the research is to study the properties of fiber reinforced self–compacting (FRSCC) and to develop the expert system/computer program of mix proportion for calculating the steel fiber content and pozzolanic replacement that can be applied to investigate the compressive strength of FSCC mix.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, silica fume, steel fiber, fresh taste

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2022 Characterization of the Physical Properties of Sheep Wool Fiber in Amhara National Regional State

Authors: Erkihun Zelalem


Ethiopian’s sheep population, estimated to be 25.5 million heads, is found widely distributed across the diverse agro-ecological zones of the country. In the past, there were many projects that done to improve production of meat, milk and productivity of sheep breed. However, no significance research has been done so far on production of wool fiber in Ethiopia which could be taken as a potential fiber next to cotton. The measurement of the sheep wool fiber physical properties is critically important, technical, commercial and certification point of view. A total of 24 sheep from different breeds (Menz, Tikur, Farta and Washera) were used in this study. Samples of fiber were analyzed using standard measurements for wool fiber length (WFL), mean fiber diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of wool fiber diameter (FDCV), breaking strength, elongation, crimp, cleanness and moisture content. Based on the result all parameters shows that there is a great potential of getting of wool fiber from the skin of sheep and according to the standards of its property and grading system based on wool fiber fineness is medium to course. These types of fibers can be making carpets, blankets, rugs, coverings and other products.

Keywords: Fiber, Fineness, Carpet, Fleece, Raw Wool

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2021 Impact Modified Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber/Poly(Lactic) Acid Composite

Authors: Mohammad D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Ghazali, Abdullah A. Mamun


In this study, composites were fabricated from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber and poly(lactic) acid by extrusion followed by injection moulding. Surface of the fiber was pre-treated by ultrasound in an alkali medium and treatment efficiency was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and Fourier transforms infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Effect of fiber treatment on composite was characterized by tensile strength (TS), tensile modulus (TM) and impact strength (IS). Furthermore, biostrong impact modifier was incorporated into the treated fiber composite to improve its impact properties. Mechanical testing showed an improvement of up to 23.5% and 33.6% respectively for TS and TM of treated fiber composite above untreated fiber composite. On the other hand incorporation of impact modifier led to enhancement of about 20% above the initial IS of the treated fiber composite.

Keywords: fiber treatment, impact modifier, natural fibers, ultrasound

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2020 A Development of Personalized Edutainment Contents through Storytelling

Authors: Min Kyeong Cha, Ju Yeon Mun, Seong Baeg Kim


Recently, ‘play of learning’ became important and is emphasized as a useful learning tool. Therefore, interest in edutainment contents is growing. Storytelling is considered first as a method that improves the transmission of information and learner's interest when planning edutainment contents. In this study, we designed edutainment contents in the form of an adventure game that applies the storytelling method. This content provides questions and items constituted dynamically and reorganized learning contents through analysis of test results. It allows learners to solve various questions through effective iterative learning. As a result, the learners can reach mastery learning.

Keywords: storytelling, edutainment, mastery learning, computer operating principle

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2019 Interferometric Demodulation Scheme Using a Mode-Locker Fiber Laser

Authors: Liang Zhang, Yuanfu Lu, Yuming Dong, Guohua Jiao, Wei Chen, Jiancheng Lv


We demonstrated an interferometric demodulation scheme using a mode-locked fiber laser. The mode-locked fiber laser is launched into a two-beam interferometer. When the ratio between the fiber path imbalance of interferometer and the laser cavity length is close to an integer, an interferometric fringe emerges as a result of vernier effect, and then the phase shift of the interferometer can be demodulated. The mode-locked fiber laser provides a large bandwidth and reduces the cost for wavelength division multiplexion (WDM). The proposed interferometric demodulation scheme can be further applied in multi-point sensing system such as fiber optics hydrophone array, seismic wave detection network with high sensitivity and low cost.

Keywords: fiber sensing, interferometric demodulation, mode-locked fiber laser, vernier effect

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2018 Shear Behavior of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Precast/Prestressed Concrete Hollow Core Slabs

Authors: Thi Nguyet Hang Nguyen, Kang Hai Tan


Precast/prestressed concrete hollow core (PCHC) slabs, especially ones with depth more than 300 mm, are susceptible to web-shear failure. The reasons lie on the fact that the production process of PCHC slabs, i.e., the extrusion method (the most common method to cast PCHC slabs nowadays), does not allow them to contain any shear reinforcement. Moreover, due to the presence of the longitudinal voids, cross sections of PCHC slabs are reduced. Therefore, the shear capacity of the slabs depends solely on the tensile strength of concrete which is relatively low. Given that shear is a major concern in using hollow-core slabs, this paper investigates the possibility of adopting steel fibers in PCHC slabs produced by the extrusion method to enhance the shear capacity of the slabs. Three full-scale PCHC slabs with and without hooked-steel fibers were cast and tested until failure. Three different volumetric fiber contents of 0, 0.51 and 0.89% were investigated. The test results showed that there were substantial increases in shear capacity and ductility with the use of hooked-steel fibers. Ultimate shear strength increased with fiber content. In addition, while the specimen without steel fibers and the one with the steel-fiber volume fraction of 0.51% failed in web-shear mode, the specimen with the higher fiber content (0.89%) collapsed in flexural-shear mode. However, as the hooked-steel fibers with the fiber content of 0.89% were used, difficulties in concrete consolidation were observed while concrete was being cast. This could lead to a lower ultimate shear capacity due to a poorer bond between the concrete and the steel fibers.

Keywords: hollow-core slabs, shear strength, steel fibers, web-shear failure

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2017 Thermo-Mechanical Properties of PBI Fiber Reinforced HDPE Composites: Effect of Fiber Length and Composition

Authors: Shan Faiz, Arfat Anis, Saeed M. Al-Zarani


High density polyethylene (HDPE) and poly benzimidazole fiber (PBI) composites were prepared by melt blending in a twin screw extruder (TSE). The thermo-mechanical properties of PBI fiber reinforced HDPE composite samples (1%, 4% and 8% fiber content) of fiber lengths 3 mm and 6 mm were investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), universal testing machine (UTM), rheometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of fiber content and fiber lengths on the thermo-mechanical properties of the HDPE-PBI composites was studied. The DSC analysis showed decrease in crystallinity of HDPE-PBI composites with the increase of fiber loading. Maximum decrease observed was 12% at 8% fiber length. The thermal stability was found to increase with the addition of fiber. T50% was notably increased to 40oC for both grades of HDPE using 8% of fiber content. The mechanical properties were not much affected by the increase in fiber content. The optimum value of tensile strength was achieved using 4% fiber content and slight increase of 9% in tensile strength was observed. No noticeable change was observed in flexural strength. In rheology study, the complex viscosities of HDPE-PBI composites were higher than the HDPE matrix and substantially increased with even minimum increase of PBI fiber loading i.e. 1%. We found that the addition of the PBI fiber resulted in a modest improvement in the thermal stability and mechanical properties of the prepared composites.

Keywords: PBI fiber, high density polyethylene, composites, melt blending

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2016 The Fabrication and Characterization of Hierarchical Carbon Nanotube/Carbon Fiber/High-Density Polyethylene Composites via Twin-Screw Extrusion

Authors: Chao Hu, Xinwen Liao, Qing-Hua Qin, Gang Wang


The hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT)/carbon fiber (CF)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) was fabricated via compound extrusion and injection molding, in which to author’s best knowledge CNT was employed as a nano-coatings on the surface of CF for the first time by spray coating technique. The CNT coatings relative to CF was set at 1 wt% and the CF content relative to the composites varied from 0 to 25 wt% to study the influence of CNT coatings and CF contents on the mechanical, thermal and morphological performance of this hierarchical composites. The results showed that with the rise of CF contents, the mechanical properties, including the tensile properties, flexural properties, and hardness of CNT/CF/HDPE composites, were effectively improved. Furthermore, the CNT-coated composites showed overall higher mechanical performance than the uncoated counterparts. It can be ascribed to the enhancement of interfacial bonding between the CF and HDPE via the incorporation of CNT, which was demonstrated by the scanning electron microscopy observation. Meanwhile, the differential scanning calorimetry data indicated that by the introduction of CNT and CF, the crystallization temperature and crystallinity of HDPE were affected while the melting temperature did not have an obvious alteration.

Keywords: carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, extrusion, high density polyethylene

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2015 A Comparative Study on Indian and Greek Cotton Fiber Properties Correlations

Authors: Md. Nakib Ul Hasan, Md. Ariful Islam, Md. Sumon Miah, Misbah Ul Hoque, Bulbul Ahmed


The variability of cotton fiber characteristics has always been influenced by origin, weather conditions, method of culturing, and harvesting. Spinners work tirelessly to ensure consistent yarn quality by using the different origins of fibers to maximizes the profit margin. Spinners often fail to select desired raw materials of various origins to achieve an appropriate mixing plan due to the lack of knowledge on the interrelationship among fiber properties. The purpose of this research is to investigate the correlations among dominating fiber properties such as micronaire, strength, breaking elongation, upper half mean length, length uniformity index, short fiber index, maturity, reflectance, and yellowness. For this purpose, fiber samples from 500 Indian cotton bales and 350 Greek cotton bales were collected and tested using the high volume instrument (HVI). The fiber properties dataset was then compiled and analyzed using python 3.7 to determine the correlations matrix. Results show that Indian cotton fiber have highest correlation between strength-mat = 0.84, followed by SFI-Unf =-0.83, and Neps-Unf = -0.72. Greek cotton fiber, in contrast, have highest correlation between SFI-Unf =-0.98, followed by SFI-Mat = 0.89, +b-Len = 0.84, and Str-Mat = 0.74. Overall, the Greek cotton fiber showed a higher correlational matrix than compared to that of Indian cotton fiber.

Keywords: cotton fiber, fiber properties correlation, Greek cotton, HVI, Indian cotton, spinning

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