Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 191

Search results for: feedstock

191 The Effect of Feedstock Powder Treatment / Processing on the Microstructure, Quality, and Performance of Thermally Sprayed Titanium Based Composite Coating

Authors: Asma Salman, Brian Gabbitas, Peng Cao, Deliang Zhang


The performance of a coating is strongly dependent upon its microstructure, which in turn is dependent on the characteristics of the feedstock powder. This study involves the evaluation and performance of a titanium-based composite coating produced by the HVOF (high-velocity oxygen fuel) spraying method. The feedstock for making the composite coating was produced using high energy mechanical milling of TiO2 and Al powders followed by a combustion reaction. The characteristics of the feedstock powder were improved by treating it with an organic binder. Two types of coatings were produced using treated and untreated feedstock powders. The microstructures and characteristics of both types of coatings were studied, and their thermal shock resistance was accessed by dipping into molten aluminum. The results of this study showed that feedstock treatment did not have a significant effect on the microstructure of the coatings. However, it did affect the uniformity, thickness and surface roughness of the coating on the steel substrate. A coating produced by an untreated feedstock showed better thermal shock resistance in molten aluminum compared with the one produced by PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) treatment.

Keywords: coating, feedstock, powder processing, thermal shock resistance, thermally spraying

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190 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah


Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis

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189 The Effect of Feedstock Type and Slow Pyrolysis Temperature on Biochar Yield from Coconut Wastes

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Nur Syairah Mohamad Aziz, Norsyahidah Md Saleh, Nur Syuhada Izzati Ruzali


The first objective of this study is to investigate the suitability of coconut frond (CF) and coconut husk (CH) as feedstocks using a laboratory-scale slow pyrolysis experimental setup. The second objective is to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the biochar yield. The properties of CF and CH feedstocks were compared. The properties of the CF and CH feedstocks were investigated using proximate and elemental analysis, lignocellulosic determination, and also thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The CF and CH feedstocks were pyrolysed at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 °C for 2 hours at 10 °C/min heating rate. The proximate analysis showed that CF feedstock has 89.96 mf wt% volatile matter, 4.67 mf wt% ash content and 5.37 mf wt% fixed carbon. The lignocelluloses analysis showed that CF feedstock contained 21.46% lignin, 39.05% cellulose and 22.49% hemicelluloses. The CH feedstock contained 84.13 mf wt% volatile matter, 0.33 mf wt% ash content, 15.54 mf wt% fixed carbon, 28.22% lignin, 33.61% cellulose and 22.03% hemicelluloses. Carbon and oxygen are the major component of the CF and CH feedstock compositions. Both of CF and CH feedstocks contained very low percentage of sulfur, 0.77% and 0.33%, respectively. TGA analysis indicated that coconut wastes are easily degraded. It may be due to their high volatile content. Between the temperature ranges of 300 and 800 °C, the TGA curves showed that the weight percentage of CF feedstock is lower than CH feedstock by 0.62%-5.88%. From the D TGA curves, most of the weight loss occurred between 210 and 400 °C for both feedstocks. The maximum weight loss for both CF and CH are 0.0074 wt%/min and 0.0061 wt%/min, respectively, which occurred at 324.5 °C. The yield percentage of both CF and CH biochars decreased significantly as the pyrolysis temperature was increased. For CF biochar, the yield decreased from 49.40 wt% to 28.12 wt% as the temperature increased from 300 to 700 °C. The yield for CH biochars also decreased from 52.18 wt% to 28.72 wt%. The findings of this study indicated that both CF and CH are suitable feedstock for slow pyrolysis of biochar.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, coconut wastes, slow pyrolysis

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188 Flexible Feedstock Concept in Gasification Process for Carbon-Negative Energy Technology: A Case Study in Malaysia

Authors: Zahrul Faizi M. S., Ali A., Norhuda A. M.


Emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from solid waste treatment and dependency on fossil fuel to produce electricity are the major concern in Malaysia as well as global. Innovation in downdraft gasification with combined heat and power (CHP) systems has the potential to minimize solid waste and reduce the emission of anthropogenic GHG from conventional fossil fuel power plants. However, the efficiency and capability of downdraft gasification to generate electricity from various alternative fuels, for instance, agriculture residues (i.e., woodchip, coconut shell) and municipal solid waste (MSW), are still controversial, on top of the toxicity level from the produced bottom ash. Thus this study evaluates the adaptability and reliability of the 20 kW downdraft gasification system to generate electricity (while considering environmental sustainability from the bottom ash) using flexible local feedstock at 20, 40, and 60% mixed ratio of MSW: agriculture residues. Feedstock properties such as feed particle size, moisture, and ash contents are also analyzed to identify optimal characteristics for the combination of feedstock (feedstock flexibility) to obtain maximum energy generation. Results show that the gasification system is capable to flexibly accommodate different feedstock compositions subjected to specific particle size (less than 2 inches) at a moisture content between 15 to 20%. These values exhibit enhance gasifier performance and provide a significant effect to the syngas composition utilizes by the internal combustion engine, which reflects energy production. The result obtained in this study is able to provide a new perspective on the transition of the conventional gasification system to a future reliable carbon-negative energy technology. Subsequently, promoting commercial scale-up of the downdraft gasification system.

