Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3788

Search results for: sustainable agriculture

3788 Sustainable Agriculture of Tribal Farmers: An Analysis in Koraput and Malkangiri Districts of Odisha, India

Authors: Amrita Mishra, Tushar Kanti Das

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Odisha. Sustainability of agriculture holds the key for the development of Odisha. The Sustainable Development Goals are a framework of 17 goals and 169 targets across social, economical and environmental areas of sustainable development. Among all the seventeen goals the second goal is focusing on the promotion of Sustainable Agriculture. In this research our main aim is also to contribute an understanding of effectiveness of sustainable agriculture as a tool for rural development in the selected tribal district (i.e. Koraput and Malkangiri) of Odisha. These two districts are comes under KBK districts of Odisha which are identified as most backward districts of Odisha. The objectives of our study are to investigate the effect of sustainable agriculture on the lives of tribal farmers, to study whether the farmers are empowered by their participation in sustainable agriculture initiatives to move towards their own vision of development and to study the investment and profit ratio in sustainable agriculture. This research will help in filling the major gaps in sociological studies of sustainable agriculture. This information will helpful for farmers, development organisations, donors and policy makers in formulating the development of effective initiatives and policies to support the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, we have taken 210 respondents and used various statistical techniques like chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and percentage analysis. This research shows that sustainable agriculture is an effective development strategy that benefits the tribal farmers to move towards their own vision of Good Fortune. The poor farmers who struggle to feed their families and maintain viable livelihoods on shrinking land for them sustainable agriculture are really benefited. The farmers are using homemade pesticides, manure and also getting the seeds from different development organisations and Government. So the investment in Sustainable Agriculture is very less. All farmers said their lives are now better than before. The creation of farmers groups for training and marketing for the produces was shown to be very important for empowerment.

Keywords: sustainable, agriculture, tribal farmers, development, empowerment

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3787 Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastewater and Urban Wetlands as Resource

Authors: Hussnain Mukhtar, Yu-Pin Lin

Abstract:

This paper deals with the concept of ecologically engineered system for sustainable agriculture production with the view of sustainable cities development. Sustainable cities offer numerous eco-services to its inhabitants, and where, among other issues, wastewater nutrients can be considered to be a valuable resource to be used for a sustainable enhancement of urban agriculture in wetlands. Existing cities can be transferred from being only consumer of food and other agriculture product into important resource conserving and sustainable generators of these products. The review provides the food production capacity through introduction of wastewater into urban wetlands, potential for nutrient recovery and ecological engineering intervention to reduce the risk of food contamination by pathogens. Finally, we discuss the potential nutrients accumulating in our cities, as an important aspect of sustainable urban development.

Keywords: ecological engineering, nutrient recovery, pathogens, urban agriculture, wetlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
3786 A Review on Climate Change and Sustainable Agriculture in Southeast Nigeria

Authors: Jane O. Munonye

Abstract:

Climate change has both negative and positive effects in agricultural production. For agriculture to be sustainable in adverse climate change condition, some natural measures are needed. The issue is to produce more food with available natural resources and reduce the contribution of agriculture to climate change. The study reviewed climate change and sustainable agriculture in southeast Nigeria. Data from the study were from secondary sources. Ten scientific papers were consulted and data for the review were collected from three. The objectives of the paper were as follows: to review the effect of climate change on one major arable crop in southeast Nigeria (yam; Dioscorea rotundata); evident of climate change impact and methods for sustainable agricultural production in adverse weather condition. Some climatic parameter as sunshine, relative humidity and rainfall have negative relationship with yam production and significant at 10% probability. Crop production was predicted to decline by 25% per hectare by 2060 while livestock production has increased the incidence of diseases and pathogens as the major effect to agriculture. Methods for sustainable agriculture and damage of natural resources by climate change were highlighted. Agriculture needs to be transformed as climate changes to enable the sector to be sustainable. There should be a policy in place to facilitate the integration of sustainability in Nigeria agriculture.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, sustainability, yam

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
3785 Toward an Integrated Safe and Sustainable Food System: A General Overview

Authors: Erkan Rehber, Hasan Vural, Sule Turhan

Abstract:

It is a fact that food is a vital need of human beings. As a consumer, everyone has the right to access adequate and safe food. There are considerable development to establish quality standards and schemes to have safe foods and sustainable agriculture alternatives to protect natural resources and environment to reach this target. Recently, there is also a remarkable development in integration and combination of these efforts. Food Safety and Sustainable Agriculture Forum organized in 2014, Beijing shows that it is a global awareness more than being an individual view. Eventually, quality standards, assurance systems applied to conventional agriculture has to be applied to sustainable agriculture alternatives to have a holistic sustainable food chain from seed to fork. All actors of the whole food system from farmer to ultimate consumers, along with the state, have to work together meeting this big challenge.

