Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Alfred Pühler

36 A Comparative, Epidemiological Study of Acute Renal Colic Presentations to Major Academic Emergency Departments in Doha, Qatar and Melbourne, Australia

Authors: Sameer A. Pathan, Biswadev Mitra, Zain A. Bhutta, Isma Qureshi, Elle Spencer, Asmaa A. Hameed, Sana Nadeem, Ramsha Tahir, Shahzad Anjum, Peter A. Cameron

Abstract:

Background: This study aimed to compare epidemiology, clinical presentations, management and outcomes of renal colic presentations in two major academic centers and discuss potential implications of these results for the applicability of current evidence in the management of renal colic. Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with renal colic who presented to the Hamad General Hospital Emergency Department (HGH-ED), Qatar, and The Alfred ED, Melbourne, Australia, during a period of one year from August 1, 2012, to July 3, 2013. Cases were identified using ICD-9-CM codes, and an electronic template was used to record the data on predefined clinical variables. Results: A total of 12,223 from the HGH-ED and 384 from The Alfred ED were identified as renal colic presentations during the study period. The rate of renal colic presentations at the HGH-ED was 27.9 per 1000 ED visits compared to 6.7 per 1000 ED visits at The Alfred ED. Patients presenting to the HGH-ED were significantly younger [34.9 years (29.0- 43.4) than The Alfred ED [48 years (37-60); P < 0.001]. The median stone size was larger in the HGH-ED group [6 (4-8) mm] versus The Alfred ED group [4 (3-6) mm, P < 0.001]. The intervention rate in the stone-positive population was significantly higher in the HGH-ED group as opposed to The Alfred ED group (38.7% versus 11.9%, p<0.001). At the time of discharge, The Alfred ED group received less analgesic prescriptions (55.8% versus 83.5%, P < 0.001) and more tamsulosin prescriptions (25.3% versus 11.7%, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Renal colic presentations to the HGH-ED, Qatar, were younger, with larger stone size, compared to The Alfred ED, whereas, medical expulsion therapy use was higher at the Alfred ED. Differences in epidemiology should be considered while tailoring strategies for effective management of patients with renal colic in the given setting.

Keywords: kidney stones, urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, renal colic, epidemiology

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35 Insights into the Annotated Genome Sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 Isolated from a Thermophilic Rural Biogas Producing Plant

Authors: Irena Maus, Katharina Gabriella Cibis, Andreas Bremges, Yvonne Stolze, Geizecler Tomazetto, Daniel Wibberg, Helmut König, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter

Abstract:

Within the agricultural sector, the production of biogas from organic substrates represents an economically attractive technology to generate bioenergy. Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biomass decomposition and biogas production. Recently, species belonging to the phylum Thermotogae were detected in thermophilic biogas-production plants utilizing renewable primary products for biomethanation. To analyze adaptive genome features of representative Thermotogae strains, Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 was isolated from a rural thermophilic biogas plant (54°C) and completely sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq system. Sequencing and assembly of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome yielded a circular chromosome with a size of 2,053,097 bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. Functional annotation of the complete genome sequence revealed that the thermophilic strain L3 encodes several genes predicted to facilitate growth of this microorganism on arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, fructose, raffinose, ribose, cellobiose, lactose, xylose, xylan, lactate and mannitol. Acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are supposed to be end products of the fermentation process. The latter gene products are metabolites for methanogenic archaea, the key players in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness of dominant biogas community members within selected digester systems to D. tunisiensis L3, metagenome sequences from corresponding communities were mapped on the L3 genome. These fragment recruitments revealed that metagenome reads originating from a thermophilic biogas plant covered 95% of D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence. In conclusion, availability of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence and insights into its metabolic capabilities provide the basis for biotechnological exploitation of genome features involved in thermophilic fermentation processes utilizing renewable primary products.

Keywords: genome sequence, thermophilic biogas plant, Thermotogae, Defluviitoga tunisiensis

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34 'Typical' Criminals: A Schutzian Influenced Theoretical Framework Exploring Type and Stereotype Formation

Authors: Mariam Shah

Abstract:

The way the human mind interprets and comprehends the world it occupies has long been a topic of discussion amongst philosophers and phenomenologists. This paper will focus predominantly on the ideologies espoused by the phenomenologist Alfred Schutz and will investigate how we attribute meaning to an event through the process of typification, and the production and usage of ‘types' and ‘stereotypes.' This paper will then discuss how subjective ideologies innate within us result in unique and subjective decision outcomes, based on a phenomenologically influenced theoretical framework which will illustrate how we form ‘types’ in order to ‘typecast’ and form judgements of everything and everyone we experience. The framework used will be founded in theory espoused by Alfred Schutz, and will review the different types of knowledge we rely on innately to inform our judgements, the relevance we attribute to the information which we acquire, and how we consciously and unconsciously apply this framework to everyday situations. An assessment will then be made of the potential impact that these subjective meaning structures can present when dispensing justice in criminal courts. This paper will investigate how these subjective meaning structures can influence our consciousness on both a conscious and unconscious level, and how this could potentially result in bias judicial outcomes due to negative ‘types’ or ‘stereotypes.' This paper will ultimately illustrate that we unconsciously and unreflexively use pre-formed types and stereotypes to inform our judgements and give meaning to what we have just experienced.

Keywords: Alfred Schutz, criminal courts, decision making, judicial decision making, phenomenology, Schutzian stereotypes, types, typification

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33 Auteur 3D Filmmaking: From Hitchcock’s Protrusion Technique to Godard’s Immersion Aesthetic

Authors: Delia Enyedi

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Throughout film history, the regular return of 3D cinema has been discussed in connection to crises caused by the advent of television or the competition of the Internet. In addition, the three waves of stereoscopic 3D (from 1952 up to 1983) and its current digital version have been blamed for adding a challenging technical distraction to the viewing experience. By discussing the films Dial M for Murder (1954) and Goodbye to Language (2014), the paper aims to analyze the response of recognized auteurs to the use of 3D techniques in filmmaking. For Alfred Hitchcock, the solution to attaining perceptual immersion paradoxically resided in restraining the signature effect of 3D, namely protrusion. In Jean-Luc Godard’s vision, 3D techniques allowed him to explore perceptual absorption by means of depth of field, for which he had long advocated as being central to cinema. Thus, both directors contribute to the foundation of an auteur aesthetic in 3D filmmaking.

