Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Erkan Sahinkaya

19 A Comparative Assessment of Membrane Bioscrubber and Classical Bioscrubber for Biogas Purification

Authors: Ebrahim Tilahun, Erkan Sahinkaya, Bariş Calli̇


Raw biogas is a valuable renewable energy source however it usually needs removal of the impurities. The presence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the biogas has detrimental corrosion effects on the cogeneration units. Removal of H2S from the biogas can therefore significantly improve the biogas quality. In this work, a conventional bioscrubber (CBS), and a dense membrane bioscrubber (DMBS) were comparatively evaluated in terms of H2S removal efficiency (RE), CH4 enrichment and alkaline consumption at gas residence times ranging from 5 to 20 min. Both bioscrubbers were fed with a synthetic biogas containing H2S (1%), CO2 (39%) and CH4 (60%). The results show that high RE (98%) was obtained in the DMBS when gas residence time was 20 min, whereas slightly lower CO2 RE was observed. While in CBS system the outlet H2S concentration was always lower than 250 ppmv, and its H2S RE remained higher than 98% regardless of the gas residence time, although the high alkaline consumption and frequent absorbent replacement limited its cost-effectiveness. The result also indicates that in DMBS when the gas residence time increased to 20 min, the CH4 content in the treated biogas enriched upto 80%. However, while operating the CBS unit the CH4 content of the raw biogas (60%) decreased by three fold. The lower CH4 content in CBS was probably caused by extreme dilution of biogas with air (N2 and O2). According to the results obtained here the DMBS system is a robust and effective biotechnology in comparison with CBS. Hence, DMBS has a better potential for real scale applications.

Keywords: biogas, bioscrubber, desulfurization, PDMS membrane

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18 Effect of Zinc Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-3Al Alloy

Authors: Erkan Koç, Mehmet Ünal, Ercan Candan


In this study, the effect of zinc content (0.5-3.0 wt.%) in as-cast Mg-3Al alloy which were fabricated with high-purity raw materials towards the microstructure and mechanical properties was studied. Microstructure results showed that increase in zinc content changed the secondary phase distribution of the alloys. Mechanical test results demonstrate that with the increasing Zn addition the enhancement of the hardness value by 29%, ultimate tensile strength by 16% and yield strength by 15% can be achieved as well as decreasing of elongation by 33%. The improvement in mechanical properties for Mg-Al–Zn alloys with increasing Zn content up to 3% of weight may be ascribed to second phase strengthening.

Keywords: magnesium, zinc, mechanical properties, Mg17Al12

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17 3D Finite Element Analysis of Yoke Hybrid Electromagnet

Authors: Hasan Fatih Ertuğrul, Beytullah Okur, Huseyin Üvet, Kadir Erkan


The objective of this paper is to analyze a 4-pole hybrid magnetic levitation system by using 3D finite element and analytical methods. The magnetostatic analysis of the system is carried out by using ANSYS MAXWELL-3D package. An analytical model is derived by magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) method. The purpose of magnetostatic analysis is to determine the characteristics of attractive force and rotational torques by the change of air gap clearances, inclination angles and current excitations. The comparison between 3D finite element analysis and analytical results are presented at the rest of the paper.

Keywords: yoke hybrid electromagnet, 3D finite element analysis, magnetic levitation system, magnetostatic analysis

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16 Early Phase Design Study of a Sliding Door with Multibody Simulations

Authors: Erkan Talay, Mustafa Yigit Yagci


For the systems like sliding door, designers should predict not only strength but also dynamic behavior of the system and this prediction usually becomes more critical if design has radical changes refer to previous designs. Also, sometimes physical tests could cost more than expected, especially for rail geometry changes, since this geometry affects design of the body. The aim of the study is to observe and understand the dynamics of the sliding door in virtual environment. For this, multibody dynamic model of the sliding door was built and then affects of various parameters like rail geometry, roller diameters, or center of mass detected. Also, a design of experiment study was performed to observe interactions of these parameters.

Keywords: design of experiment, minimum closing effort, multibody simulation, sliding door

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15 Thermal Assessment of Outer Rotor Direct Drive Gearless Small-Scale Wind Turbines

Authors: Yusuf Yasa, Erkan Mese


This paper investigates the thermal issue of permanent magnet synchronous generator which is frequently used in direct drive gearless small-scale wind turbine applications. Permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is designed with 2.5 kW continuous and 6 kW peak power. Then considering generator geometry, mechanical design of wind turbine is performed. Thermal analysis and optimization is carried out considering all wind turbine components to reach realistic results. These issue is extremely important in research and development(R&D) process for wind turbine applications.

Keywords: direct drive, gearless wind turbine, permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), small-scale wind turbine, thermal management

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14 Corporate Governance and Share Prices: Firm Level Review in Turkey

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Ahmet Diken, Erkan Kara


This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance rating and stock prices of 26 Turkish firms listed in Turkish stock exchange (Borsa Istanbul) by using panel data analysis over five-year period. The paper also investigates the stock performance of firms with governance rating with regards to the market portfolio (i.e. BIST 100 Index) both prior and after governance scoring began. The empirical results show that there is no relation between corporate governance rating and stock prices when using panel data for annual variation in both rating score and stock prices. Further analysis indicates surprising results that while the selected firms outperform the market significantly prior to rating, the same performance does not continue afterwards.

Keywords: corporate governance, stock price, performance, panel data analysis

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13 Toward an Integrated Safe and Sustainable Food System: A General Overview

Authors: Erkan Rehber, Hasan Vural, Sule Turhan


It is a fact that food is a vital need of human beings. As a consumer, everyone has the right to access adequate and safe food. There are considerable development to establish quality standards and schemes to have safe foods and sustainable agriculture alternatives to protect natural resources and environment to reach this target. Recently, there is also a remarkable development in integration and combination of these efforts. Food Safety and Sustainable Agriculture Forum organized in 2014, Beijing shows that it is a global awareness more than being an individual view. Eventually, quality standards, assurance systems applied to conventional agriculture has to be applied to sustainable agriculture alternatives to have a holistic sustainable food chain from seed to fork. All actors of the whole food system from farmer to ultimate consumers, along with the state, have to work together meeting this big challenge.

Keywords: integrated safe, food safety, sustainable food system, consumer

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12 Occupational Safety Need Analysis for Turkey and Europe

Authors: Ismail Muratoglu, Ahmet Meyveci, Abdurrahman Tuncer, Erkan Demirci


This study is dedicated to the analysis of the problems of occupational safety in Turkey, Italy and Poland. The need analysis was applied to three different countries which are Turkey; 4, Poland; 1, Italy; 1 state. The number of the subjects is 891 in Turkey. The number of the subjects is 26 in Italy and the number of the subjects is 19 in Poland. The total number of samples of study is 936. Four different forms (Job Security Experts Form, Student Form, Teacher Form and Company Form) were applied. Results of experts of job security forms are rate of 7.1%. Then, the students’ forms are rate of 34.3%, teacher or instructor forms are rate of 9.9%. The last corporation forms are rate of 48.7%.

Keywords: Europe, need analysis, occupational safety, Turkey, vocational education

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11 Axial Flux Permanent Magnet Motor Design and Optimization by Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Tugce Talay, Kadir Erkan


In this study, the necessary steps for the design of axial flow permanent magnet motors are shown. The design and analysis of the engine were carried out based on ANSYS Maxwell program. The design parameters of the ANSYS Maxwell program and the artificial neural network system were established in MATLAB and the most efficient design parameters were found with the trained neural network. The results of the Maxwell program and the results of the artificial neural networks are compared and optimal working design parameters are found. The most efficient design parameters were submitted to the ANSYS Maxwell 3D design and the cogging torque was examined and design studies were carried out to reduce the cogging torque.

Keywords: AFPM, ANSYS Maxwell, cogging torque, design optimisation, efficiency, NNTOOL

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10 The Effect of Pulling and Rotation Speed on the Jet Grout Columns

Authors: İbrahim Hakkı Erkan, Özcan Tan


The performance of jet grout columns was affected by many controlled and uncontrolled parameters. The leading parameters for the controlled ones can be listed as injection pressure, rod pulling speed, rod rotation speed, number of nozzles, nozzle diameter and Water/Cement ratio. And the uncontrolled parameters are soil type, soil structure, soil layering condition, underground water level, the changes in strength parameters and the rheologic properties of cement in time. In this study, the performance of jet grout columns and the effects of pulling speed and rotation speed were investigated experimentally. For this purpose, a laboratory type jet grouting system was designed for the experiments. Through this system, jet grout columns were produced in three different conditions. The results of the study showed that the grout pressure and the lifting speed significantly affect the performance of the jet grouting columns.

Keywords: jet grout, sandy soils, soil improvement, soilcreate

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9 Analyzing the Factors Effecting Ceramic Porosity Using Integrated Taguchi-Fuzzy Method

Authors: Enes Furkan Erkan, Özer Uygun, Halil Ibrahim Demir, Zeynep Demir


Companies require increase in quality perception level of their products due to competitive conditions. As a result, the tendency to quality and researches to develop the quality are increasing day by day. Cost and time constraints are the biggest problems that companies face in their quality improvement efforts. In this study, factors that affect the porosity of ceramic products are determined and analyzed in a factory producing ceramic tiles. Then, Taguchi method is used in the design phase in order to decrease the number of tests to be performed by means of orthogonal sequences. The most important factors affecting the porosity of ceramic tiles are determined using Taguchi and ANOVA analysis. Based on the analyses, the most affecting factors are determined to be used in the fuzzy implementation stage. Then, the fuzzy rules were established with the factors affecting porosity by the experts’ opinion. Thus, porosity result could be obtained not only for the specified factor levels but also for intermediate values. In this way, it has been provided convenience to the factory in terms of cost and quality improvement.

Keywords: fuzzy, porosity, Taguchi Method, Taguchi-Fuzzy

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8 An Investigation on Overstrength Factor (Ω) of Reinforced Concrete Buildings in Turkish Earthquake Draft Code (TEC-2016)

Authors: M. Hakan Arslan, I. Hakkı Erkan


Overstrength factor is an important parameter of load reduction factor. In this research, the overstrength factor (Ω) of reinforced concrete (RC) buildings and the parameters of Ω in TEC-2016 draft version have been explored. For this aim, 48 RC buildings have been modeled according to the current seismic code TEC-2007 and Turkish Building Code-500-2000 criteria. After modelling step, nonlinear static pushover analyses have been applied to these buildings by using TEC-2007 Section 7. After the nonlinear pushover analyses, capacity curves (lateral load-lateral top displacement curves) have been plotted for 48 RC buildings. Using capacity curves, overstrength factors (Ω) have been derived for each building. The obtained overstrength factor (Ω) values have been compared with TEC-2016 values for related building types, and the results have been interpreted. According to the obtained values from the study, overstrength factor (Ω) given in TEC-2016 draft code is found quite suitable.

Keywords: reinforced concrete buildings, overstrength factor, earthquake, static pushover analysis

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7 Analyzing of Arch Steel Beams with Pre-Stressed Cables

Authors: Erkan Polat, Barlas Ozden Caglayan


By day-to-day developed techniques, it is possible to pass through larger openings by using smaller beam-column sections. Parallel to this trend, it is aimed to produce not only smaller but also economical and architecturally more attractive beams. This study aims to explain the structural behavior of arch steel beam reinforced by using post-tension cable. Due to the effect of post-stressed cable, the arch beam load carrying capacity increases and an optimized section in a smaller size can be obtained with a better architectural view. It also allows better mechanical and applicational solutions for buildings. For better understanding the behavior of the reinforced beam, steel beam and arch steel beam with post-tensioned cable are all modeled and analyzed by using SAP2000 Finite element computer program and compared with each other. Also, full scale test specimens were prepared to test for figuring out the structural behavior and compare the results with the computer model results. Test results are very promising. The similarity of the results between the test and computer analysis shows us that there are no extra knowledge and effort of engineer is needed to calculate such beams. The predicted (and proved by tests) beam carrying capacity is 35% higher than the unreinforced beam carrying capacity. Even just three full scale tests were completed, it is seen that the ratio (%35) may be increased ahead by adjusting the cable post-tension force of beams in much smaller sizes.

Keywords: arch steel beams, pre-stressed cables, finite element, specimen Test

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6 Replacement of Dietary Soybean Meal by Dried Grains with Solubles on Liver Histology of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

Authors: Baki Aydin, Erkan Gumus


The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal by dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Five isoproteic (∼45% crude protein) and isocaloric (∼3570 kcal/kg digestible energy) diets were formulated: Conrol-1 (Fish meal control), Control-2, DDGS33, DDGS66 and DDGS100 which included 0%, 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% DDGS, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish with an average weight of 20.46 g were fed three times a day until apparent satiation during 84 days. The obtained results showed that diameters of hepatocyte nuclei were not statistically different among the groups. The histological examination of liver sections from the fish fed the Control-1 diet showed normal histology, mild cytoplasm vacuoles and appears to be central to hepatocyte nuclei. Fish fed diets containing soybean meal and DDGS presented variable levels of cytoplasmic vacuolization and some with eccentric hepatocyte nuclei. But, fish fed diet soybean meal based control (Control-2) showed the highest hepatocyte nuclei displacement, and cytoplasm vacuoles compared the DDGS30 diet. DDGS20 and DDGS30 fish also showed more regular hepatocytes than in Control-2 fish. The results of this study demonstrated that fish fed diets containing increasing DDGS levels exhibited less histomorphological changes compared the Control-2 diet.

Keywords: DDGS, soybean meal, rainbow trout, hepatocyte

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5 Triplet Shear Tests on Retrofitted Brickwork Masonry Walls

Authors: Berna Istegun, Erkan Celebi


The main objective of this experimental study is to assess the shear strength and the crack behavior of the triplets built of perforated brickwork masonry elements. In order to observe the influence of shear resistance and energy dissipating before and after retrofitting applications by using the reinforcing system, static-cyclic shear tests were employed in the structural mechanics laboratory of Sakarya University. The reinforcing system is composed of hybrid multiaxial seismic fabric consisting of alkali resistant glass and polypropylene fibers. The plaster as bonding material used in the specimen’s retrofitting consists of expanded glass granular. In order to acquire exact measuring data about the failure behavior of the two mortar joints under shear stressing, vertical load-controlled cylinder having force capacity of 50 kN and loading rate of 1.5 mm/min. with an internal inductive displacement transducers is carried out perpendicular to the triplet specimens. In this study, a total of six triplet specimens with textile reinforcement were prepared for these shear bond tests. The three of them were produced as single-sided reinforced triplets with seismic fabric, while the others were strengthened on both sides. In addition, three triplet specimens without retrofitting and plaster were also tested as reference samples. The obtained test results were given in the manner of force-displacement relationships, ductility coefficients and shear strength parameters comparatively. It is concluded that two-side seismic textile applications on masonry elements with relevant plaster have considerably increased the sheer force resistance and the ductility capacity.

Keywords: expanded glass granular, perforated brickwork, retrofitting, seismic fabric, triplet shear tests

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4 CAD Tool for Parametric Design modification of Yacht Hull Surface Models

Authors: Shahroz Khan, Erkan Gunpinar, Kemal Mart


Recently parametric design techniques became a vital concept in the field of Computer Aided Design (CAD), which helps to provide sophisticated platform to the designer in order to automate the design process in efficient time. In these techniques, design process starts by parameterizing the important features of design models (typically the key dimensions), with the implementation of design constraints. The design constraints help to retain the overall shape of the model while modifying its parameters. However, the process of initializing an appropriate number of design parameters and constraints is the crucial part of parametric design techniques, especially for complex surface models such as yacht hull. This paper introduces a method to create complex surface models in favor of parametric design techniques, a method to define the right number of parameters and respective design constraints, and a system to implement design parameters in contract to design constraints schema. For this, in our proposed approach the design process starts by dividing the yacht hull into three sections. Each section consists of different shape lines, which form the overall shape of yacht hull. The shape lines are created using Cubic Bezier Curves, which allow larger design flexibility. Design parameters and constraints are defined on the shape lines in 3D design space to facilitate the designers for better and individual handling of parameters. Afterwards, shape modifiers are developed, which allow the modification of each parameter while satisfying the respective set of criteria and design constraints. Such as, geometric continuities should be maintained between the shape lines of the three sections, fairness of the hull surfaces should be preserved after modification and while design modification, effect of a single parameter should be negligible on other parameters. The constraints are defined individually on shape lines of each section and mutually between the shape lines of two connecting sections. In order to validate and visualize design results of our shape modifiers, a real time graphic interface is created.

Keywords: design parameter, design constraints, shape modifies, yacht hull

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3 Semi-Automatic Segmentation of Mitochondria on Transmission Electron Microscopy Images Using Live-Wire and Surface Dragging Methods

Authors: Mahdieh Farzin Asanjan, Erkan Unal Mumcuoglu


Mitochondria are cytoplasmic organelles of the cell, which have a significant role in the variety of cellular metabolic functions. Mitochondria act as the power plants of the cell and are surrounded by two membranes. Significant morphological alterations are often due to changes in mitochondrial functions. A powerful technique in order to study the three-dimensional (3D) structure of mitochondria and its alterations in disease states is Electron microscope tomography. Detection of mitochondria in electron microscopy images due to the presence of various subcellular structures and imaging artifacts is a challenging problem. Another challenge is that each image typically contains more than one mitochondrion. Hand segmentation of mitochondria is tedious and time-consuming and also special knowledge about the mitochondria is needed. Fully automatic segmentation methods lead to over-segmentation and mitochondria are not segmented properly. Therefore, semi-automatic segmentation methods with minimum manual effort are required to edit the results of fully automatic segmentation methods. Here two editing tools were implemented by applying spline surface dragging and interactive live-wire segmentation tools. These editing tools were applied separately to the results of fully automatic segmentation. 3D extension of these tools was also studied and tested. Dice coefficients of 2D and 3D for surface dragging using splines were 0.93 and 0.92. This metric for 2D and 3D for live-wire method were 0.94 and 0.91 respectively. The root mean square symmetric surface distance values of 2D and 3D for surface dragging was measured as 0.69, 0.93. The same metrics for live-wire tool were 0.60 and 2.11. Comparing the results of these editing tools with the results of automatic segmentation method, it shows that these editing tools, led to better results and these results were more similar to ground truth image but the required time was higher than hand-segmentation time

Keywords: medical image segmentation, semi-automatic methods, transmission electron microscopy, surface dragging using splines, live-wire

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2 Improvement in Drying Characteristics of Raisin by Carbonic Maceration– Process Optimization

Authors: Nursac Akyol, Merve S. Turan, Mustafa Ozcelik, Erdogan Kucukoner, Erkan Karacabey


Traditional raisin production is a long time drying process under sunlight. During this procedure, grapes are open to some environmental effects besides the adverse effects of the long drying period. Thus, there is a need to develop an alternative method being applicable instead of traditional one. To this extent, a combination of a potential pretreatment (carbonic maceration, CM) with convectional oven drying was examined. CM application was used in raisin production (grape drying) as a pretreatment process before oven drying. Pressure, temperature and time were examined as application parameters of CM. In conventional oven drying, the temperature is a process variable. The aim is to find out how CM and convectional drying processes affect the drying characteristics of grapes as well as their physical and chemical properties. For this purpose, the response surface method was used to determine both the effects of the variables and the optimum pretreatment and drying conditions. The optimum conditions of CM for raisin production were 0.3 MPa of pressure value, 4°C of application temperature and 8 hours of application time. The optimized drying temperature was 77°C. The results showed that the application of CM before the drying process improved the drying characteristics. Drying took only 389 minutes for grapes pretreated by CM under optimum conditions and 495 minutes for the control group dried only by the conventional drying process. According to these results, a decrease of 21% was achieved in the time requirement for raisin production. Also, it was observed that the samples dried under optimum conditions had similar physical properties as those the control group had. It was seen that raisin, which was dried under optimum conditions were in better condition in terms of some of the bioactive contents compared to control groups. In light of all results, it is seen that CM has an important potential in the industrial drying of grape samples. The current study was financially supported by TUBITAK, Turkey (Project no: 116R038).

Keywords: drying time, pretreatment, response surface methodlogy, total phenolic

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1 Modeling of Foundation-Soil Interaction Problem by Using Reduced Soil Shear Modulus

Authors: Yesim Tumsek, Erkan Celebi


In order to simulate the infinite soil medium for soil-foundation interaction problem, the essential geotechnical parameter on which the foundation stiffness depends, is the value of soil shear modulus. This parameter directly affects the site and structural response of the considered model under earthquake ground motions. Strain-dependent shear modulus under cycling loads makes difficult to estimate the accurate value in computation of foundation stiffness for the successful dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. The aim of this study is to discuss in detail how to use the appropriate value of soil shear modulus in the computational analyses and to evaluate the effect of the variation in shear modulus with strain on the impedance functions used in the sub-structure method for idealizing the soil-foundation interaction problem. Herein, the impedance functions compose of springs and dashpots to represent the frequency-dependent stiffness and damping characteristics at the soil-foundation interface. Earthquake-induced vibration energy is dissipated into soil by both radiation and hysteretic damping. Therefore, flexible-base system damping, as well as the variability in shear strengths, should be considered in the calculation of impedance functions for achievement a more realistic dynamic soil-foundation interaction model. In this study, it has been written a Matlab code for addressing these purposes. The case-study example chosen for the analysis is considered as a 4-story reinforced concrete building structure located in Istanbul consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames with a total height of 12m from the basement level. The foundation system composes of two different sized strip footings on clayey soil with different plasticity (Herein, PI=13 and 16). In the first stage of this study, the shear modulus reduction factor was not considered in the MATLAB algorithm. The static stiffness, dynamic stiffness modifiers and embedment correction factors of two rigid rectangular foundations measuring 2m wide by 17m long below the moment frames and 7m wide by 17m long below the shear walls are obtained for translation and rocking vibrational modes. Afterwards, the dynamic impedance functions of those have been calculated for reduced shear modulus through the developed Matlab code. The embedment effect of the foundation is also considered in these analyses. It can easy to see from the analysis results that the strain induced in soil will depend on the extent of the earthquake demand. It is clearly observed that when the strain range increases, the dynamic stiffness of the foundation medium decreases dramatically. The overall response of the structure can be affected considerably because of the degradation in soil stiffness even for a moderate earthquake. Therefore, it is very important to arrive at the corrected dynamic shear modulus for earthquake analysis including soil-structure interaction.

Keywords: clay soil, impedance functions, soil-foundation interaction, sub-structure approach, reduced shear modulus

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