Keywords: integrated safe, food safety, sustainable food system, consumer

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
3784 The Application of Nuclear Energy for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security: A Review

Authors: Gholamreza Farrokhi, Behzad Sani

Abstract:

The goals of sustainable agricultural are development, improved nutrition, and food security. Sustainable agriculture must be developed that will meet today’s needs for food and other products, as well as preserving the vital natural resource base that will allow future generations to meet their needs. Sustainable development requires international cooperation and the effective use of technology. Access to sustainable sources of food will remain a preeminent challenge in the decades to come. Based upon current practice and consumption, agricultural production will have to increase by about 70% by 2050 to meet demand. Nuclear techniques are used in developing countries to increase production sustainably by breeding improved crops, enhancing livestock reproduction and nutrition, as well as controlling animal and plant pests and diseases. Post-harvest losses can be reduced and safety increased with nuclear technology. Soil can be evaluated with nuclear techniques to conserve and improve soil productivity and water management.

Keywords: food safety, food security, nuclear techniques, sustainable agriculture, sustainable future

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
3783 Sustainable Management of Agricultural Resources in Irrigated Agriculture

Authors: Basil Manos, Parthena Chatzinikolaou, Fedra Kiomourtzi

Abstract:

This paper presents a mathematical model for the sustainable management of agricultural resources in irrigated agriculture. This is a multicriteria mathematical programming model and used as a tool for the planning, analysis and simulation of farm plans in rural irrigated areas, as well as for the study of impacts of the various policies in irrigated agriculture. The model can achieve the optimum farm plan of an agricultural region taking in account different conflicting criteria as the maximization of gross margin and the minimization of fertilizers used, under a set of constraints for land, labor, available capital, common agricultural policy etc. The proposed model was applied to four prefectures in central Greece. The results show that in all prefectures, the optimum farm plans achieve greater income and less environmental impacts (less irrigated water use and less fertilizers use) than the existent plans.

Keywords: sustainable use of agricultural resources, irrigated agriculture, multicriteria analysis, optimum income

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3782 Environmental Impacts on Urban Agriculture in Algiers

Authors: Sara Bouzekri, Said Madani

Abstract:

In many Mediterranean cities such as Algiers, the human activity, the strong mobility the urban sprawl, the air pollution, the problems of waste management, the wasting of the resources and the degradation of the environment weaken in an unquestionable way the farming. The question of sustainable action vis-a-vis these threats arises then in order to maintain a level of desired local development. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria method based on the AFOM diagnosis, which classifies agricultural strength indicators and those of threat, according to an analytical approach. In a sustainable development perspective, it will be appropriate to link the threat factors of the case study with the factors of climate change to see their impact on the future of agriculture. This will be accompanied by a SWOT analysis, which crosses the most significant criteria to arrive at the necessary recommendations based on future projects for urban agriculture.

Keywords: Algiers, environment, urban agriculture, threat factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3781 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture

Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac

Abstract:

India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.

Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
3780 The Role of ICT in Engaging Youth in Agricultural Transformation of Africa

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 percent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youth and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths to agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information.

Keywords: Africa, agriculture, ICT, tool, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
3779 Engaging African Youth in Agribusiness through ICT

Authors: Adebola Adedugbe

Abstract:

Agriculture is the mainstay of most countries in Africa. It employs up to 90 per cent of the rural workforce, who are mostly youths and women. Engaging youths in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in agriculture is critical to economic and agricultural development of the African continent. The objective of this paper is to identify and mobilize the potentials of young Africans in agriculture through ICT and recognize their role as the dominant driver for sustainable agricultural development in Africa. The youth is vibrant, energetic, creative, and innovative and has the potential to play a significant role sustainable agriculture. This paper identifies the role of ICT as a tool for attracting youths in agriculture. The development of ICT is important in stimulating youths in SME’s to compete favorably and effectively as a way to fight poverty through job and wealth creation. It is one of the strategies for promoting entrepreneurship by increasing the availability and diversity of online information. ICT has become a key factor in economic development in most developing countries. The exchange of information is essential for stakeholders in the agricultural sector, as it is the tool to establish, develop and manage efforts to improve performance, productivity and economic competitiveness in local and international markets. In this regard, Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is a powerful tool, fast and innovative to facilitate the exchange of information among all stakeholders in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: Africa, agriculture, ICT, tool, youth