Keywords: Alfred Hitchcock, authorship, 3D filmmaking, Jean-Luc Godard, perceptual absorption, perceptual immersion

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32 The Family as an Agent for Change in Aerobic Activity and Obesity in Grade 2-3 Schoolchildren

Authors: T. Goldstein, E. Serok, J. D. Kark

Abstract:

Background and Aim: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and in Israel. To meet this challenge, our study tests a new educational approach through a controlled school-based trial to achieve an improvement in eating habits, aerobic activity, and reduced obesity in Grades 2-3. Methods and Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial allocated 4 elementary schools (3rd and 2nd-grade classes each) to intervention or control groups. This allocation was switched with the next cohort of children. Recruitment was in first grade, randomization at the beginning of second grade, evaluation of results at the end of second grade and the beginning of third grade — intervention: 5 joint parent-children classroom activities on health topics and 5 educational workshops for parents only. Alfred Adler's concepts were guiding principles. Subjects: Of 743 children in 23-second grade classes, parents provided informed consent for 508 (68%). Information of retention health habits continued for third grade. Additional parental approvals were required. Parents provided informed consent for third-grade follow-up for 432. Results: At the end of 2nd grade, the amount of aerobic activity increased in the intervention group in comparison with the control group, the difference being marginally statistically significant (p=0.061). There is a significant difference between the groups in the percentage of "no activity being done" reported at the end of second grade when in the experimental group, the percentage is lower than the control. There are differences between genders in the percentage of aerobic activity at the end of second grade (p=0.044) and in the third grade (p < 0.0001). Height increased significantly (p=0.030 ), and waist circumference declined significantly (p=0.021) in the intervention compared with the control group. There were no significant between-group differences in BMI and weight. Conclusion: There were encouraging changes in aerobic activity and in anthropometric measurements. To maintain changes over longer periods, refreshing these nutrition and activity themes annually in school using the model is required.

Keywords: aerobic activity, child obesity, Alfred Adler, schoolchildren

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31 Recent Trends in Supply Chain Delivery Models

Authors: Alfred L. Guiffrida

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A review of the literature on supply chain delivery models which use delivery windows to measure delivery performance is presented. The review herein serves to meet the following objectives: (i) provide a synthesis of previously published literature on supply chain delivery performance models, (ii) provide in one paper a consolidation of research that can serve as a single source to keep researchers up to date with the research developments in supply chain delivery models, and (iii) identify gaps in the modeling of supply chain delivery performance which could stimulate new research agendas.

Keywords: delivery performance, delivery window, supply chain delivery models, supply chain performance

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30 Analyzing Defects with Failure Assessment Diagrams of Gas Pipelines

Authors: Alfred Hasanaj , Ardit Gjeta, Miranda Kullolli

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The approach in analyzing defects on different pipe lines is conducted through Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD). These methods of analyses have further extended in recent years. This approach is used to identify and stress out a solution for the defects which randomly occur with gas pipes such are corrosion defects, gauge defects, and combination of defects where gauge and dents are included. Few of the defects are to be analyzed in this paper where our main focus will be the fracture of cast Iron pipes, elastic-plastic failure and plastic collapse of X52 steel pipes for gas transport. We need to conduct a calculation of probability of the defects in order to predict and avoid such costly defects.

Keywords: defects, failure assessment diagrams, steel pipes, safety factor

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29 Strategies of Translation: Unlocking the Secret of 'Locksley Hall'

Authors: Raja Lahiani

Abstract:

'Locksley Hall' is a poem that Lord Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892) published in 1842. It is believed to be his first attempt to face as a poet some of the most painful of his experiences, as it is a study of his rising out of sickness into health, conquering his selfish sorrow by faith and hope. So far, in Victorian scholarship as in modern criticism, 'Locksley Hall' has been studied and approached as a canonical Victorian English poem. The aim of this project is to prove that some strategies of translation were used in this poem in such a way as to guarantee its assimilation into the English canon and hence efface to a large extent its Arabic roots. In its relationship with its source text, 'Locksley Hall' is at the same time mimetic and imitative. As part of the terminology used in translation studies, ‘imitation’ means almost the exact opposite of what it means in ordinary English. By adopting an imitative procedure, a translator would do something totally different from the original author, wandering far and freely from the words and sense of the original text. An imitation is thus aimed at an audience which wants the work of the particular translator rather than the work of the original poet. Hallam Tennyson, the poet’s biographer, asserts that 'Locksley Hall' is a simple invention of place, incidents, and people, though he notes that he remembers the poet claiming that Sir William Jones’ prose translation of the Mu‘allaqat (pre-Islamic poems) gave him the idea of the poem. A comparative work would prove that 'Locksley Hall' mirrors a great deal of Tennyson’s biography and hence is not a simple invention of details as asserted by his biographer. It would be challenging to prove that 'Locksley Hall' shares so many details with the Mu‘allaqat, as declared by Tennyson himself, that it needs to be studied as an imitation of the Mu‘allaqat of Imru’ al-Qays and ‘Antara in addition to its being a poem in its own right. Thus, the main aim of this work is to unveil the imitative and mimetic strategies used by Tennyson in his composition of 'Locksley Hall.' It is equally important that this project researches the acculturating assimilative tools used by the poet to root his poem in its Victorian English literary, cultural and spatiotemporal settings. This work adopts a comparative methodology. Comparison is done at different levels. The poem will be contextualized in its Victorian English literary framework. Alien details related to structure, socio-spatial setting, imagery and sound effects shall be compared to Arabic poems from the Mu‘allaqat collection. This would determine whether the poem is a translation, an adaption, an imitation or a genuine work. The ultimate objective of the project is to unveil in this canonical poem a new dimension that has for long been either marginalized or ignored. By proving that 'Locksley Hall' is an imitation of classical Arabic poetry, the project aspires to consolidate its literary value and open up new gates of accessing it.