Keywords: carbon-negative energy, feedstock flexibility, gasification, renewable energy

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187 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Premixing Methods in Anaerobic Digestor with Corn Stover

Authors: M. Sagarika, M. Chandra Sekhar


Agricultural residues are producing in large quantities in India and account for abundant but underutilized source of renewable biomass in agriculture. In India, the amount of crop residues available is estimated to be approximately 686 million tons. Anaerobic digestion is a promising option to utilize the surplus agricultural residues and can produce biogas and digestate. Biogas is mainly methane (CH4), which can be utilized as an energy source in replacement for fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil, in other hand, digestate contains high amounts of nutrients, can be employed as fertilizer. Solid state anaerobic digestion (total solids ≥ 15%) is suitable for agricultural residues, as it reduces the problems like stratification and floating issues that occur in liquid anaerobic digestion (total solids < 15%). The major concern in solid-state anaerobic digestion is the low mass transfer of feedstock and inoculum that resulting in low performance. To resolve this low mass transfer issue, effective mixing of feedstock and inoculum is required. Mechanical mixing using stirrer at the time of digestion process can be done, but it is difficult to operate the stirring of feedstock with high solids percentage and high viscosity. Complete premixing of feedstock and inoculum is an alternative method, which is usual in lab scale studies but may not be affordable due to high energy demand in large-scale digesters. Developing partial premixing methods may reduce this problem. Current study is to improve the performance of solid-state anaerobic digestion of corn stover at feedstock to inoculum ratios 3 and 5, by applying partial premixing methods and to compare the complete premixing method with two partial premixing methods which are two alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum and three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum where higher inoculum ratios in the top layers. From experimental studies it is observed that, partial premixing method with three alternative layers of feedstock and inoculum yielded good methane.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, premixing methods, methane yield, corn stover, volatile solids

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186 Integrated Waste-to-Energy Approach: An Overview

Authors: Tsietsi J. Pilusa, Tumisang G. Seodigeng


This study evaluates the benefits of advanced waste management practices in unlocking waste-to-energy opportunities within the solid waste industry. The key drivers of sustainable waste management practices, specifically with respect to packaging waste-to-energy technology options are discussed. The success of a waste-to-energy system depends significantly on the appropriateness of available technologies, including those that are well established as well as those that are less so. There are hard and soft interventions to be considered when packaging an integrated waste treatment solution. Technology compatibility with variation in feedstock (waste) quality and quantities remains a key factor. These factors influence the technology reliability in terms of production efficiencies and product consistency, which in turn, drives the supply and demand network. Waste treatment technologies rely on the waste material as feedstock; the feedstock varies in quality and quantities depending on several factors; hence, the technology fails, as a result. It is critical to design an advanced waste treatment technology in an integrated approach to minimize the possibility of technology failure due to unpredictable feedstock quality, quantities, conversion efficiencies, and inconsistent product yield or quality. An integrated waste-to-energy approach offers a secure system design that considers sustainable waste management practices.

Keywords: emerging markets, evaluation tool, interventions, waste treatment technologies

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185 An Efficient Hybrid Feedstock Pretreatment Technique for the Release of Fermentable Sugar from Cassava Peels for Biofuel Production

Authors: Gabriel Sanjo Aruwajoye, E. B. Gueguim Kana


Agricultural residues present a low-cost feedstock for bioenergy production around the world. Cassava peels waste are rich in organic molecules that can be readily converted to value added products such as biomaterials and biofuels. However, due to the presence of high proportion of structural carbohydrates and lignin, the hydrolysis of this feedstock is imperative to achieve maximum substrate utilization and energy yield. This study model and optimises the release of Fermentable Sugar (FS) from cassava peels waste using the Response Surface Methodology. The investigated pretreatment input parameters consisted of soaking temperature (oC), soaking time (hours), autoclave duration (minutes), acid concentration (% v/v), substrate solid loading (% w/v) within the range of 30 to 70, 0 to 24, 5 to 20, 0 to 5 and 2 to 10 respectively. The Box-Behnken design was used to generate 46 experimental runs which were investigated for FS release. The obtained data were used to fit a quadratic model. A coefficient of determination of 0.87 and F value of 8.73 was obtained indicating the good fitness of the model. The predicted optimum pretreatment conditions were 69.62 oC soaking temperature, 2.57 hours soaking duration, 5 minutes autoclave duration, 3.68 % v/v HCl and 9.65 % w/v solid loading corresponding to FS yield of 91.83g/l (0.92 g/g cassava peels) thus 58% improvement on the non-optimised pretreatment. Our findings demonstrate an efficient pretreatment model for fermentable sugar release from cassava peels waste for various bioprocesses.

Keywords: feedstock pretreatment, cassava peels, fermentable sugar, response surface methodology

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184 An Analysis of Economical Drivers and Technical Challenges for Large-Scale Biohydrogen Deployment

Authors: Rouzbeh Jafari, Joe Nava


This study includes learnings from an engineering practice normally performed on large scale biohydrogen processes. If properly scale-up is done, biohydrogen can be a reliable pathway for biowaste valorization. Most of the studies on biohydrogen process development have used model feedstock to investigate process key performance indicators (KPIs). This study does not intend to compare different technologies with model feedstock. However, it reports economic drivers and technical challenges which help in developing a road map for expanding biohydrogen economy deployment in Canada. BBA is a consulting firm responsible for the design of hydrogen production projects. Through executing these projects, activity has been performed to identify, register and mitigate technical drawbacks of large-scale hydrogen production. Those learnings, in this study, have been applied to the biohydrogen process. Through data collected by a comprehensive literature review, a base case has been considered as a reference, and several case studies have been performed. Critical parameters of the process were identified and through common engineering practice (process design, simulation, cost estimate, and life cycle assessment) impact of these parameters on the commercialization risk matrix and class 5 cost estimations were reported. The process considered in this study is food waste and woody biomass dark fermentation. To propose a reliable road map to develop a sustainable biohydrogen production process impact of critical parameters was studied on the end-to-end process. These parameters were 1) feedstock composition, 2) feedstock pre-treatment, 3) unit operation selection, and 4) multi-product concept. A couple of emerging technologies also were assessed such as photo-fermentation, integrated dark fermentation, and using ultrasound and microwave to break-down feedstock`s complex matrix and increase overall hydrogen yield. To properly report the impact of each parameter KPIs were identified as 1) Hydrogen yield, 2) energy consumption, 3) secondary waste generated, 4) CO2 footprint, 5) Product profile, 6) $/kg-H2 and 5) environmental impact. The feedstock is the main parameter defining the economic viability of biohydrogen production. Through parametric studies, it was found that biohydrogen production favors feedstock with higher carbohydrates. The feedstock composition was varied, by increasing one critical element (such as carbohydrate) and monitoring KPIs evolution. Different cases were studied with diverse feedstock, such as energy crops, wastewater slug, and lignocellulosic waste. The base case process was applied to have reference KPIs values and modifications such as pretreatment and feedstock mix-and-match were implemented to investigate KPIs changes. The complexity of the feedstock is the main bottleneck in the successful commercial deployment of the biohydrogen process as a reliable pathway for waste valorization. Hydrogen yield, reaction kinetics, and performance of key unit operations highly impacted as feedstock composition fluctuates during the lifetime of the process or from one case to another. In this case, concept of multi-product becomes more reliable. In this concept, the process is not designed to produce only one target product such as biohydrogen but will have two or multiple products (biohydrogen and biomethane or biochemicals). This new approach is being investigated by the BBA team and the results will be shared in another scientific contribution.

Keywords: biohydrogen, process scale-up, economic evaluation, commercialization uncertainties, hydrogen economy

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183 Multi-Criteria Assessment of Biogas Feedstock

Authors: Rawan Hakawati, Beatrice Smyth, David Rooney, Geoffrey McCullough


Targets have been set in the EU to increase the share of renewable energy consumption to 20% by 2020, but developments have not occurred evenly across the member states. Northern Ireland is almost 90% dependent on imported fossil fuels. With such high energy dependency, Northern Ireland is particularly susceptible to the security of supply issues. Linked to fossil fuels are greenhouse gas emissions, and the EU plans to reduce emissions by 20% by 2020. The use of indigenously produced biomass could reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and external energy dependence. With a wide range of both crop and waste feedstock potentially available in Northern Ireland, anaerobic digestion has been put forward as a possible solution for renewable energy production, waste management, and greenhouse gas reduction. Not all feedstock, however, is the same, and an understanding of feedstock suitability is important for both plant operators and policy makers. The aim of this paper is to investigate biomass suitability for anaerobic digestion in Northern Ireland. It is also important that decisions are based on solid scientific evidence. For this reason, the methodology used is multi-criteria decision matrix analysis which takes multiple criteria into account simultaneously and ranks alternatives accordingly. The model uses the weighted sum method (which follows the Entropy Method to measure uncertainty using probability theory) to decide on weights. The Topsis method is utilized to carry out the mathematical analysis to provide the final scores. Feedstock that is currently available in Northern Ireland was classified into two categories: wastes (manure, sewage sludge and food waste) and energy crops, specifically grass silage. To select the most suitable feedstock, methane yield, feedstock availability, feedstock production cost, biogas production, calorific value, produced kilowatt-hours, dry matter content, and carbon to nitrogen ratio were assessed. The highest weight (0.249) corresponded to production cost reflecting a variation of £41 gate fee to 22£/tonne cost. The weights calculated found that grass silage was the most suitable feedstock. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to investigate the impact of weights. The analysis used the Pugh Matrix Method which relies upon The Analytical Hierarchy Process and pairwise comparisons to determine a weighting for each criterion. The results showed that the highest weight (0.193) corresponded to biogas production indicating that grass silage and manure are the most suitable feedstock. Introducing co-digestion of two or more substrates can boost the biogas yield due to a synergistic effect induced by the feedstock to favor positive biological interactions. A further benefit of co-digesting manure is that the anaerobic digestion process also acts as a waste management strategy. From the research, it was concluded that energy from agricultural biomass is highly advantageous in Northern Ireland because it would increase the country's production of renewable energy, manage waste production, and would limit the production of greenhouse gases (current contribution from agriculture sector is 26%). Decision-making methods based on scientific evidence aid policy makers in classifying multiple criteria in a logical mathematical manner in order to reach a resolution.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomass as feedstock, decision matrix, renewable energy

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182 Recycling of Polymers in the Presence of Nanocatalysts: A Green Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Beena Sethi