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
3778 Application of Sustainable Agriculture Based on LEISA in Landscape Design of Integrated Farming

Authors: Eduwin Eko Franjaya, Andi Gunawan, Wahju Qamara Mugnisjah

Abstract:

Sustainable agriculture in the form of integrated farming with its LEISA (Low External Input Sustainable Agriculture) concept has brought a positive impact on agriculture development and ambient amelioration. But, most of the small farmers in Indonesia did not know how to put the concept of it and how to combine agricultural commodities on the site effectively and efficiently. This research has an aim to promote integrated farming (agrofisheries, etc) to the farmers by designing the agricultural landscape to become integrated farming landscape as medium of education for the farmers. The method used in this research is closely related with the rule of design in the landscape architecture science. The first step is inventarization for the existing condition on the research site. The second step is analysis. Then, the third step is concept-making that consists of base concept, design concept, and developing concept. The base concept used in this research is sustainable agriculture with LEISA. The concept design is related with activity base on site. The developing concept consists of space concept, circulation, vegetation and commodity, production system, etc. The fourth step as the final step is planning and design. This step produces site plan of integrated farming based on LEISA. The result of this research is site plan of integrated farming with its explanation, including the energy flow of integrated farming system on site and the production calendar of integrated farming commodities for education and agri-tourism opportunity. This research become the right way to promote the integrated farming and also as a medium for the farmers to learn and to develop it.

Keywords: integrated farming, LEISA, planning and design, site plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
3777 Evaluating the Effects of Community Informatics on Sustainable Livelihoods: a Case Model for Rural Communities in Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

Abstract:

Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. Rural communities adopted for this study are Ido, Omi-Adio, Onigambari, Okija and Lambata, 500 questionnaires were administered to solicit information from the respondents. This study focused on comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on the sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics, model, rural community, livelihood, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
3776 A Short Survey of Integrating Urban Agriculture and Environmental Planning

Authors: Rayeheh Khatami, Toktam Hanaei, Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar

Abstract:

The growth of the agricultural sector is known as an essential way to achieve development goals in developing countries. Urban agriculture is a way to reduce the vulnerability of urban populations of the world toward global environmental change. It is a sustainable and efficient system to respond to the environmental, social and economic needs of the city, which leads to urban sustainability. Today, many local and national governments are developing urban agriculture as an effective tool in responding to challenges such as poverty, food security, and environmental problems. In this study, we follow a perspective based on urban agriculture literature in order to indicate the urban agriculture’s benefits in environmental planning strategies in non-western countries like Iran. The methodological approach adopted is based on qualitative approach and documentary studies. A total of 35 articles (mixed quantitative and qualitative methods studies) were studied in final analysis, which are published in relevant journals that focus on this subject. Studies show the wide range of positive benefits of urban agriculture on food security, nutrition outcomes, health outcomes, environmental outcomes, and social capital. However, there was no definitive conclusion about the negative effects of urban agriculture. This paper provides a conceptual and theoretical basis to know about urban agriculture and its roles in environmental planning, and also conclude the benefits of urban agriculture for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers who seek to create spaces in cities for implementation urban agriculture in future.

Keywords: urban agriculture, environmental planning, urban planning, literature

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
3775 Enhancing Inhibition on Phytopathogens by Complex Using Biogas Slurry

Authors: Fang-Bo Yu, Li-Bo Guan, Sheng-Dao Shan

Abstract:

Biogas slurry was mixed with six commercial fungicides and screening against 11 phytopathogens was carried out. Results showed that inhibition of biogas slurry was different for the test strains and no significant difference between treatments of Didymella bryoniae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizoctonia cerealis, F. graminearum and Septoria tritici was observed. However, significant differences were found among Penicillium sp., Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria sonali, F. oxysporum F. sp. melonis and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The approach described here presents a promising alternative to current manipulation although some issues still need further examination. This study could contribute to the development of sustainable agriculture and better utilization of biogas slurry.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas slurry, phytopathogen, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
3774 Assessing the Effects of Community Informatics on Livelihoods Sustainability in Nigeria: a Model for Rural Communities

Authors: Adebayo J. Julius, Oluremi N. Iluyomade

Abstract:

Livelihood in Nigeria is a paradox of poverty amidst plenty. The Country is endowed with a good climate for agriculture, naturally growing fruit trees and vegetables, and undomesticated water resources. In spite of all its endowment, Nigeria continues to live in poverty year in year out. This thus raises a very important question as to how can there be so much poverty in Nigeria with all its natural endowments. This study focused comparative analysis of the utilization of community informatics for sustainable livelihoods through agriculture. The idea projected in this study is that small strategic changes in the modus operandi of social informatics can have a significant impact on sustainability of livelihoods. This paper carefully explored the theories of community informatics and its efficacies in dealing with sustainability issues. This study identified, described and evaluates the roles of community informatics in some sectors of the economy, different analytical tools to benchmark the influence of social informatics in agriculture against what is obtainable in agricultural sectors of the economy were used. It further employed comparative analysis to build a case model for sustainable livelihood in agriculture through community informatics.

Keywords: informatics , model, rural community, livelihoods sustainability, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
3773 Ways of Innovative Sustainable Agriculture in India

Authors: Shailja Thakur

Abstract:

In this paper it is shown that how farmers are suffering from all sides including vagaries of weather then price fluctuations, demand supply constraints, poor soil health etc. Also the ICT can prove to be of great help if incorporated rightly into Indian agriculture. Some innovative ways to reward farmers and distribution of subsidies to them can improve the current scenario.

Keywords: cost of farming, information and communication technology, innovative steps, roof gardening, vermicomposting

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
3772 Categorization of Biosolids, a Vital Biological Resource for Sustainable Agriculture

Authors: Susmita Sharma, Pankaj Pathak

Abstract:

Biosolids are by-products of municipal and industrial wastewater treatment process. The generation of the biosolids is increasing at an alarming rate due to the implementation of strict environmental legislation to improve the quality of discharges from wastewater treatment plant. As such, proper management and safe disposal of sewage sludge have become a worldwide topic of research. Biosolids, rich in organic matter and essential micro and macronutrients; can be used as a soil conditioner, to cut fertilizer costs and create favorable conditions for vegetation. However, it also contains pathogens and heavy metals which are undesirable as they are harmful to both humans and the environment. Therefore, for safe utilization of biosolids for land application purposes, categorization of the contaminant and pathogen is mandatory. In this context, biosolids collected from a wastewater treatment plant in Maharashtra are utilized to determine its physical, chemical and microbiological attributes. This study would ascertain, if the use of these materials from the specific site, are suitable for agriculture. Further, efforts have also been made to present the internationally acceptable legal standards and guidelines for biosolids management or application.

Keywords: biosolids, sewage, heavy metal, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3771 Assessment of Al/Fe Humus, pH, and P Retention to Differentiate Andisols under Different Cultivation, Karanganyar, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Miseri Roeslan Afany, Nur Ainun Pulungan

Abstract:

The unique characteristics of Andisol differentiate them from other soils. These characteristics become a guideline in determining management and usage with regards to agriculture. Especially in the tropical area, Andisols may have fast mineral alteration due to intensive water movement in the soils. Four soil chemical tests were conducted for evaluating soils in the study area. Al/Fe humus, allophane, pH, and P retention were used to differentiate Andisols under different practices. Non-cultivation practice (e.g. natural forest) and cultivation practices (e.g. horticulture systems and intensive farming systems) are compared in this study. We applied Blackmore method for P retention analysis. The aims of this study are: (i) to analyze the specific behavior of Al/Fe humus, pH, and allophane towards P retention in order (ii) to evaluate the effect of cultivation practices on their behavior changes among Andisols, and (iii) to gain the sustainable agriculture through proposing an appropriate soil managements in the study area. 5 observation sites were selected, and 75 soil sampling were analyzed in this study. The results show that the cultivation decreases P retention in all sampling sites. There is a declining from ±90% to ±50% of P retention in the natural forest where shifts into cultivated land. The average of P retention under 15 years of cultivation down into 63%, whereas, the average of P retention more than 15 years of cultivation down into 54%. Many factors affect the retention of P in the soil such as: (1) type and amount of clay, (2) allophone and/or imogolit, (3) Al/Fe humus, (4) soil pH, (5) type and amount of organic material, (6) Exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, Na, K), (7) forms and solubility of Al/Fe. To achieve the sustainable agriculture in the study area, conventional agriculture practices should be preserved and intensive fertilizing practices should be applied in order to increase the soil pH, to maintain the organic matter of andisols, to maintain microba activities, and to release Al/Fe humus complex, and thus increase available P in the soils.

Keywords: Andisols, cultivation, P retention, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
3770 Identifying the Phases of Indian Agriculture Towards Desertification: An Introspect of Karnataka State, India

Authors: Arun Das

Abstract:

Indian agriculture is acclaimed from the dates of Indus civilization (2500 BC). Since this time until the day, there were tremendous expansion in terms of space and technology has taken place. Abrupt growth in technology took place past one and half century. Consequent to this development, the land which was brought under agriculture in the initial stages of introducing agriculture for the first time, that land is not possessing the same physical condition. Either it has lost the productive capacity or modified into semi agriculture land. On the grounds of its capacity and interwoven characteristics seven phases of agriculture scenario has been identified. Most of the land is on the march of desertification. Identifying the stages and the phase of the agriculture scenario is most relevant from the point of view of food security at regional, national and at global level. Secondly decisive measure can put back the degenerating environmental condition into arrest. GIS and Remote sensing applications have been used to identify the phases of agriculture.

Keywords: agriculture phases, desertification, deforestation, foods security, transmigration

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
3769 Agricultural Extension Education for Female: A Tool for Sustainable Rural Development in Pakistan

Authors: Jahanzaib

Abstract:

The rural economy can be uplifted through agricultural extension education for female as the majority is uneducated. The present study was carried out in five districts (Bahawalpur, Lodhran, Raheem Yar Khan, Bahawalnagr, and Vehari) of southern Punjab, Pakistan. The ten females were selected from each district, poor economic background for agricultural training. The training was provided free of cost, through Punjab skills development program. After six month training, the trainees were awarded with certificates and a tool kit. After completion of training data was recorded and analyzed, the results indicate that, female trainees were in a better economic position than the females of nearby districts without training. From this study, we can conclude that agricultural education for female can not only improve the economy of the individual family but also improve the agriculture of Pakistan on the sustainable basis as the majority of workers are female in rural areas of Pakistan.

Keywords: agricultural extension education, sustainable rural development, agriculture, rural development in Pakistan

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
3768 Urban Land Expansion Impact Assessment on Agriculture Land in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita

Abstract:

Kabul city is experiencing urban land expansion in an unprecedented scale, especially since the last decade. With massive population expansion and fast economic development, urban land has increasingly expanded and encroached upon agriculture land during the urbanization history of the city. This paper evaluates the integrated urban land expansion impact on agriculture land in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the city between 1962-1964. The paper studies the temporal and spatial characteristic of agriculture land and agriculture land loss in Kabul city using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing till 2008. Many temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries were interpreted to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of agriculture land loss. Different interval study periods, however, had vast difference in the agriculture land loss which is due to the urban land expansion trends in the city. the high number of Agriculture land adjacent to the city center and urban fringe have been converted into urban land during the study period in the city, as the agriculture land is highly correlated with the urban land.

Keywords: agriculture land, agriculture land loss, Kabul city, urban land expansion, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
3767 Agriculture Yield Prediction Using Predictive Analytic Techniques

Authors: Nagini Sabbineni, Rajini T. V. Kanth, B. V. Kiranmayee

Abstract:

India’s economy primarily depends on agriculture yield growth and their allied agro industry products. The agriculture yield prediction is the toughest task for agricultural departments across the globe. The agriculture yield depends on various factors. Particularly countries like India, majority of agriculture growth depends on rain water, which is highly unpredictable. Agriculture growth depends on different parameters, namely Water, Nitrogen, Weather, Soil characteristics, Crop rotation, Soil moisture, Surface temperature and Rain water etc. In our paper, lot of Explorative Data Analysis is done and various predictive models were designed. Further various regression models like Linear, Multiple Linear, Non-linear models are tested for the effective prediction or the forecast of the agriculture yield for various crops in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.

Keywords: agriculture yield growth, agriculture yield prediction, explorative data analysis, predictive models, regression models

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
3766 Climate Change and Sustainable Development among Agricultural Communities in Tanzania; An Analysis of Southern Highland Rural Communities

Authors: Paschal Arsein Mugabe

Abstract:

This paper examines sustainable development planning in the context of environmental concerns in rural areas of the Tanzania. It challenges mainstream approaches to development, focusing instead upon transformative action for environmental justice. The goal is to help shape future sustainable development agendas in local government, international agencies and civil society organisations. Research methods: The approach of the study is geographical, but also involves various Trans-disciplinary elements, particularly from development studies, sociology and anthropology, management, geography, agriculture and environmental science. The research methods included thematic and questionnaire interviews, participatory tools such as focus group discussion, participatory research appraisal and expert interviews for primary data. Secondary data were gathered through the analysis of land use/cover data and official documents on climate, agriculture, marketing and health. Also several earlier studies that were made in the area provided an important reference base. Findings: The findings show that, agricultural sustainability in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. Noteworthy differences in impacts across households are also present both by district and by income category. Also food security cannot be explained by climate as the only influencing factor. A combination of economic, political and socio-cultural context of the community are crucial. Conclusively, it is worthy knowing that people understand their relationship between climate change and their livelihood.

Keywords: agriculture, climate change, environment, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3765 Seedling Emergence and Initial Growth of Different Plants after Trichoderma sp. Inoculation

Authors: Simonida S. Djuric, Timea I. Hajnal Jafari, Dragana R. Stamenov

Abstract:

The use of plant growth promoting fungi (PGPF) has significantly increased in the last decade mostly due to their multi-level properties, and their expected success as biofertilizers in agriculture. Beneficial fungi with broad-host range undergo long-term interactions with a large variety of plants thereby playing a significant role in managed ecosystems and in the adaptation of crops to global climate changes. Trichoderma spp. are promising fungi toward the development of sustainable agriculture. The aim of our experiment was to investigate the effect of seed inoculation of sunflower, maize, soybean, paprika, melon, and watermelon seeds with Trichoderma sp. on early seed germination energy and initial growth of the plant. The seed inoculation with Trichoderma sp. increased the seedling emergence from 7, 85% in melon to 156,70% in watermelon. The inoculation had the best effect on initial growth of maize shoot (+23,80%) and soybean root (+106,30%). The different response of seed and young plants on Trichoderma sp. inoculation implicate the need for future investigations of successful inoculation systems and modes of their integration in sustainable agriculture production systems.

Keywords: initial growth, inoculation, seedling, Trichoderma sp.

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
3764 Influence of Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Growth of Cucumis myriocarpus Indigenous Leafy Vegetable

Authors: Pontsho E. Tseke, Phatu W. Mashela

Abstract:

Climate-smart agriculture dictates that underusilised indigenous plant, which served as food for local marginalized communities, be assessed for introduction into mainstream agriculture. Most of the underutilised indigenous plants had survived adverse conditions in the wild; with limited information on how the interact with most abiotic and biotic factors. Cucumis myriocarpus leafy vegetable has nutritional, pharmacological and industrial applications, with limited information on how it interacts with effective microorganisms. The objective of this study was to determine the effects vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) on the growth of C. myriocarpus indigenous leafy vegetable under greenhouse conditions. Four-weeks-old seedlings of C. myriocarpus were transplanted into 20-cm-diameter plastic pots. Two weeks after transplanting, VAM was applied at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 g Biocult-VAM plant. At 56 days after treatments, plant growth variables of C. myriocarpus with increase Biocult-VAM levels exhibited positive quadratic relations. Plant variables and increasing concentrations of salinity exhibited positive quadric relations, with 95 to 99% associations. Inclusion, Biocult-VAM can be used in sustainable production of C. myriocarpus for functional food security.

Keywords: abiotic, biotic, rhizasphere, sustainable agriculture

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
3763 Impact of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility and Microbial Activity

Authors: Menuka Maharjan

Abstract:

In the name of food security, agriculture intensification through conventional farming is being implemented in Nepal. Government focus on increasing agriculture production completely ignores soil as well human health. This leads to create serious soil degradation, i.e., reduction of soil fertility and microbial activity and health hazard in the country. On this note, organic farming is sustainable agriculture approach which can address challenge of sustaining food security while protecting the environment. This creates a win-win situation both for people and the environment. However, people have limited knowledge on significance of organic farming for environment conservation and food security especially developing countries like Nepal. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the impacts of organic farming on soil fertility and microbial activity compared to conventional farming and forest in Chitwan, Nepal. Total soil organic carbon (C) was highest in organic farming (24 mg C g⁻¹ soil) followed by conventional farming (15 mg C g⁻¹ soil) and forest (9 mg C g⁻¹ soil) in the topsoil layer (0-10 cm depth). A similar trend was found for total nitrogen (N) content in all three land uses with organic farming soil possessing the highest total N content in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. