Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 895

Search results for: PDMS membrane

895 In-situ Fabrication of Silver-PDMS Nanocomposite Membrane with Application in Olefine Separation

Authors: P. Tirgarbahnamiri, S. Mahravani, N. Haddadpour, F. Yaghmaie, F. Barazandeh


In this study, silver nanoparticle-Polydimethylsiloxane membrane (SNP-PDMS) was prepared with an in-situ reduction method using AgNO3 in poly (dimethylsiloxane) hardener. Optical and mechanical properties as well as functionality of these membranes were determined employing, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, strain-stress test and liquid/liquid filtration measurements. Silver nanoparticles are known to selectively absorb Olefins and may be used for separation of Alkanes from olefins. Yellow color of silver nanocomposites and transparency of blank polymer were observed employing optical microscope. λmax in 415-420 nm regions in UV-Vis spectrophotometry are related to silver nanoparticles absorbance. Based on stress-strain test results, tensile strength of silver nanoparticle PDMS (SNP-PDMS) membranes is higher than PDMS films of comparable size and thickness. Moreover, permeability of SNP-PDMS membranes were characterized using similar olefin/paraffin pair using a simple bench scale separation set- up. The silver -PDMS membranes retain their color and UV-vis characteristics for extended periods of time exceeding several months.

Keywords: nanocomposite membrane, gas separation, facilitated transport, silver nanocomposite, PDMS, in-situ reduction

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894 Synthesis of Electrospun Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Polyvinylidene Fluoriure (PVDF) Nanofibrous Membranes for CO₂ Capture

Authors: Wen-Wen Wang, Qian Ye, Yi-Feng Lin


Carbon dioxide emissions are expected to increase continuously, resulting in climate change and global warming. As a result, CO₂ capture has attracted a large amount of research attention. Among the various CO₂ capture methods, membrane technology has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO₂, because it can be scaled up, low energy consumptions and small area requirements for use by the gas separation. Various nanofibrous membranes were successfully prepared by a simple electrospinning process. The membrane contactor combined with chemical absorption and membrane process in the post-combustion CO₂ capture is used in this study. In a membrane contactor system, the highly porous and water-repellent nanofibrous membranes were used as a gas-liquid interface in a membrane contactor system for CO₂ absorption. In this work, we successfully prepared the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) porous membranes with an electrospinning process. Afterwards, the as-prepared water-repellent PVDF porous membranes were used for the CO₂ capture application. However, the pristine PVDF nanofibrous membranes were wetted by the amine absorbents, resulting in the decrease in the CO₂ absorption flux, the hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were added into the PVDF nanofibrous membranes to improve the solvent resistance of the membranes. To increase the hydrophobic properties and CO₂ absorption flux, more hydrophobic surfaces of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes are obtained by the grafting of fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) on the membranes surface. Furthermore, the highest CO₂ absorption flux of the PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes is reached after the FAS modification with four times. The PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes with 60 wt% PDMS addition can be a long and continuous operation of the CO₂ absorption and regeneration experiments. It demonstrates the as-prepared PDMS/PVDF nanofibrous membranes could potentially be used for large-scale CO₂ absorption during the post-combustion process in power plants.

Keywords: CO₂ capture, electrospinning process, membrane contactor, nanofibrous membranes, PDMS/PVDF

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893 Electrospinning Preparation of Superhydrophobic Polydimethylsiloxane/Polystyrene Nanofibrous Membranes for Carbon Dioxide Capture

Authors: Chia-Yu Chang, Yi-Feng Lin


CO2 capture has attracted significant research attention due to global warming. Among the various CO2 capture methods, membrane technology has proven to be highly efficient in capturing CO2 due to the ease at which this technology can be scaled up, its low energy consumptions, small area requirements and overall environmental friendliness for use by industrial plants. Capturing CO2 is to use a membrane contactor with a combination of water-repellent porous membranes and chemical absorption processes. In a CO2 membrane contactor system, CO2 passes through a hydrophobic porous membrane in the gas phase to contact the amine absorbent in the liquid phase. Consequently, additional CO2 gas is absorbed by amine absorbents. This study examines highly porous Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/Polystyrene (PS) Nanofibrous Membranes and successfully coated onto a macroporous Al2O3 membrane. The performance of these materials in a membrane contactor system for CO2 absorption is also investigated. Compared with pristine PS nanofibrous membranes, the PDMS/PS nanofibrous membranes exhibit greater solvent resistance and mechanical strength, making them more suitable for use in CO2 capture by the membrane contactor. The resulting hydrophobic membrane contactor also demonstrates the potential for large-scale CO2 absorption during post-combustion processes in power plants.

Keywords: CO2 capture, polystyrene, polydimethylsiloxane, superhydrophobic

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892 Formation of Round Channel for Microfluidic Applications

Authors: A. Zahra, G. de Cesare, D. Caputo, A. Nascetti


PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) polymer is a suitable material for biological and MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) designers, because of its biocompatibility, transparency and high resistance under plasma treatment. PDMS round channel is always been of great interest due to its ability to confine the liquid with membrane type micro valves. In this paper we are presenting a very simple way to form round shape microfluidic channel, which is based on reflow of positive photoresist AZ® 40 XT. With this method, it is possible to obtain channel of different height simply by varying the spin coating parameters of photoresist.

Keywords: lab-on-chip, PDMS, reflow, round microfluidic channel

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891 Mixed Matrix Membranes Based on [M₂(DOBDC)] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and Polydimethylsiloxane for CO₂/N₂ Separation

Authors: Hyunuk Kim, Yang No Yun, Muhammad Sohail, Jong-Ho Moon, Young Cheol Park


Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which are emerging absorbents assembled from metal ions and organic ligands, have attracted attention for their permanent porosity and design of tunable pore size. These microporous materials showed interesting properties for CO₂ storage and separation. In particular, MOFs with high surface area and open metal sites showed the remarkable adsorption capacity and selectivity for CO₂. [Mg₂ (DOBDC)] (DOBDC = 2,5-dioxidobenzene-1,4-dicarboxylate) (MOF-74 or CPO-27) is a well-known absorbent showing an exceptionally high CO₂ sorption capacity at low partial pressure and room temperature. In this work, we synthesized [M₂(DOBDC)(DMF)₂] (M = Mg, Co, Ni) and determined their single-crystal structures by X-ray crystallography. The removal of coordinated guest molecules generates Lewis acidic sites and showed high CO₂ adsorption affinity. Both CO₂ adsorption capacity and surface area are much higher than reported values in literature. To fabricate MMMs, microcrystalline [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂] was synthesized by microwave reaction and dispersed in PDMS solution. The MMMs with a various amount of [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF) ₂] in PDMS were fabricated by a solution casting method. [M₂ (DOBDC)(DMF)₂]@PDMS membrane showed higher CO2 permeability and CO₂/N₂ selectivity than those of PDMS. Therefore, we believe that MMMs combining polymer and MOFs provide new materials for CO₂ separation technology.

Keywords: metal-organic frameworks, mixed matrix membrane, CO2/N2 separation, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

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890 Development of Piezoelectric Gas Micropumps with the PDMS Check Valve Design

Authors: Chiang-Ho Cheng, An-Shik Yang, Hon-Yi Cheng, Ming-Yu Lai


This paper presents the design and fabrication of a novel piezoelectric actuator for a gas micropump with check valve having the advantages of miniature size, light weight and low power consumption. The micropump is designed to have eight major components, namely a stainless steel upper cover layer, a piezoelectric actuator, a stainless steel diaphragm, a PDMS chamber layer, two stainless steel channel layers with two valve seats, a PDMS check valve layer with two cantilever-type check valves and an acrylic substrate. A prototype of the gas micropump, with a size of 52 mm × 50 mm × 5.0 mm, is fabricated by precise manufacturing. This device is designed to pump gases with the capability of performing the self-priming and bubble-tolerant work mode by maximizing the stroke volume of the membrane as well as the compression ratio via minimization of the dead volume of the micropump chamber and channel. By experiment apparatus setup, we can get the real-time values of the flow rate of micropump and the displacement of the piezoelectric actuator, simultaneously. The gas micropump obtained higher output performance under the sinusoidal waveform of 250 Vpp. The micropump achieved the maximum pumping rates of 1185 ml/min and back pressure of 7.14 kPa at the corresponding frequency of 120 and 50 Hz.

Keywords: PDMS, check valve, micropump, piezoelectric

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889 Cellular Targeting to Dual Gaseous Microenvironments by Polydimethylsiloxane Microchip

Authors: Samineh Barmaki, Ville Jokinen, Esko Kankuri


We report a microfluidic chip that can be used to modify the gaseous microenvironment of a cell-culture in ambient atmospheric conditions. The aim of the study is to show the cellular response to nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic (oxygen < 5%) condition. Simultaneously targeting to hypoxic and nitric oxide will provide an opportunity for NO‑based therapeutics. Studies on cellular responses to lowered oxygen concentration or to gaseous mediators are usually carried out under a specific macro environment, such as hypoxia chambers, or with specific NO donor molecules that may have additional toxic effects. In our study, the chip consists of a microfluidic layer and a cell culture well, separated by a thin gas permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. The main design goal is to separate the gas oxygen scavenger and NO donor solutions, which are often toxic, from the cell media. Two different types of gas exchangers, titled 'pool' and 'meander' were tested. We find that the pool design allows us to reach a higher level of oxygen depletion than meander (24.32 ± 19.82 %vs -3.21 ± 8.81). Our microchip design can make the cells culture more simple and makes it easy to adapt existing cell culture protocols. Our first application is utilizing the chip to create hypoxic conditions on targeted areas of cell culture. In this study, oxygen scavenger sodium sulfite generates hypoxia and its effect on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The PDMS membrane was coated with fibronectin before initiating cell cultures, and the cells were grown for 48h on the chips before initiating the gas control experiments. The hypoxia experiments were performed by pumping of O₂-depleted H₂O into the microfluidic channel with a flow-rate of 0.5 ml/h. Image-iT® reagent as an oxygen level responser was mixed with HEK-293 cells. The fluorescent signal appears on cells stained with Image-iT® hypoxia reagent (after 6h of pumping oxygen-depleted H₂O through the microfluidic channel in pool area). The exposure to different levels of O₂ can be controlled by varying the thickness of the PDMS membrane. Recently, we improved the design of the microfluidic chip, which can control the microenvironment of two different gases at the same time. The hypoxic response was also improved from the new design of microchip. The cells were grown on the thin PDMS membrane for 30 hours, and with a flowrate of 0.1 ml/h; the oxygen scavenger was pumped into the microfluidic channel. We also show that by pumping sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as a nitric oxide donor activated under light and can generate nitric oxide on top of PDMS membrane. We are aiming to show cellular microenvironment response of HEK-293 cells to both nitric oxide (by pumping SNP) and hypoxia (by pumping oxygen scavenger solution) in separated channels in one microfluidic chip.

Keywords: hypoxia, nitric oxide, microenvironment, microfluidic chip, sodium nitroprusside, SNP

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888 The Simple Two-Step Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Transferring Process for High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

Authors: Shaoxi Wang, Pouya Rezai


High aspect ratio is the necessary parts of complex microstructures. Some methods available to achieve high aspect ratio requires expensive materials or complex process; others is difficult to research simple high aspect ratio structures. The paper presents a simple and cheap two-step Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) transferring process to get high aspect ratio single pillars, which only requires covering the PDMS mold with [email protected] surface solution. The experimental results demonstrate the method efficiency and effective.

Keywords: high aspect ratio, microstructure, PDMS, Brij

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887 Fabricating Method for Complex 3D Microfluidic Channel Using Soluble Wax Mold

Authors: Kyunghun Kang, Sangwoo Oh, Yongha Hwang


PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane)-based microfluidic device has been recently applied to area of biomedical research, tissue engineering, and diagnostics because PDMS is low cost, nontoxic, optically transparent, gas-permeable, and especially biocompatible. Generally, PDMS microfluidic devices are fabricated by conventional soft lithography. Microfabrication requires expensive cleanroom facilities and a lot of time; however, only two-dimensional or simple three-dimensional structures can be fabricated. In this study, we introduce fabricating method for complex three-dimensional microfluidic channels using soluble wax mold. Using the 3D printing technique, we firstly fabricated three-dimensional mold which consists of soluble wax material. The PDMS pre-polymer is cast around, followed by PDMS casting and curing. The three-dimensional casting mold was removed from PDMS by chemically dissolved with methanol and acetone. In this work, two preliminary experiments were carried out. Firstly, the solubility of several waxes was tested using various solvents, such as acetone, methanol, hexane, and IPA. We found the combination between wax and solvent which dissolves the wax. Next, side effects of the solvent were investigated during the curing process of PDMS pre-polymer. While some solvents let PDMS drastically swell, methanol and acetone let PDMS swell only 2% and 6%, respectively. Thus, methanol and acetone can be used to dissolve wax in PDMS without any serious impact. Based on the preliminary tests, three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channels was fabricated using the mold which was printed out using 3D printer. With the proposed fabricating technique, PDMS-based microfluidic devices have advantages of fast prototyping, low cost, optically transparence, as well as having complex three-dimensional geometry. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by Supported by a Korea University Grant and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF).

Keywords: microfluidic channel, polydimethylsiloxane, 3D printing, casting

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886 Modelling of Pervaporation Separation of Butanol from Aqueous Solutions Using Polydimethylsiloxane Mixed Matrix Membranes

Authors: Arian Ebneyamini, Hoda Azimi, Jules Thibaults, F. Handan Tezel


In this study, a modification of Hennepe model for pervaporation separation of butanol from aqueous solutions using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed matrix membranes has been introduced and validated by experimental data. The model was compared to the original Hennepe model and few other models which are applicable for membrane gas separation processes such as Maxwell, Lewis Nielson and Pal. Theoretical modifications for non-ideal interface morphology have been offered to predict the permeability in case of interface void, interface rigidification and pore-blockage. The model was in a good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: butanol, PDMS, modeling, pervaporation, mixed matrix membranes

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885 Kinetics of Cu(II) Transport through Bulk Liquid Membrane with Different Membrane Materials

Authors: Siu Hua Chang, Ayub Md Som, Jagannathan Krishnan


The kinetics of Cu(II) transport through a bulk liquid membrane with different membrane materials was investigated in this work. Three types of membrane materials were used: Fresh cooking oil, waste cooking oil, and kerosene each of which was mixed with di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (carrier) and tributylphosphate (modifier). Kinetic models derived from the kinetic laws of two consecutive irreversible first-order reactions were used to study the facilitated transport of Cu(II) across the source, membrane, and receiving phases of bulk liquid membrane. It was found that the transport kinetics of Cu(II) across the source phase was not affected by different types of membrane materials but decreased considerably when the membrane materials changed from kerosene, waste cooking oil to fresh cooking oil. The rate constants of Cu(II) removal and recovery processes through the bulk liquid membrane were also determined.

Keywords: transport kinetics, Cu(II), bulk liquid membrane, waste cooking oil

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884 Study of a Developed Model Describing a Vacuum Membrane Distillation Unit Coupled to Solar Energy

Authors: Fatma Khaled, Khaoula Hidouri, Bechir Chaouachi


Desalination using solar energy coupled with membrane techniques such as vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) is considered as an interesting alternative for the production of pure water. During this work, a developed model of a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hollow fiber membrane module of a VMD unit of seawater was carried out. This simulation leads to establishing a comparison between the effects of two different equations of the vaporization latent heat on the membrane surface temperature and on the unit productivity. Besides, in order to study the effect of putting membrane modules in series on the outlet fluid temperature and on the productivity of the process, a simulation was executed.

Keywords: vacuum membrane distillation, membrane module, membrane temperature, productivity

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883 Basic Evaluation for Polyetherimide Membrane Using Spectroscopy Techniques

Authors: Hanan Alenezi


Membrane performance depends on the kind of solvent used in preparation. A membrane made by Polyetherimide (PEI) was evaluated for gas separation using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The purity and the thickness are detected to evaluate the membrane in order to optimize PEI membrane preparation.

Keywords: Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Membrane, Polyetherimide PEI, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Solvent, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)

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882 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha


Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

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881 Sol–Gel Derived Durable Antireflective Multilayered TiO2/SiO2 Coating for Solar Glass

Authors: Najme lari, Shahrokh Ahangarani, Ali Shanaghi


In this paper, multilayer TiO2-SiO2 containing PDMS coatings were produced. Also, the effect of triton as a porosity maker on single and multilayer silica and titania coatings was investigated. The results showed stability of optical triton containing coatings disappears with time. Because of the presence of triton in solution improve the wetting properties of PDMS sols and helps lead to instability by water absorption. However; without triton, antireflective multilayer coatings with high transmittance 98% and excellent durability were prepared by sol–gel process using poly dimethyl siloxane as additive. This coating can be used as well as in solar applications.

Keywords: sol-gel, thin film, anti-reflective, titania-silica, PDMS, triton

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880 A Facile One Step Modification of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) via Smart Polymers for Biomicrofluidics