This work involves the degradation of plastic waste in the presence of three different nanocatalysts. A thin film of LLDPE was formed with all three nanocatalysts separately in the solvent. Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) analysis of polymers suggest that the presence of these catalysts lowers the degradation temperature and the change mechanism of degradation. Gas chromatographic analysis was carried out for two films. In gas chromatography (GC) analysis, it was found that degradation of pure polymer produces only 32% C3/C4 hydrocarbons and 67.6% C5/C9 hydrocarbons. In the presence of these catalysts, more than 80% of polymer by weight was converted into either liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons. Change in the mechanism of degradation of polymer was observed therefore more C3/C4 hydrocarbons along with valuable feedstock are produced. Adjustment of dose of nanocatalyst, use of nano-admixtures and recycling of catalyst can make this catalytic feedstock recycling method a good tool to get sustainable environment. The obtained products can be utilized as fuel or can be transformed into other useful products. In accordance with the principles of sustainable development, chemical recycling i.e. tertiary recycling of polymers along with the reuse (zero order recycling) of plastics can be the most appropriate and promising method in this direction. The tertiary recycling is attracting much attention from the viewpoint of the energy resource.

Keywords: degradation, differential scanning calorimetry, feedstock recycling, gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analysis

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181 Investigation of a Single Feedstock Particle during Pyrolysis in Fluidized Bed Reactors via X-Ray Imaging Technique

Authors: Stefano Iannello, Massimiliano Materazzi


Fluidized bed reactor technologies are one of the most valuable pathways for thermochemical conversions of biogenic fuels due to their good operating flexibility. Nevertheless, there are still issues related to the mixing and separation of heterogeneous phases during operation with highly volatile feedstocks, including biomass and waste. At high temperatures, the volatile content of the feedstock is released in the form of the so-called endogenous bubbles, which generally exert a “lift” effect on the particle itself by dragging it up to the bed surface. Such phenomenon leads to high release of volatile matter into the freeboard and limited mass and heat transfer with particles of the bed inventory. The aim of this work is to get a better understanding of the behaviour of a single reacting particle in a hot fluidized bed reactor during the devolatilization stage. The analysis has been undertaken at different fluidization regimes and temperatures to closely mirror the operating conditions of waste-to-energy processes. Beechwood and polypropylene particles were used to resemble the biomass and plastic fractions present in waste materials, respectively. The non-invasive X-ray technique was coupled to particle tracking algorithms to characterize the motion of a single feedstock particle during the devolatilization with high resolution. A high-energy X-ray beam passes through the vessel where absorption occurs, depending on the distribution and amount of solids and fluids along the beam path. A high-speed video camera is synchronised to the beam and provides frame-by-frame imaging of the flow patterns of fluids and solids within the fluidized bed up to 72 fps (frames per second). A comprehensive mathematical model has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. Beech wood and polypropylene particles have shown a very different dynamic behaviour during the pyrolysis stage. When the feedstock is fed from the bottom, the plastic material tends to spend more time within the bed than the biomass. This behaviour can be attributed to the presence of the endogenous bubbles, which drag effect is more pronounced during the devolatilization of biomass, resulting in a lower residence time of the particle within the bed. At the typical operating temperatures of thermochemical conversions, the synthetic polymer softens and melts, and the bed particles attach on its outer surface, generating a wet plastic-sand agglomerate. Consequently, this additional layer of sand may hinder the rapid evolution of volatiles in the form of endogenous bubbles, and therefore the establishment of a poor drag effect acting on the feedstock itself. Information about the mixing and segregation of solid feedstock is of prime importance for the design and development of more efficient industrial-scale operations.

Keywords: fluidized bed, pyrolysis, waste feedstock, X-ray

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180 Assessing Transition to Renewable Energy for Transportation in Indonesia through Drop-in Biofuel Utilization

Authors: Maslan Lamria, Ralph E. H. Sims, Tatang H. Soerawidjaja


In increasing its self-sufficiency on transportation fuel, Indonesia is currently developing commercial production and use of drop-in biofuel (DBF) from vegetable oil. To maximize the level of success, it is necessary to get insights on how the implementation would develop as well as any important factors. This study assessed the dynamics of transition from existing fossil fuel system to a renewable fuel system, which involves the transition from existing biodiesel to projected DBF. A systems dynamics approach was applied and a model developed to simulate the dynamics of liquid biofuel transition. The use of palm oil feedstock was taken as a case study to assess the projected DBF implementation by 2045. The set of model indicators include liquid fuel self-sufficiency, liquid biofuel share, foreign exchange savings and green-house gas emissions reduction. The model outputs showed that supports on DBF investment and use play an important role in the transition progress. Given assumptions which include application of a maximum level of supports over time, liquid fuel self-sufficiency would be still unfulfilled in which palm biofuel contribution is 0.2. Thus, other types of feedstock such as algae and oil feedstock from marginal lands need to be developed synergically. Regarding support on DBF use, this study recommended that removal of fossil subsidy would be necessary prior to applying a carbon tax policy effectively.

Keywords: biofuel, drop-in biofuel, energy transition, liquid fuel

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179 Effect of Impurities in the Chlorination Process of TiO2

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


With the increasing interest on Ti alloys, the extraction process of Ti from its typical ore, TiO2, has long been and will be important issue. As an intermediate product for the production of pigment or titanium metal sponge, tetrachloride (TiCl4) is produced by fluidized bed using high TiO2 feedstock. The purity of TiCl4 after chlorination is subjected to the quality of the titanium feedstock. Since the impurities in the TiCl4 product are reported to final products, the purification process of the crude TiCl4 is required. The purification process includes fractional distillation and chemical treatment, which depends on the nature of the impurities present and the required quality of the final product. In this study, thermodynamic analysis on the impurity effect in the chlorination process, which is the first step of extraction of Ti from TiO2, has been conducted. All thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermodynamical software.

Keywords: rutile, titanium, chlorination process, impurities, thermodynamic calculation, FactSage

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178 Producing Carbon Nanoparticles from Agricultural and Municipal Wastes

Authors: Kanik Sharma


In the year of 2011, the global production of carbon nano-materials (CNMs) was around 3,500 tons, and it is projected to expand at a compound annual growth rate of 30.6%. Expanding markets for applications of CNMs, such as carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) and carbon nano-fibers (CNFs), place ever-increasing demands on lowering their production costs. Current technologies for CNM generation require intensive premium feedstock consumption and employ costly catalysts; they also require input of external energy. Industrial-scale CNM production is conventionally achieved through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods which consume a variety of expensive premium chemical feedstocks such as ethylene, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2); or by flame synthesis techniques, which also consume premium feedstock fuels. Additionally, CVD methods are energy-intensive. Renewable and replenishable feedstocks, such as those found in municipal, industrial, agricultural recycling streams have a more judicious reason for usage, in the light of current emerging needs for sustainability. Agricultural sugarcane bagasse and corn residues, scrap tire chips as well as post-consumer polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle shreddings when either thermally treated by sole pyrolysis or by sequential pyrolysis and partial oxidation result in the formation of gaseous carbon-bearing effluents which when channeled into a heated reactor, produce CNMs, including carbon nano-tubes, catalytically synthesized therein on stainless steel meshes. The structure of the nano-material synthesized depends on the type of feedstock available for pyrolysis, and can be determined by analysing the feedstock. These feedstocks could supersede the use of costly and often toxic or highly-flammable chemicals such as hydrocarbon gases, carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are commonly used as feedstocks in current nano-manufacturing process for CNMs.

Keywords: nanomaterials, waste plastics, sugarcane bagasse, pyrolysis

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177 Biobutanol Production from Date Palm Waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum

Authors: Diya Alsafadi, Fawwaz Khalili, Mohammad W. Amer


Butanol is an important industrial solvent and potentially a better liquid transportation biofuel than ethanol. The cost of feedstock is one key problem associated with the biobutanol production. Date palm is sugar-rich fruit and highly abundant. Thousands of tons of date wastes that generated from date processing industries are thrown away each year and imposing serious environmental problems. To exploit the utilization of renewable biomass feedstock, date palm waste was utilized for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731. Fermentation conditions were optimized by investigating several parameters that affect the production of butanol such as temperature, substrate concentration and pH. The highest butanol yield (1.0 g/L) and acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) content (1.3 g/L) were achieved at 20 g/L date waste, pH 5.0 and 37 °C. These results suggest that date palm waste can be used for biobutanol production.

Keywords: biofuel, acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, date palm waste, Clostridium acetobutylicum

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176 Production of Biodiesel Using Tannery Fleshing as a Feedstock via Solid-State Fermentation

Authors: C. Santhana Krishnan, A. M. Mimi Sakinah, Lakhveer Singh, Zularisam A. Wahid


This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of animal fat from tannery wastes into methyl ester. In the pre-treatment stage, animal fats feedstock was hydrolysed and esterified through solid state fermentation (SSF) using Microbacterium species immobilized onto sand silica matrix. After 72 hours of fermentation, predominant esters in the animal fats were found to be with 83.9% conversion rate. Later, esterified animal fats were transesterified at 3 hour reaction time with 1% NaOH (w/v %), 6% methanol to oil ratio (w/v %) to produce 89% conversion rate. C13 NMR revealed long carbon chain in fatty acid methyl esters at 22.2817-31.9727 ppm. Methyl esters of palmitic, stearic, oleic represented the major components in biodiesel.

Keywords: tannery wastes, fatty animal fleshing, trans-esterification, immobilization, solid state fermentation

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175 Molding Properties of Cobalt-Chrome-Based Feedstocks Used in Low-Pressure Powder Injection Molding

Authors: Ehsan Gholami, Vincent Demers


Low-pressure powder injection molding is an emerging technology for cost-effectively producing complex shape metallic parts with the proper dimensional tolerances, either in high or in low production volumes. In this study, the molding properties of cobalt-chrome-based feedstocks were evaluated for use in a low-pressure powder injection molding process. The rheological properties of feedstock formulations were obtained by mixing metallic powder with a proprietary wax-based binder system. Rheological parameters such as reference viscosity, shear rate sensitivity index, and activation energy for viscous flow, were extracted from the viscosity profiles and introduced into the Weir model to calculate the moldability index. Feedstocks were experimentally injected into a spiral mold cavity to validate the injection performance calculated with the model.

Keywords: binder, feedstock, moldability, powder injection molding, viscosity

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174 Impact of Syngenetic Elements on the Physico-Chemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biochar

Authors: Edita Baltrėnaitė, Pranas Baltrėnas, Eglė MarčIulaitienė, Mantas PranskevičIus, Valeriia Chemerys


The growing demand for organic products in the market promotes their use in various fields. One of such products is biochar. Among the innovative environmental applications, biochar has the potential as an adsorbent for retaining contaminants in environmental engineering and agrotechnical systems. Artificial modification of biochar can improve its adsorption capacity. However, indirect/natural change of biochar composition (e.g., contaminated biomass) based on syngenetic elements provides prospects for new applications of biochar as well as decreases the modification costs. Natural lignocellulosic and biochar composition variations would lead to a new field of application of biochar and reduce resources for biochar modifications. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of syngenetic elements of biochar’s feedstock on the physicochemical properties of lignocellulosic biochar. Syngenetic elements (e.g., Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg) and other intrinsic properties (e.g., lignin, COHN, moisture, ash) of indifferent types of lignocellulosic feedstock on the physicochemical characteristics of biochar are discussed.

Keywords: adsorption, lignocellulosic biochar, instrinsic properties, syngenetic elements

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173 The Impact of Mycotoxins on the Anaerobic Digestion Process

Authors: Harald Lindorfer, Bettina Frauz, Dietmar Ramhold


Next to the well-known inhibitors in anaerobic digestion like ammonia, antibiotics or disinfectants, the number of process failures connected with mould growth in the feedstock increased significantly in the last years. It was assumed that mycotoxins are the cause of the negative effects. The financial damage to plants associated with these process failures is considerable. The aim of this study was to find a way of predicting the failures and furthermore strategies for a fast process recovery. In a first step, mould-contaminated feedstocks causing process failures in full-scale digesters were sampled and analysed on mycotoxin content. A selection of these samples was applied to biological inhibition tests. In this test, crystalline cellulose is applied in addition to the feedstock sample as standard substrate. Affected digesters were also sampled and analytical process data as well as operational data of the plants were recorded. Additionally, different mycotoxin substances, Deoxynivalenol, Zearalenon, Aflatoxin B1, Mycophenolic acid and Citrinin, were applied as pure substances to lab-scale digesters, individually and in various combinations, and effects were monitored. As expected, various mycotoxins were detected in all of the mould-contaminated samples. Nevertheless, inhibition effects were observed with only one of the collected samples, after applying it to an inhibition test. With this sample, the biogas yield of the standard substrate was reduced by approx. 20%. This result corresponds with observations made on full-scale plants. However, none of the tested mycotoxins applied as pure substance caused a negative effect on biogas production in lab scale digesters, neither after application as individual substance nor in combination. The recording of the process data in full-scale plants affected by process failures in most cases showed a severe accumulation of fatty acids alongside a decrease in biogas production and methane concentration. In the analytical data of the digester samples, a typical distribution of fatty acids with exceptionally high acetic acid concentrations could be identified. This typical fatty acid pattern can be used as a rapid identification parameter pointing to the cause of the process troubles and enable a fast implication of countermeasures. The results of the study show that more attention needs to be paid to feedstock storage and feedstock conservation before their application to anaerobic digesters. This is all the more important since first studies indicate that the occurrence of mycotoxins will likely increase in Europe due to the ongoing climate change.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, Biogas, Feedstock conservation, Fungal mycotoxins, Inhibition, process failure

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172 Bulk-Density and Lignocellulose Composition: Influence of Changing Lignocellulosic Composition on Bulk-Density during Anaerobic Digestion and Implication of Compacted Lignocellulose Bed on Mass Transfer

Authors: Aastha Paliwal, H. N. Chanakya, S. Dasappa


Lignocellulose, as an alternate feedstock for biogas production, has been an active area of research. However, lignocellulose poses a lot of operational difficulties- widespread variation in the structural organization of lignocellulosic matrix, amenability to degradation, low bulk density, to name a few. Amongst these, the low bulk density of the lignocellulosic feedstock is crucial to the process operation and optimization. Low bulk densities render the feedstock floating in conventional liquid/wet digesters. Low bulk densities also restrict the maximum achievable organic loading rate in the reactor, decreasing the power density of the reactor. However, during digestion, lignocellulose undergoes very high compaction (up to 26 times feeding density). This first reduces the achievable OLR (because of low feeding density) and compaction during digestion, then renders the reactor space underutilized and also imposes significant mass transfer limitations. The objective of this paper was to understand the effects of compacting lignocellulose on mass transfer and the influence of loss of different components on the bulk density and hence structural integrity of the digesting lignocellulosic feedstock. 10 different lignocellulosic feedstocks (monocots and dicots) were digested anaerobically in a fed-batch, leach bed reactor -solid-state stratified bed reactor (SSBR). Percolation rates of the recycled bio-digester liquid (BDL) were also measured during the reactor run period to understand the implication of compaction on mass transfer. After 95 ds, in a destructive sampling, lignocellulosic feedstocks digested at different SRT were investigated to quantitate the weekly changes in bulk density and lignocellulosic composition. Further, percolation rate data was also compared to bulk density data. Results from the study indicate loss of hemicellulose (r²=0.76), hot water extractives (r²=0.68), and oxalate extractives (r²=0.64) had dominant influence on changing the structural integrity of the studied lignocellulose during anaerobic digestion. Further, feeding bulk density of the lignocellulose can be maintained between 300-400kg/m³ to achieve higher OLR, and bulk density of 440-500kg/m³ incurs significant mass transfer limitation for high compacting beds of dicots.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, bulk density, feed compaction, lignocellulose, lignocellulosic matrix, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives, mass transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
171 Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Noridah Abdullah, Mimi Sakinah


Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, castor shell, cellulose, biowaste

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170 The Potential of Sown Pastures as Feedstock for Biofuels in Brazil

Authors: Danilo G. De Quadros


Biofuels are a priority in the renewable energy agenda. The utilization of tropical grasses to ethanol production is a real opportunity to Brazil reaches the world’s leadership in biofuels production because there are 100 million hectares of sown pastures, which represent 20% of all land and 80% of agricultural areas. Basically, nowadays tropical grasses are used to raise livestock. The results obtained in this research could bring tremendous advance not only to national technology and economy but also to improve social and environmental aspects. Thus, the objective of this work was to estimate, through well-established international models, the potential of biofuels production using sown tropical pastures as feedstocks and to compare the results with sugarcane ethanol, considering state-of-art of conversion technology, advantages and limitations factors. There were used data from national and international literature about forage yield and biochemical conversion yield. Some scenarios were studied to evaluate potential advantages and limitations for cellulosic ethanol production, since non-food feedstock appeal to conversion strategies, passing through harvest, densification, logistics, environmental impacts (carbon and water cycles, nutrient recycling and biodiversity), and social aspects. If Brazil used only 1% of sown pastures to ethanol production by biochemical pathway, with average dry matter yield of 15 metric tons per hectare per year (there are results of 40 tons), resulted annually in 721 billion liters, that represents 10 times more than sugarcane ethanol projected by the Government in 2030. However, more research is necessary to take the results to commercial scale with competitive costs, considering many strategies and methods applied in ethanol production using cellulosic feedstock.

Keywords: biofuels, biochemical pathway, cellulosic ethanol, sustainability

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169 Investigations on Ceramic Injection Molding-Like Process for Zirconia Filled with a Partially Bio-Based Polymer

Authors: Marwa Abid, Mohamed Boudifa, Sebastien Charlon, Delphine Auzene, Stephane Buet, Marie-France Lacrampe


Ceramic Injection Molding-like (CIM-like) has become an interesting technique to produce complex, low volume, and customized parts. In this work, a new homemade and environmental-friendly feedstock was produced by zirconia and partially bio-based polymers. The feedstock was processed at low temperatures by common fused filament fabrication (FFF) printers. Then, polymers were removed from the printed part during a debinding step, and the ceramic particles were finally sintered. The thermal debinding step must be carefully performed to avoid the formation of defects such as cracks, blistering, and residues. For this purpose, models describing the thermal degradation of polymers were used to calculate the activation energy and to design the optimal thermal debinding program based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, digital imaging and X-ray tomography were performed to characterize the intern morphology of sintered parts.

Keywords: CIM-like, 3D printing, zirconia, bio-based binders, debinding, water-soluble binder

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168 Optimization of Pretreatment Process of Napier Grass for Improved Sugar Yield

Authors: Shashikant Kumar, Chandraraj K.


Perennial grasses have presented interesting choices in the current demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources to alleviate the load of the global energy problem. The perennial grass Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is a promising feedstock for the production of cellulosic ethanol. The conversion of biomass into glucose and xylose is a crucial stage in the production of bioethanol, and it necessitates optimal pretreatment. Alkali treatment, among the several pretreatments available, effectively reduces lignin concentration and crystallinity of cellulose. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the alkali pretreatment of Napier grass for maximal reducing sugar production. The combined effects of three independent variables, viz. sodium hydroxide concentration, temperature, and reaction time, were studied. A second-order polynomial equation was used to fit the observed data. Maximum reducing sugar (590.54 mg/g) was obtained under the following conditions: 1.6 % sodium hydroxide, a reaction period of 30 min., and 120˚C. The results showed that Napier grass is a desirable feedstock for bioethanol production.

Keywords: Napier grass, optimization, pretreatment, sodium hydroxide

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167 Macroalgae as a Gaseous Fuel Option: Potential and Advanced Conversion Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum, Ao Xia, Jerry D. Murphy


The aim of this work is to provide an overview of macroalgae as an alternative feedstock for gaseous fuel production and key innovative technologies. Climate change and continuously depleting resources are the key driving forces to think for alternative sources of energy. Macroalgae can be favored over land based energy crops because they are not in direct competition with food crops. However, some drawbacks, such as high moisture content, seasonal variation in chemical composition and process inhibition limit the economic practicability. Macroalgae, like brown seaweed can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuel by different conversion technologies. Biomethane via anaerobic digestion is the appealing technology due to its dual advantage of a commercially applicable and environment friendly technology. Other technologies like biodiesel and bioethanol conversion technologies from seaweed are still under progress. Screening of high yielding macroalgae species, peak harvesting season and process optimization make the technology economically feasible for alternative source of feedstock for biofuel production in future.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biofuels, bio-methane, advanced conversion technologies, macroalgae

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
166 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih


Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
165 Assessment of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department's Marginalized Lands

Authors: Ross J. Maestas


Biofuels are derived from multiple renewable bioenergy feedstocks including animal fats, wood, starchy grains, and oil seeds. Transportation agencies have considered growing the latter two on underutilized and nontraditional lands that they manage, such as in the Right of Way (ROW), abandoned weigh stations, and at maintenance yards. These crops provide the opportunity to generate revenue or supplement fuel once converted and offer a solution to increasing fuel costs and instability by creating a ‘home-grown’ alternative. Biofuels are non-toxic, biodegradable, and emit less Green House Gasses (GHG) than fossil fuels, therefore allowing agencies to meet sustainability goals and regulations. Furthermore, they enable land managers to achieve soil erosion and roadside aesthetic strategies. The research sought to understand if the cultivation of a biofuel feedstock within the Arkansas State Highway Transportation Department’s (AHTD) managed and marginalized lands is feasible by identifying potential land areas and crops. To determine potential plots the parcel data was downloaded from Arkansas’s GIS office. ArcGIS was used to query the data for all variations of the names of property owned by AHTD and a KML file was created that identifies the queried parcel data in Google Earth. Furthermore, biofuel refineries in the state were identified to optimize the harvest to transesterification process. Agricultural data was collected from federal and state agencies and universities to assess various oil seed crops suitable for conversion and suited to grow in Arkansas’s climate and ROW conditions. Research data determined that soybean is the best adapted biofuel feedstock for Arkansas with camelina and canola showing possibilities as well. Agriculture is Arkansas’s largest industry and soybean is grown in over half of the state’s counties. Successful cultivation of a feedstock in the aforementioned areas could potentially offer significant employment opportunity for which the skilled farmers already exist. Based on compiled data, AHTD manages 21,489 acres of marginalized land. The result of the feasibility assessment offer suggestions and guidance should AHTD decide to further investigate this type of initiative.

Keywords: Arkansas highways, biofuels, renewable energy initiative, marginalized lands

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164 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Powder Injection Molded Alumina Nano-Powder

Authors: Mostafa Rezaee Saraji, Ali Keshavarz Panahi


In this work, the processing steps for producing alumina parts using powder injection molding (PIM) technique and nano-powder were investigated and the thermal conductivity and flexural strength of samples were determined as a function of sintering temperature and holding time. In the first step, the feedstock with 58 vol. % of alumina nano-powder with average particle size of 100nm was prepared using Extrumixing method to obtain appropriate homogeneity. This feedstock was injection molded into the two cavity mold with rectangular shape. After injection molding step, thermal and solvent debinding methods were used for debinding of molded samples and then these debinded samples were sintered in different sintering temperatures and holding times. From the results, it was found that the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of samples increased by increasing sintering temperature and holding time; in sintering temperature of 1600ºC and holding time of 5h, the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of sintered samples reached to maximum values of 488MPa and 40.8 W/mK, respectively.

Keywords: alumina nano-powder, thermal conductivity, flexural strength, powder injection molding

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
163 Processing and Economic Analysis of Rain Tree (Samanea saman) Pods for Village Level Hydrous Bioethanol Production

Authors: Dharell B. Siano, Wendy C. Mateo, Victorino T. Taylan, Francisco D. Cuaresma


Biofuel is one of the renewable energy sources adapted by the Philippine government in order to lessen the dependency on foreign fuel and to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Rain tree pods were seen to be a promising source of bioethanol since it contains significant amount of fermentable sugars. The study was conducted to establish the complete procedure in processing rain tree pods for village level hydrous bioethanol production. Production processes were done for village level hydrous bioethanol production from collection, drying, storage, shredding, dilution, extraction, fermentation, and distillation. The feedstock was sundried, and moisture content was determined at a range of 20% to 26% prior to storage. Dilution ratio was 1:1.25 (1 kg of pods = 1.25 L of water) and after extraction process yielded a sugar concentration of 22 0Bx to 24 0Bx. The dilution period was three hours. After three hours of diluting the samples, the juice was extracted using extractor with a capacity of 64.10 L/hour. 150 L of rain tree pods juice was extracted and subjected to fermentation process using a village level anaerobic bioreactor. Fermentation with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) can fasten up the process, thus producing more ethanol at a shorter period of time; however, without yeast fermentation, it also produces ethanol at lower volume with slower fermentation process. Distillation of 150 L of fermented broth was done for six hours at 85 °C to 95 °C temperature (feedstock) and 74 °C to 95 °C temperature of the column head (vapor state of ethanol). The highest volume of ethanol recovered was established at with yeast fermentation at five-day duration with a value of 14.89 L and lowest actual ethanol content was found at without yeast fermentation at three-day duration having a value of 11.63 L. In general, the results suggested that rain tree pods had a very good potential as feedstock for bioethanol production. Fermentation of rain tree pods juice can be done with yeast and without yeast.

Keywords: fermentation, hydrous bioethanol, fermentation, rain tree pods, village level

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
162 Seaweed as a Future Fuel Option: Potential and Conversion Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum, Ao Xia, Jerry D. Murphy


The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview of seaweed as the alternative feedstock for biofuel production and key conversion technologies. Resource depletion and climate change are the driving forces to hunt for renewable sources of energy. Macroalgae can be preferred over land based crops for biofuel production because they are not in competition with food crops for arable land, high growth rates and low lignin contents which require less energy-intensive pre-treatments. However, some disadvantages, such as high moisture content, seasonal variation in chemical composition and process inhibition limit its economic feasibility. Seaweed can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuel by different conversion technologies, but biogas via anaerobic digestion from seaweed is attracting increased attention due to its dual benefit of an economic source of bio-fuel and environment-friendly technology. Biodiesel and bioethanol conversion technologies from seaweed are still under development. A selection of high yielding seaweed species, optimal harvesting season and process optimization make them economically feasible for the alternative source of renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel in future.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biofuel, bio-methane, conversion technologies, seaweed

Procedia PDF Downloads 396