Keywords: comparative literature, imitation, Locksley Hall, Lord Alfred Tennyson, translation, Victorian poetry

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28 Systematic Process for Constructing an Augmented Reality Display Platform

Authors: Cheng Chieh Hsu, Alfred Chen, Yu-Pin Ma, Meng-Jie Lin, Fu Pai Chiu, Yi-Yan Sie

Abstract:

In this study, it is attempted to construct an augmented reality display platform (ARDP), and its objectives are two facets, i.e. 1) providing a creative display mode for museums/historical heritages and 2) providing a benchmark for human-computer interaction professionals to build an augmented reality display platform. A general augmented reality theory has been explored in the very beginning and afterwards a systematic process model is proposed. There are three major core tasks to be done for the platform, i.e. 1) constructing the physical interactive table, 2) designing the media, and 3) designing the media carrier. In order to describe how the platform manipulates, the authors have introduced Tainan Confucius Temple, a cultural heritage in Taiwan, as a case study. As a result, a systematic process with thirteen steps has been developed and it aims at providing a rational method for constructing the platform.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, media, media carrier, augmented reality display platform

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27 Influence of Silica Surface Hydrophilicity on Adsorbed Water and Isopropanol Studied by in-situ NMR

Authors: Hyung T. Kwak, Jun Gao, Yao An, Alfred Kleinhammes, Yue Wu

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Surface wettability is a crucial factor in oil recovery. In oil industry, the rock wettability involves the interplay between water, oil, and solid surface. Therefore, studying the interplay between adsorptions of water and hydrocarbon molecules on solid surface would be very informative for understanding rock wettability. Here we use the in-situ Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) gas isotherm technique to study competitive adsorptions of water and isopropanol, an intermediate step from hydrocarbons. This in-situ NMR technique obtains information on thermodynamic properties such as the isotherm, molecular dynamics via spin relaxation measurements, and adsorption kinetics such as how fast the system can reach thermal equilibrium after changes of vapor pressures. Using surfaces of silica glass beads, which can be modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, we obtained information on the influence of surface hydrophilicity on the state of surface water via obtained thermodynamic and dynamic properties.

Keywords: Wettability, NMR, Gas Isotherm, Hydrophilicity, adsorption

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26 A Mixed Approach to Assess Information System Risk, Operational Risk, and Congolese Microfinance Institutions Performance

Authors: Alfred Kamate Siviri, Angelus Mafikiri Tsongo, Jean Robert Kala Kamdjoug

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Digitalization and information systems well organized have been selected as relevant measures to mitigate operational risks within organizations. Unfortunately, information system comes with new threats that can cause severe damage and quick organization lockout. This study aims to measure perceived information system risks and their effects on operational risks within the microfinance institution in D.R. Congo. Also, the factors influencing the operational risk are identified, and the link between operational risk with other risks and performance is to be assessed. The study proposes a research model drawn on the combination of Resources-Based-View, dynamic capabilities, the agency theory, the Information System Security Model, and social theories of risk. Therefore, we suggest adopting a mixed methods research with the sole aim of increasing the literature that already exists on perceived operational risk assessment and its link with other risk and performance, a focus on IT risk.

Keywords: Democratic Republic Congo, information system risk, microfinance performance, operational risk

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25 Fertility Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Role Family Planning Programs

Authors: Vincent Otieno, Alfred Agwanda, Anne Khasakhala

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Among the neo-Malthusian adherents, it is believed that rapid population growth strain countries’ capacity and performance. Fertility have however decelerated in most of the countries in the recent past. Scholars have concentrated on wide range of factors associated with fertility majorly at the national scale with some opining that analysis of trends and differentials in the various fertility parameters have been discussed extensively. However, others believe that considerably less attention has been paid to the fertility preference- a pathway through which various variables act on fertility. The Sub-Saharan African countries’ disparities amid almost similarities in policies is a cause of concern to demographers. One would point at the meager synergies that have been focused on the fertility preference as well, especially at the macro scale. Using Bongaarts reformulation of Easterlin and Crimmins (1985) conceptual scheme, the understanding of the current transition based on the fertility preference in general would help to provide explanations to the observed latest dynamics. This study therefore is an attempt to explain the current fertility transition through women’s fertility preference. Results reveal that indeed fertility transition is on course in most of the sub-Saharan countries with huge disparities in fertility preferences and its implementation indices.

Keywords: fertility preference, the degree of implementation index, sub-Saharan Africa, transition

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24 Probabilistic Gathering of Agents with Simple Sensors: Distributed Algorithm for Aggregation of Robots Equipped with Binary On-Board Detectors

Authors: Ariel Barel, Rotem Manor, Alfred M. Bruckstein

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We present a probabilistic gathering algorithm for agents that can only detect the presence of other agents in front of or behind them. The agents act in the plane and are identical and indistinguishable, oblivious, and lack any means of direct communication. They do not have a common frame of reference in the plane and choose their orientation (direction of possible motion) at random. The analysis of the gathering process assumes that the agents act synchronously in selecting random orientations that remain fixed during each unit time-interval. Two algorithms are discussed. The first one assumes discrete jumps based on the sensing results given the randomly selected motion direction, and in this case, extensive experimental results exhibit probabilistic clustering into a circular region with radius equal to the step-size in time proportional to the number of agents. The second algorithm assumes agents with continuous sensing and motion, and in this case, we can prove gathering into a very small circular region in finite expected time.

Keywords: control, decentralized, gathering, multi-agent, simple sensors

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23 An Interactive Platform Displaying Mixed Reality Media

Authors: Alfred Chen, Cheng Chieh Hsu, Yu-Pin Ma, Meng-Jie Lin, Fu Pai Chiu, Yi-Yan Sie

Abstract:

This study is attempted to construct a human-computer interactive platform system that has mainly consisted of an augmented hardware system, a software system, a display table, and mixed media. This system has provided with human-computer interaction services through an interactive platform for the tourism industry. A well designed interactive platform, integrating of augmented reality and mixed media, has potential to enhance museum display quality and diversity. Besides, it will create a comprehensive and creative display mode for most museums and historical heritages. Therefore, it is essential to let public understand what the platform is, how it functions, and most importantly how one builds an interactive augmented platform. Hence the authors try to elaborate the construction process of the platform in detail. Thus, there are three issues to be considered, i.e.1) the theory and application of augmented reality, 2) the hardware and software applied, and 3) the mixed media presented. In order to describe how the platform works, Courtesy Door of Tainan Confucius Temple has been selected as case study in this study. As a result, a developed interactive platform has been presented by showing the physical entity object, along with virtual mixing media such as text, images, animation, and video. This platform will result in providing diversified and effective information that will be delivered to the users.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, mixed reality, mixed media, tourism

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22 Potential of the Bri and the Indo-Pacific in South Asia: A Comparative Case Study

Authors: Nahian Salsabeel, Faria Leera

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—“Whoever controls the Indian Ocean, dominates Asia. This ocean is the key to the seven seas. In the 21st century, the destiny of the world will be decided on its waters” -Alfred Mahan South Asia is increasingly becoming a hub for international politics. Numerous ventures are taking place in the strategic region. Of them, the most prominent is the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Originating from the concept of ancient Silk Route, the Chinese Xi Jin Ping regime looks to reestablish the vast connectivity project to connect the world through infrastructure and trade. On the other hand, the US, teamed up with India, Australia and Japan, thereby forming the Quad, have launched their own foreign policy, the Indo-Pacific Strategy. The ambitious 21st century initiative for the development of maritime trade, security and governance focuses critical importance to the Indo-Pacific region, especially to South Asia. Against the backdrop of contemporary political scenario, both the Quad and China airs to establish their own footprint across the region through respective mega projects, the Indo-Pacific Strategy and the BRI. This research employs a comparative case study research method, using a secondary research design. The paper looks at the variety of opportunities and challenges posed by the BRI and the Indo Pacific, and gives the comparative study on both ends.

Keywords: BRI, Foreign Policy, Indo-Pacific, South Asia

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21 Using the Nerlovian Adjustment Model to Assess the Response of Farmers to Price and Other Related Factors: Evidence from Sierra Leone Rice Cultivation

Authors: Alhaji M. H. Conteh, Xiangbin Yan, Alfred V. Gborie

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The goal of this study was to increase the awareness of the description and assessments of rice acreage response and to offer mechanisms for agricultural policy scrutiny. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique was utilized to determine the coefficients of acreage response models for the rice varieties. The magnitudes of the coefficients (λ) of both the ROK lagged and NERICA lagged acreages were found positive and highly significant, which indicates that farmers’ adjustment rate was very low. Regarding lagged actual price for both the ROK and NERICE rice varieties, the short-run price elasticities were lower than long-run, which is suggesting a long-term adjustment of the acreage, is under the crop. However, the apparent recommendations for policy transformation are to open farm gate prices and to decrease government’s involvement in agricultural sector especially in the acquisition of agricultural inputs. Impending research have to be centred on how this might be better realized. Necessary conditions should be made available to the private sector by means of minimizing price volatility. In accordance with structural reforms, it is necessary to convey output prices to farmers with minimum distortion. There is a need to eradicate price subsidies and control, which generate distortion in the market in addition to huge financial costs.

Keywords: acreage response, rate of adjustment, rice varieties, Sierra Leone

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20 Utilization of Traditional Medicine for Treatment of Selected Illnesses among Crop-Farming Households in Edo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adegoke A. Adeyelu, Adeola T. Adeyelu, S. D. Y. Alfred, O. O. Fasina

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This study examines the use of traditional medicines for the treatment of selected illnesses among crop-farming households in Edo State, Nigeria. A sample size of ninety (90) households were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire alongside focus group discussions (FGD). Result shows that the mean age was 50 years old, the majority (76.7%) of the sampled farmers were below 60 years old. The majority (80.0%) of the farmers were married, about (92.2%) had formal education. It exposes that the majority of the respondents (76.7%) had household size of between 1-10 persons, about 55.6% had spent 11 years and above in crop farming. malaria (8th ), waist pains (7th ), farm injuries ( 6th ), cough (5th), acute headache(4th), skin infection (3rd), typhoid (2nd) and tuberculosis (1st ) were the most and least treated illness. Respondents (80%) had spent N10,000.00 ($27) and less on treatment of illnesses, 8.9% had spent N10,000.00-N20,000.0027 ($27-$55) 4.4% had spent between N20,100-N30,000.00 ($27-$83) while 6.7% had spent more than N30,100.00 ($83) on treatment of illnesses in the last one (1) year prior to the study. Age, years of farming, farm size, household size, level of income, cost of treatment, level of education, social network, and culture are some of the statistically significant factors influencing the utilization of traditional medicine. Farmers should be educated on methods of preventing illnesses, which is far cheaper than the curative.

Keywords: crop farming-households, selected illnesses, traditional medicines, Edo State

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19 Aristotle's Notion of Akratic Action through the Prism of Moral Psychology

Authors: Manik Konch

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Actions are generally evaluated from moral point of view. Either the action is praised or condemned, but in all cases it involves the agent who performs it. The agent is held morally responsible for bringing out an action. This paper is an attempt to explore the Aristotle’s notion of action and its relation with moral development in response to modern philosophical moral psychology. Particularly, the distinction between voluntary, involuntary, and non-voluntary action in the Nicomachean Ethics with some basic problems from the perspective of moral psychology: the role of choice, moral responsibility, desire, and akrasia for an action. How to do a morally right action? Is there any role of virtue, character to do a moral action? These problems are analyzed and interpreted in order to show that the Aristotelian theory of action significantly contributes to the philosophical study of moral psychology. In this connection, the paper juxtaposes Aristotle’s theory of action with response from David Charles, John R. Searle’s, and Alfred Mele theorization of action in the mechanism of human moral behaviours. To achieve this addressed problem, we consider, how the recent moral philosophical moral psychology research can shed light on Aristotle's ethics by focusing on theory of action. In this connection, we argue that the desire is the only responsible for the akratic action. According to Aristotle, desire is primary source of action and it is the starting point of action and also the endpoint of an action. Therefore we are trying to see how desire can make a person incontinent and motivate to do such irrational actions. Is there any causes which we can say such actions are right or wrong? To measure an action we have need to see the consequences such act. Thus, we discuss the relationship between akrasia and action from the perspective of contemporary moral psychologists and philosophers whose are currently working on it.

Keywords: action, desire, moral psychology, Aristotle

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18 First Earth Size

Authors: Ibrahim M. Metwally

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Have you ever thought that earth was not the same earth we live on? Was it bigger or smaller? Was it a great continent surrounded by huge ocean as Alfred Wegener (1912) claimed? Earth is the most amazing planet in our Milky Way galaxy and may be in the universe. It is the only deformed planet that has a variable orbit around the sun and the only planet that has water on its surface. How did earth deformation take place? What does cause earth to deform? What are the results of earth deformation? How does its orbit around the sun change? First earth size computation can be achieved only considering the quantum of iron and nickel rested into earth core. This paper introduces a new theory “Earth expansion Theory”. The principles of “Earth Expansion Theory” are leading to new approaches and concepts to interpret whole earth dynamics and its geological and environmental changes. This theory is not an attempt to unify the two divergent dominant theories of continental drift, plate tectonic theory and earth expansion theory. The new theory is unique since it has a mathematical derivation, explains all the change to and around earth in terms of geological and environmental changes, and answers all unanswered questions in other theories. This paper presents the basic of the introduced theory and discusses the mechanism of earth expansion and how it took place, the forces that made the expansion. The mechanisms of earth size change from its spherical shape with radius about 3447.6 km to an elliptic shape of major radius about 6378.1 km and minor radius of about 6356.8 km and how it took place, are introduced and discussed. This article also introduces, in a more realistic explanation the formation of oceans and seas, the preparation of river formation. It also addresses the role of iron in earth size enlargement process within the continuum mechanics framework.

Keywords: earth size, earth expansion, continuum mechanics, continental and ocean formation

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17 Occurrence and Fate of EDCs in Wastewater and Aquatic Environments in the West Bank of Palestine

Authors: Wa`d Odeh, Alon Tal, Alfred Abed Rabbo, Nader Al Khatib, Shai Arnon

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The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in raw sewage and effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been increasingly studied in the last few decades. Higher risks are said to characterize situations where raw sewage streams are found to be flowing, or where partial and inadequate wastewater treatment exists. Such conditions are prevalent in the West Bank area of Palestine. To our knowledge, no previous data concerning the occurrence and fate of EDCs in the aquatic environment has ever been systematically evaluated in the region. Hence, the main objective of this study was to identify the occurrence and concentrations of major EDCs in raw sewage, wastewater effluents produced by treatment plants and in the receiving environments, including streams and groundwater in the West Bank, Palestine. Water samples were collected and analyzed for four times during the years of 2013 and 2014. Two large-scale conventional activated sludge WWTPs, two wastewater watercourses, one naturally perennial stream, and five groundwater locations close to wastewater sources were sampled and analyzed by GC/MS following EPA methods (525.2). Five EDCs (estriol, estrone, testosterone, bisphenol A, and octylphenol) were detected in trace concentrations (ng/l) in wastewater streams and at inputs to WWTPs. WWTPs were not able to achieve complete removal of all EDCs, and EDCs were still found in the effluents. In this regard, the most significant environmental estrogenic impact was due to estrone concentrations. Nevertheless, no EDCs were detected in groundwater. Yet, in order for effluents to be reused, significant improvement in treatment infrastructure should be a top priority for environmental managers in the region.

Keywords: endocrine disrupting compounds, raw sewage streams, conventional activated sludge WWTPs, WWTPs effluents

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16 The Consistency of Gerhard Kittel’s “Christian” Antisemitism in His "Die Judenfrage" and "Meine Verteidigung"

Authors: Catherine Harrison

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Faced with arrest, imprisonment and the denazification process in 1945, Tübingen University’s Professor of Theology, Gerhard Kittel, refused to abandon the “Christian” antisemitism which he had first expounded in his Die Judenfrage [The Jewish Question] (1933 and 1934). At the heart of this paper is a critical engagement with Die Judenfrage, the first in English. Putting Die Judenfrage into dialogue with Kittel’s 1946, Meine Verteidigung [My Defence] (1945-6) exposes the remarkable consistency of Kittel’s idiosyncratic but closely argued Christian theology of antisemitism. Girdling his career as a foremost theologian, antisemite and enthusiastic supporter of Hitler and the NSDAP, the consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung attests Kittel’s consistent and authentic, intellectual position. In both texts, he claims to be advancing Christian, as opposed to “vulgar” or racial, antisemitism. Yet, in the thirteen years which divide them, Kittel had mediated contact with Nazi illuminati Rudolph Hess, Alfred Rosenberg, Winnifred Wagner, Josef Goebbels and Baldur von Schirach, through his publications in various antisemitic journals. The paper argues: Die Judenfrage, as both a text and as a theme, is axiomatic to Kittel’s defence statement; and that Die Judenfrage constitutes the template of Kittel’s arcane, personal “Christian” antisemitism of which Meine Verteidigung is a faithful impression. Both are constructed on the same theologically chimeric and abstruse hypotheses regarding Volk, Spätjudentum [late Judaism] and Heilgeschichte [salvation history]. Problematising these and other definitional vagaries that make up Kittel’s “Christian” antisemitism highlight the remarkable theoretical consistency between Die Judenfrage and Meine Verteidigung. It is concluded that a deadly synergy of Nazi racial antisemitism and the New Testament antisemitism shaped Kittel’s judgement to the degree that, despite the slipstream of concentration camp footage which was shaking the foundations of post-war German academia, Meine Verteidigung is a simple restatement of the antisemitsm conveyed in Die Judenfrage.

Keywords: Gerhard Kittel, Third Reich theology, the Jewish Question, Nazi antisemitism

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15 Analysis of Standard Tramway Surge Protection Methods Based on Real Cases

Authors: Alain Rousseau, Alfred Aragones, Gilles Rougier

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The study is based on lightning and surge standards mainly the EN series 62305 for facility protection, EN series 61643 for Low Voltage Surge Protective Devices, High Voltage surge arrester standard en 60099-4 and the traction arrester standards namely EN 50526-1 and 50526-1 dealing respectively with railway applications fixed installations D.C. surge arresters and voltage limiting devices. The more severe stress for tramways installations is caused by direct lightning on the catenary line. In such case, the surge current propagates towards the various poles and sparkover the insulators leading to a lower stress. If the impact point is near enough, a significant surge current will flow towards the traction surge arrester that is installed on the catenary at the location the substation is connected. Another surge arrester can be installed at the entrance of the substation or even inside the rectifier to avoid insulation damages. In addition, surge arresters can be installed between + and – to avoid damaging sensitive circuits. Based on disturbances encountered in a substation following a lighting event, the engineering department of RATP has decided to investigate the cause of such damage and more generally to question the efficiency of the various possible protection means. Based on the example of a recent tramway line the paper present the result of a lightning study based on direct lightning strikes. As a matter of fact, the induced surges on the catenary are much more frequent but much less damaging. First, a lightning risk assessment is performed for the substations that takes into account direct lightning and induced lightning both on the substation and its connected lines such as the catenary. Then the paper deals with efficiency of the various surge arresters is discussed based on field experience and calculations. The efficiency of the earthing system used at the bottom of the pole is also addressed based on high frequency earthing measurement. As a conclusion, the paper is making recommendations for an enhanced efficiency of existing protection means.

Keywords: surge arrester, traction, lightning, risk, surge protective device

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14 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

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Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: food safety, food packaging, essential oils, nanotechnology

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13 Community-Based Assessment Approach to Empower Child with Disabilities: Institutional Study on Deaf Art Community in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Mukhamad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Siti Hazar Sitorus

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The emergence of a community of people with disabilities along with the various works produced has made great progress to open the public eye to their existence in society. This study focuses attention on a community that is suspected to be one of the pioneers in pursuing the movement. It is Deaf Art Community (DAC), a community of persons with disabilities based in Yogyakarta, with deaf and speech-impaired members who use sign language in everyday communication. Knowing the movement of disabled communities is a good thing, the description of the things behind it then important to know as the basis for initiating similar movements. This research focuses on the question of how community of people with disabilities begin to take shape in different regions and interact with collaborative events. Qualitative method with in-depth interview as data collection techniques was used to describe the process of formation and the emergence of community. The analytical unit in the study initially focuses on the subject in the community, but in the process, it develops to institutional analysis. Therefore some informants were determined purposively and expanded using the snowball technique. The theory used in this research is Phenomenology of Alfred Schutz to be able to see reality from the subject and institutional point of view. The results of this study found that the community is formed because the existing educational institutions (both SLB and inclusion) are less able to empower and make children with disabilities become equal with the society. Through the SLB, the presence of children with disabilities becomes isolated from the society, especially in children of his or her age. Therefore, discrimination and labeling will never be separated from society's view. Meanwhile, facilities for the basic needs of children with disabilities can not be fully provided. Besides that, the guarantee of discrimination, glances, and unpleasant behavior from children without disability does not exist, which then indicates that the existing inclusion schools offer only symbolic acceptance. Thus, both in SLB and Inclusive Schools can not empower children with disabilities. Community-based assistance, in this case, has become an alternative to actually empowering children with disabilities. Not only giving them a place to interact, through the same community, children with disabilities will be guided to discover their talents and develop their potential to be self-reliant in the future.

Keywords: children with disabilities, community-based assessment, community empowerment, social equity

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12 Zinc Sorption by Six Agricultural Soils Amended with Municipal Biosolids

Authors: Antoine Karam, Lotfi Khiari, Bruno Breton, Alfred Jaouich

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Anthropogenic sources of zinc (Zn), including industrial emissions and effluents, Zn–rich fertilizer materials and pesticides containing Zn, can contribute to increasing the concentration of soluble Zn at levels toxic to plants in acid sandy soils. The application of municipal sewage sludge or biosolids (MBS) which contain metal immobilizing agents on coarse-textured soils could improve the metal sorption capacity of the low-CEC soils. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the sorption of Zn in surface samples (0-15 cm) of six Quebec (Canada) soils amended with MBS (pH 6.9) from Val d’Or (Quebec, Canada). Soil samples amended with increasing amounts (0 to 20%) of MBS were equilibrated with various amounts of Zn as ZnCl2 in 0.01 M CaCl2 for 48 hours at room temperature. Sorbed Zn was calculated from the difference between the initial and final Zn concentration in solution. Zn sorption data conformed to the linear form of Freundlich equation. The amount of sorbed Zn increased considerably with increasing MBS rate. Analysis of variance revealed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.001) of soil texture and MBS rate on the amount of sorbed Zn. The average values of the Zn-sorption capacity of MBS-amended coarse-textured soils were lower than those of MBS-amended fine textured soils. The two sandy soils (86-99% sand) amended with MBS retained 2- to 5-fold Zn than those without MBS (control). Significant Pearson correlation coefficients between the Zn sorption isotherm parameter, i.e. the Freundlich sorption isotherm (KF), and commonly measured physical and chemical entities were obtained. Among all the soil properties measured, soil pH gave the best significant correlation coefficients (p ≤ 0.001) for soils receiving 0, 5 and 10% MBS. Furthermore, KF values were positively correlated with soil clay content, exchangeable basic cations (Ca, Mg or K), CEC and clay content to CEC ratio. From these results, it can be concluded that (i) municipal biosolids provide sorption sites that have a strong affinity for Zn, (ii) both soil texture, especially clay content, and soil pH are the main factors controlling anthropogenic Zn sorption in the municipal biosolids-amended soils, and (iii) the effect of municipal biosolids on Zn sorption will be more pronounced for a sandy soil than for a clay soil.

Keywords: metal, recycling, sewage sludge, trace element

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11 The Effects of Shift Work on Neurobehavioral Performance: A Meta Analysis

Authors: Thomas Vlasak, Tanja Dujlociv, Alfred Barth

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Shift work is an essential element of modern labor, ensuring ideal conditions of service for today’s economy and society. Despite the beneficial properties, its impact on the neurobehavioral performance of exposed subjects remains controversial. This meta-analysis aims to provide first summarizing the effects regarding the association between shift work exposure and different cognitive functions. A literature search was performed via the databases PubMed, PsyINFO, PsyARTICLES, MedLine, PsycNET and Scopus including eligible studies until December 2020 that compared shift workers with non-shift workers regarding neurobehavioral performance tests. A random-effects model was carried out using Hedge’s g as a meta-analytical effect size with a restricted likelihood estimator to summarize the mean differences between the exposure group and controls. The heterogeneity of effect sizes was addressed by a sensitivity analysis using funnel plots, egger’s tests, p-curve analysis, meta-regressions, and subgroup analysis. The meta-analysis included 18 studies resulting in a total sample of 18,802 participants and 37 effect sizes concerning six different neurobehavioral outcomes. The results showed significantly worse performance in shift workers compared to non-shift workers in the following cognitive functions with g (95% CI): processing speed 0.16 (0.02 - 0.30), working memory 0.28 (0.51 - 0.50), psychomotor vigilance 0.21 (0.05 - 0.37), cognitive control 0.86 (0.45 - 1.27) and visual attention 0.19 (0.11 - 0.26). Neither significant moderating effects of publication year or study quality nor significant subgroup differences regarding type of shift or type of profession were indicated for the cognitive outcomes. These are the first meta-analytical findings that associate shift work with decreased cognitive performance in processing speed, working memory, psychomotor vigilance, cognitive control, and visual attention. Further studies should focus on a more homogenous measurement of cognitive functions, a precise assessment of experience of shift work and occupation types which are underrepresented in the current literature (e.g., law enforcement). In occupations where shift work is fundamental (e.g., healthcare, industries, law enforcement), protective countermeasures should be promoted for workers.

Keywords: meta-analysis, neurobehavioral performance, occupational psychology, shift work

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10 Exploitation behind the Development of Home Batik Industry in Lawean, Solo, Central Java

Authors: Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Ayla Karina Budita, Cut Rizka Al Usrah, Kanita Khoirun Nisa, Muhammad Alhada Fuadilah Habib, Siti Muslihatul Mukaromah

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Batik industry has become one of the leading industries in the economy of Indonesia. Since the recognition of batik as one of cultural wealth and national identity of Indonesia by UNESCO, batik production keeps increasing as a result of increasing demands for batik, whether from domestically or abroad. One of the rapid development batik industries in Indonesia is batik industry in Lawean Village, Solo, Central Java, Indonesia. This batik industry generally uses putting-out system where batik workers work in their own houses. With the implementation of this system, therefore employers don’t have to prepare Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA), social security for workers, overtime payment, space for working, and equipment for working. The implementation of putting-out system causes many problems, starting from environmental pollution, the loss of social rights of workers, and even exploitation of workers by batik entrepreneurs. The data used to describe this reality is the primary data from qualitative research with in-depth interview data collection technique. Informants were determined purposively. The theory used to perform data interpretation is the phenomenology of Alfred Schutz. Both qualitative and phenomenology are used in this study to describe batik workers exploitation in terms of the implementation of putting-out system on home batik industry in Lawean. The research result showed that workers in batik industry sector in Lawean were exploited with the implementation of putting-out system. The workers were strictly employed by the entrepreneurs, so that their job cannot be called 'part-time' job anymore. In terms of labor and time, the workers often work more than 12 hours per day and they often work overtime without receiving any overtime payment. In terms of work safety, the workers often have contact with chemical substances contained in batik making materials without using any protection, such as clothes work, which is worsened by the lack of standard or procedure in work that can cause physical damage, such as burnt and peeled off skin. Moreover, exposure and contamination of chemical materials make the workers and their families vulnerable to various diseases. Meanwhile, batik entrepreneurs did not give any social security (including health cost aid). Besides that, the researchers found that batik industry in home industry sector is not environmentally friendly, even damaging ecosystem because industrial waste disposed without EIA.

Keywords: exploitation, home batik industry, occupational health and safety, putting-out system

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9 A Delphi Study of Factors Affecting the Forest Biorefinery Development in the Pulp and Paper Industry: The Case of Bio-Based Products

Authors: Natasha Gabriella, Josef-Peter Schöggl, Alfred Posch

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Being a mature industry, pulp and paper industry (PPI) possess strength points coming from its existing infrastructure, technology know-how, and abundant availability of biomass. However, the declining trend of the wood-based products sales sends a clear signal to the industry to transform its business model in order to increase its profitability. With the emerging global attention on bio-based economy and circular economy, coupled with the low price of fossil feedstock, the PPI starts to integrate biorefinery as a value-added business model to keep the industry’s competitiveness. Nonetheless, biorefinery as an innovation exposes the PPI with some barriers, of which the uncertainty of the promising product becomes one of the major hurdles. This study aims to assess factors that affect the diffusion and development of forest biorefinery in the PPI, including drivers, barriers, advantages, disadvantages, as well as the most promising bio-based products of forest biorefinery. The study examines the identified factors according to the layer of business environment, being the macro-environment, industry, and strategic group level. Besides, an overview of future state of the identified factors is elaborated as to map necessary improvements for implementing forest biorefinery. A two-phase Delphi method is used to collect the empirical data for the study, comprising of an online-based survey and interviews. Delphi method is an effective communication tools to elicit ideas from a group of experts to further reach a consensus of forecasting future trends. Collaborating a total of 50 experts in the panel, the study reveals that influential factors are found in every layers of business of the PPI. The politic dimension is apparent to have a significant influence for tackling the economy barrier while reinforcing the environmental and social benefits in the macro-environment. In the industry level, the biomass availability appears to be a strength point of the PPI while the knowledge gap on technology and market seem to be barriers. Consequently, cooperation with academia and the chemical industry has to be improved. Human resources issue is indicated as one important premise behind the preceding barrier, along with the indication of the PPI’s resistance towards biorefinery implementation as an innovation. Further, cellulose-based products are acknowledged for near-term product development whereas lignin-based products are emphasized to gain importance in the long-term future.

Keywords: forest biorefinery, pulp and paper, bio-based product, Delphi method

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8 Promoting Patients' Adherence to Home-Based Rehabilitation: A Randomised Controlled Trial of a Theory-Driven Mobile Application

Authors: Derwin K. C. Chan, Alfred S. Y. Lee

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The integrated model of self-determination theory and the theory of planned behaviour has been successfully applied to explain individuals’ adherence to health behaviours, including behavioural adherence toward rehabilitation. This study was a randomised controlled trial that examined the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention (i.e., mobile application) developed based on this integrated model in promoting treatment adherence of patients of anterior cruciate ligament rupture during their post-surgery home-based rehabilitation period. Subjects were 67 outpatients (aged between 18 and 60) who undertook anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery for less than 2 months for this study. Participants were randomly assigned either into the treatment group (who received the smartphone application; N = 32) and control group (who receive standard treatment only; N = 35), and completed psychological measures relating to the theories (e.g., motivations, social cognitive factors, and behavioural adherence) and clinical outcome measures (e.g., subjective knee function (IKDC), laxity (KT-1000), muscle strength (Biodex)) relating to ACL recovery at baseline, 2-month, and 4-month. Generalise estimating equation showed the interaction between group and time was significant on intention was only significant for intention (Wald x² = 5.23, p = .02), that of perceived behavioural control (Wald x² = 3.19, p = .07), behavioural adherence (Wald x² = 3.08, p = .08, and subjective knee evaluation (Wald x² = 2.97, p = .09) were marginally significant. Post-hoc between-subject analysis showed that control group had significant drop of perceived behavioural control (p < .01), subjective norm (p < .01) and intention (p < .01), behavioural adherence (p < .01) from baseline to 4-month, but such pattern was not observed in the treatment group. The treatment group had a significant decrease of behavioural adherence (p < .05) in the 2-month, but such a decrease was not observed in 4-month (p > .05). Although the subjective knee evaluation in both group significantly improved at 2-month and 4-month from the baseline (p < .05), and the improvements in the control group (mean improvement at 4-month = 40.18) were slightly stronger than the treatment group (mean improvement at 4-month = 34.52). In conclusion, the findings showed that the theory driven mobile application ameliorated the decline of treatment intention of home-based rehabilitation. Patients in the treatment group also reported better muscle strength than control group at 4-month follow-up. Overall, the mobile application has shown promises on tackling the problem of orthopaedics outpatients’ non-adherence to medical treatment.

Keywords: self-determination theory, theory of planned behaviour, mobile health, orthopaedic patients

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7 Arc Plasma Application for Solid Waste Processing

Authors: Vladimir Messerle, Alfred Mosse, Alexandr Ustimenko, Oleg Lavrichshev

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Hygiene and sanitary study of typical medical-biological waste made in Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus and other countries show that their risk to the environment is much higher than that of most chemical wastes. For example, toxicity of solid waste (SW) containing cytotoxic drugs and antibiotics is comparable to toxicity of radioactive waste of high and medium level activity. This report presents the results of the thermodynamic analysis of thermal processing of SW and experiments at the developed plasma unit for SW processing. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the maximum yield of the synthesis gas at plasma gasification of SW in air and steam mediums is achieved at a temperature of 1600K. At the air plasma gasification of SW high-calorific synthesis gas with a concentration of 82.4% (СO – 31.7%, H2 – 50.7%) can be obtained, and at the steam plasma gasification – with a concentration of 94.5% (СO – 33.6%, H2 – 60.9%). Specific heat of combustion of the synthesis gas produced by air gasification amounts to 14267 kJ/kg, while by steam gasification - 19414 kJ/kg. At the optimal temperature (1600 K), the specific power consumption for air gasification of SW constitutes 1.92 kWh/kg, while for steam gasification - 2.44 kWh/kg. Experimental study was carried out in a plasma reactor. This is device of periodic action. The arc plasma torch of 70 kW electric power is used for SW processing. Consumption of SW was 30 kg/h. Flow of plasma-forming air was 12 kg/h. Under the influence of air plasma flame weight average temperature in the chamber reaches 1800 K. Gaseous products are taken out of the reactor into the flue gas cooling unit, and the condensed products accumulate in the slag formation zone. The cooled gaseous products enter the gas purification unit, after which via gas sampling system is supplied to the analyzer. Ventilation system provides a negative pressure in the reactor up to 10 mm of water column. Condensed products of SW processing are removed from the reactor after its stopping. By the results of experiments on SW plasma gasification the reactor operating conditions were determined, the exhaust gas analysis was performed and the residual carbon content in the slag was determined. Gas analysis showed the following composition of the gas at the exit of gas purification unit, (vol.%): СO – 26.5, H2 – 44.6, N2–28.9. The total concentration of the syngas was 71.1%, which agreed well with the thermodynamic calculations. The discrepancy between experiment and calculation by the yield of the target syngas did not exceed 16%. Specific power consumption for SW gasification in the plasma reactor according to the results of experiments amounted to 2.25 kWh/kg of working substance. No harmful impurities were found in both gas and condensed products of SW plasma gasification. Comparison of experimental results and calculations showed good agreement. Acknowledgement—This work was supported by Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (Agreement on grant No. 14.607.21.0118, project RFMEF160715X0118).

Keywords: coal, efficiency, ignition, numerical modeling, plasma-fuel system, plasma generator

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