Authors: A. Aslihan Gokaltun, Martin L. Yarmush, Ayse Asatekin, O. Berk Usta


Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most widely used materials in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. It is easily patterned and can replicate features down to nanometers. Its flexibility, gas permeability that allows oxygenation, and low cost also drive its wide adoption. However, a major drawback of PDMS is its hydrophobicity and fast hydrophobic recovery after surface hydrophilization. This results in significant non-specific adsorption of proteins as well as small hydrophobic molecules such as therapeutic drugs limiting the utility of PDMS in biomedical microfluidic circuitry. While silicon, glass, and thermoplastics have been used, they come with problems of their own such as rigidity, high cost, and special tooling needs, which limit their use to a smaller user base. Many strategies to alleviate these common problems with PDMS are lack of general practical applicability, or have limited shelf lives in terms of the modifications they achieve. This restricts large scale implementation and adoption by industrial and research communities. Accordingly, we aim to tailor biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a simple and one step bulk modification approach with novel smart materials to reduce non-specific molecular adsorption and to stabilize long-term cell analysis with PDMS substrates. Smart polymers that blended with PDMS during device manufacture, spontaneously segregate to surfaces when in contact with aqueous solutions and create a < 1 nm layer that reduces non-specific adsorption of organic and biomolecules. Our methods are fully compatible with existing PDMS device manufacture protocols without any additional processing steps. We have demonstrated that our modified PDMS microfluidic system is effective at blocking the adsorption of proteins while retaining the viability of primary rat hepatocytes and preserving the biocompatibility, oxygen permeability, and transparency of the material. We expect this work will enable the development of fouling-resistant biomedical materials from microfluidics to hospital surfaces and tubing.

Keywords: cell culture, microfluidics, non-specific protein adsorption, PDMS, smart polymers

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879 Gas Permeation Behavior of Single and Mixed Gas Components Using an Asymmetric Ceramic Membrane

Authors: Ngozi Claribelle Nwogu, Mohammed Nasir Kajama, Godson Osueke, Edward Gobina


A unique sol–gel dip-coating process to form an asymmetric silica membrane with improved membrane performance and reproducibility has been reported. First, we deposited repeatedly a silica solution on top of a commercial alumina membrane support to improve its structural make up. The coated membrane is further processed under clean room conditions to avoid dust impurity and subsequent drying in an oven for high thermal, chemical and physical stability. The resulting asymmetric membrane exhibits a gradual change in the membrane layer thickness. Compared to a single-layer process using only the membrane support, the dual-layer process improves both flux and selectivity. For the scientifically significant difficulties of natural gas purification, collective CO2, CH4 and H2 gas fluxes and separation factors obtained gave reasonably excellent values. In addition, the membrane selectively separated hydrogen as demonstrated by a high concentration of hydrogen recovery.

Keywords: gas permeation, silica membrane, separation factor, membrane layer thickness

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878 Effects of Stiffness on Endothelial Cells Behavior

Authors: Forough Ataollahi, Sumit Pramanik, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy, Wan Abu Bakar Bin Wan Abas, Noor Azuan Bin Abu Osman


Endothelium proliferation is an important process in cardiovascular homeostasis and can be regulated by extracellular environment, as cells can actively sense mechanical environment. In this study, we evaluated endothelial cell proliferation on PDMS/alumina (Al2O3) composites and pure PDMS. The substrates were prepared from pure PDMS and its composites with 5% and 10% Al2O3 at curing temperature 50˚C for 4 h and then characterized by mechanical, structural and morphological analyses. Higher stiffness was found in the composites compared to the pure PDMS substrate. Cell proliferation of the cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells on substrate materials were evaluated via Resazurin assay and 1, 1’-Dioctadecyl-1, 3, 3, 3’, 3’-Tetramethylindocarbocyanine Perchlorate-Acetylated LDL (Dil-Ac-LDL) cell staining, respectively. The results revealed that stiffer substrates promote more endothelial cells proliferation to the less stiff substrates. Therefore, this study firmly hypothesizes that the stiffness elevates endothelial cells proliferation.

Keywords: stiffness, proliferation, bovine aortic endothelial cells, extra cellular matrix, vascular

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877 Effect of Fluidized Granular Activated Carbon for the Mitigation of Membrane Fouling in Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew


The use of fluidized Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a means of mitigation membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) has received much attention in recent years, especially in anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs). It has been affirmed that the unsteady-state tangential shear conferred by GAC fluidization on membrane surface suppressed the extent of membrane fouling with energy consumption much lower than that of bubbling (i.e., air sparging). In a previous work, the hydrodynamics of the fluidized GAC particles were correlated with membrane fouling mitigation effectiveness. Results verified that the momentum transfer from particle to membrane held a key in fouling mitigation. The goal of the current work is to understand the effect of fluidized GAC on membrane critical flux. Membrane critical flux values were measured by a vertical Direct Observation Through the Membrane (DOTM) setup. The polystyrene particles (known as latex particles) with the particle size of 5 µm were used as model foulant thus to give the number of the foulant on the membrane surface. Our results shed light on the positive effect of fluidized GAC enhancing the critical membrane flux by an order-of-magnitude as compared to that of liquid shear alone. Membrane fouling mitigation was benefitted by the increasing of power input.

Keywords: membrane fouling mitigation, liquid-solid fluidization, critical flux, energy input

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876 A Comparative Assessment of Membrane Bioscrubber and Classical Bioscrubber for Biogas Purification

Authors: Ebrahim Tilahun, Erkan Sahinkaya, Bariş Calli̇


Raw biogas is a valuable renewable energy source however it usually needs removal of the impurities. The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the biogas has detrimental corrosion effects on the cogeneration units. Removal of H2S from the biogas can therefore significantly improve the biogas quality. In this work, a conventional bioscrubber (CBS), and a dense membrane bioscrubber (DMBS) were comparatively evaluated in terms of H2S removal efficiency (RE), CH4 enrichment and alkaline consumption at gas residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Both bioscrubbers were fed with a synthetic biogas containing H2S (1%), CO2 (39%) and CH4 (60%). The results show that high RE (98%) was obtained in the DMBS when gas residence time was 20 min, whereas slightly lower CO2 RE was observed. While in CBS system the outlet H2S concentration was always lower than 250 ppmv, and its H2S RE remained higher than 98% regardless of the gas residence time, although the high alkaline consumption and frequent absorbent replacement limited its cost-effectiveness. The result also indicates that in DMBS when the gas residence time increased to 20 min, the CH4 content in the treated biogas enriched upto 80%. However, while operating the CBS unit the CH4 content of the raw biogas (60%) decreased by three fold. The lower CH4 content in CBS was probably caused by extreme dilution of biogas with air (N2 and O2). According to the results obtained here the DMBS system is a robust and effective biotechnology in comparison with CBS. Hence, DMBS has a better potential for real scale applications.

Keywords: biogas, bioscrubber, desulfurization, PDMS membrane

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875 Micro-Filtration with an Inorganic Membrane

Authors: Benyamina, Ouldabess, Bensalah


The aim of this study is to use membrane technique for filtration of a coloring solution. the preparation of the micro-filtration membranes is based on a natural clay powder with a low cost, deposited on macro-porous ceramic supports. The micro-filtration membrane provided a very large permeation flow. Indeed, the filtration effectiveness of membrane was proved by the total discoloration of bromothymol blue solution with initial concentration of 10-3 mg/L after the first minutes.

Keywords: the inorganic membrane, micro-filtration, coloring solution, natural clay powder

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874 Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Uric Acid in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid at Physiological Level Using Anodized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube–Poldimethylsiloxane Paste Electrode

Authors: Angelo Gabriel Buenaventura, Allan Christopher Yago


A carbon paste electrode (CPE) composed of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) conducting particle and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) binder was used for simultaneous detection of Dopamine (DA) and Uric Acid (UA) in the presence of Ascorbic Acid (AA) at physiological level. The MWCNT-PDMS CPE was initially activated via potentiodynamic cycling in a basic (NaOH) solution, which resulted in enhanced electrochemical properties. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy measurements revealed a significantly lower charge transfer resistance (Rct) for the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 5.08kΩ) as compared to buffer (pH 7)-activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE (Rct = 25.9kΩ). Reversibility analysis of Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple of both Buffer-Activated CPE and OH--Activated CPE showed that the OH—Activated CPE have peak current ratio (Ia/Ic) of 1.11 at 100mV/s while 2.12 for the Buffer-Activated CPE; this showed an electrochemically reversible behavior for Fe(CN)63-/4- redox couple even at relatively fast scan rate using the OH--activated CPE. Enhanced voltammetric signal for DA and significant peak separation between DA and UA was obtained using the OH--activated MWCNT-PDMS CPE in the presence of 50 μM AA via Differential Pulse Voltammetry technique. The anodic peak currents which appeared at 0.263V and 0.414 V were linearly increasing with increasing concentrations of DA and UA, respectively. The linear ranges were obtained at 25 μM – 100 μM for both DA and UA. The detection limit was determined to be 3.86 μM for DA and 5.61 μM for UA. These results indicate a practical approach in the simultaneous detection of important bio-organic molecules using a simple CPE composed of MWCNT and PDMS with base anodization as activation technique.

Keywords: anodization, ascorbic acid, carbon paste electrodes, dopamine, uric acid

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873 Experimental Analysis on the Thermal Performance of Vacuum Membrane Distillation Module Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Hong-Jin Joo, Hee-Yoel Kwak


Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) uses pressure lower than the atmospheric pressure. The feed seawater is capable of producing more vapor at the same temperature than Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD), Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) or Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD). It is advantageous because it is operable at a lower temperature than other membrane distillations. However, no commercial product is available that uses the VMD method, as it is still in the study stage. In this study, therefore, thermal performance test according to the feed water conditions was performed prior to both construction of the demonstration plant, which uses VMD module of the capacity of 400m³/d in South Korea, and commercialization of VMD module with hollow fiber membrane. Such study was performed by designing and constructing the VMD module of the capacity of 2 m³/day which utilizes the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane. The results obtained from the VMD module manufactured by ECONITY Co., Ltd in South Korea, showed that the maximum performance ratio (PR) value of 0.904, feed water temperature of 75 ℃, and the flow rate of 8 m3/h. As the temperature of and flow rate of the feed water increased, the PR value of the VMD module also increased.

Keywords: membrane distillation, vacuum membrane distillation, hollow fiber membrane, desalination

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872 Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil

Authors: M. Obaid, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Fadali O.A


Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-degradability, membrane, nanofibers

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871 Single Layer Carbon Nanotubes Array as an Efficient Membrane for Desalination: A Molecular Dynamics Study

Authors: Elisa Y. M. Ang, Teng Yong Ng, Jingjie Yeo, Rongming Lin, Zishun Liu, K. R. Geethalakshmi


By stacking carbon nanotubes (CNT) one on top of another, single layer CNT arrays can perform water-salt separation with ultra-high permeability and selectivity. Such outer-wall CNT slit membrane is named as the transverse flow CNT membrane. By adjusting the slit size between neighboring CNTs, the membrane can be configured to sieve out different solutes, right down to the separation of monovalent salt ions from water. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results show that the permeability of transverse flow CNT membrane is more than two times that of conventional axial-flow CNT membranes, and orders of magnitude higher than current reverse osmosis membrane. In addition, by carrying out MD simulations with different CNT size, it was observed that the variance in desalination performance with CNT size is small. This insensitivity of the transverse flow CNT membrane’s performance to CNT size is a distinct advantage over axial flow CNT membrane designs. Not only does the membrane operate well under constant pressure desalination operation, but MD simulations further indicate that oscillatory operation can further enhance the membrane’s desalination performance, making it suitable for operation such as electrodialysis reversal. While there are still challenges that need to be overcome, particularly on the physical fabrication of such membrane, it is hope that this versatile membrane design can bring the idea of using low dimensional structures for desalination closer to reality.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, membrane desalination, transverse flow carbon nanotube membrane, molecular dynamics

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870 Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Silicone Containing Phase Change Polymer for Thermal Energy Storage

Authors: Swati Sundararajan, , Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni


The global energy crisis has led to extensive research on alternative sources of energy. The gap between energy supply and demand can be met by thermal energy storage techniques, of which latent heat storage is most effective in the form of phase change materials (PCMs). Phase change materials utilize latent heat absorbed or released over a narrow temperature range of the material undergoing phase transformation, to store energy. The latent heat can be utilized for heating or cooling purposes. It can also be used for converting to electricity. All these actions amount to minimizing the load on electricity demand. These materials retain this property over repeated number of cycles. Different PCMs differ in the phase change temperature and the heat storage capacities. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was cross-linked to hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) in the presence of cross-linker, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and catalyst, dibutyltin dilaurate. Four different ratios of PEG and PDMS were reacted together, and the composition with the lowest PEG concentration resulted in the formation of a flexible solid-solid phase change membrane. The other compositions are obtained in powder form. The enthalpy values of the prepared PCMs were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry and the crystallization properties were analyzed by using X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy. The incorporation of silicone moiety was expected to reduce the hydrophilic character of PEG, which was evaluated by measurement of contact angle. The membrane forming ability of this crosslinked polymer can be extended to several smart packaging, building and textile applications. The detailed synthesis, characterization and performance evaluation of the crosslinked polymer blend will be incorporated in the presentation.

Keywords: phase change materials, poly(ethylene glycol), poly(dimethyl siloxane), thermal energy storage

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869 Effects of SRT and HRT on Treatment Performance of MBR and Membrane Fouling

Authors: M. I. Aida Isma, Azni Idris, Rozita Omar, A. R. Putri Razreena


40L of hollow fiber membrane bioreactor with solids retention times (SRT) of 30, 15 and 4 days were setup for treating synthetic wastewater at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 12, 8 and 4 hours. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of SRT and HRT on membrane fouling. A comparative analysis was carried out for physiochemical quality parameters (turbidity, suspended solids, COD, NH3-N and PO43-). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy diffusive X-ray (EDX) analyzer and particle size distribution (PSD) were used to characterize the membrane fouling properties. The influence of SRT on the quality of effluent, activated sludge quality, and membrane fouling were also correlated. Lower membrane fouling and slower rise in trans-membrane pressure (TMP) were noticed at the longest SRT and HRT of 30d and 12h, respectively. Increasing SRT results in noticeable reduction of dissolved organic matters. The best removal efficiencies of COD, TSS, NH3-N and PO43- were 93%, 98%, 80% and 30% respectively. The high HRT with shorter SRT induced faster fouling rate. The main fouling resistance was cake layer. The most severe membrane fouling was observed at SRT and HRT of 4 and 12, respectively with thickness cake layer of 17 μm as reflected by higher TMP, lower effluent removal and thick sludge cake layer.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, SRT, HRT, fouling

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868 Organic Rejection and Membrane Fouling with Inorganic Alumina Membrane for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Rizwan Ahmad, Soomin Chang, Daeun Kwon, Jeonghwan Kim


Interests in an inorganic membrane are growing rapidly for industrial wastewater treatment due to its excellent chemical and thermal stability over polymeric membrane. Nevertheless, understanding of the membrane rejection and fouling rate caused by the deposit of contaminants on membrane surface and within membrane pores through inorganic porous membranes still requires much attention. Microfiltration alumina membranes were developed and applied for the industrial wastewater treatment to investigate rejection efficiency of organic contaminant and membrane fouling at various operational conditions. In this study, organic rejection and membrane fouling were investigated by using the alumina flat-tubular membrane developed for the treatment of industrial wastewaters. The flat-tubular alumina membranes were immersed in a fluidized membrane reactor added with granular activated carbon (GAC) particles. Fluidization was driven by recirculating a bulk industrial wastewater along membrane surface through the reactor. In the absence of GAC particles, for hazardous anionic dye contaminants, functional group characterized by the organic contaminant was found as one of the main factors affecting both membrane rejection and fouling rate. More fouling on the membrane surface led to the existence of dipolar characterizations and this was more pronounced at lower solution pH, thereby improving membrane rejection accordingly. Similar result was observed with a real metal-plating wastewater. Strong correlation was found that higher fouling rate resulted in higher organic rejection efficiency. Hydrophilicity exhibited by alumina membrane improved the organic rejection efficiency of the membrane due to the formation of hydrophilic fouling layer deposited on it. In addition, less surface roughness of alumina membrane resulted in less fouling rate. Regardless of the operational conditions applied in this study, fluidizing the GAC particles along the surface of alumina membrane was very effective to enhance organic removal efficiency higher than 95% and provide an excellent tool to reduce membrane fouling. Less than 0.1 bar as suction pressure was maintained with the alumina membrane at 25 L/m²hr of permeate set-point flux during the whole operational periods without performing any backwashing and chemical enhanced cleaning for the membrane.

Keywords: alumina membrane, fluidized membrane reactor, industrial wastewater, membrane fouling, rejection

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867 Hydrogen Permeability of BSCY Proton-Conducting Perovskite Membrane

Authors: M. Heidari, A. Safekordi, A. Zamaniyan, E. Ganji Babakhani, M. Amanipour


Perovskite-type membrane Ba0.5Sr0.5Ce0.9Y0.1O3-δ (BSCY) was successfully synthesized by liquid citrate method. The hydrogen permeation and stability of BSCY perovskite-type membranes were studied at high temperatures. The phase structure of the powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize microstructures of the membrane sintered under various conditions. SEM results showed that increasing in sintering temperature, formed dense membrane with clear grains. XRD results for BSCY membrane that sintered in 1150 °C indicated single phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic configuration, and SEM results showed dense structure with clear grain size which is suitable for permeation tests. Partial substitution of Sr with Ba in SCY structure improved the hydrogen permeation flux through the membrane due to the larger ionic radius of Ba2+. BSCY membrane shows high hydrogen permeation flux of 1.6 ml/min.cm2 at 900 °C and partial pressure of 0.6.

Keywords: hydrogen separation, perovskite, proton conducting membrane.

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866 Synthesis and Characterizations of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) Speek Nanofiber Membrane

Authors: N. Hasbullah, K. A. Sekak


The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane were successfully electrospun for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) and their nanosized properties were investigated. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK victrex® grade 90p was sulfonated with concentrated sulfuric acid (95-98% w/w) at room temperature for 60 hours sulfonation times. The degree sulfonation of SPEEK are 70% was determined by H1 NMR and the functional groups of the SPEEK were characterize using FTIR. Then, the SPEEK nanofiber membrane were prepared via electrospinning method using DMAC as a solvent. The SPEEK sample were successfully electrospun using predetermine set up. FESEM show the electrospun fiber mat surface and confirmed the nanostructure membrane cell.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM), sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK), degree sulfonation, Electrospinning, Nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 179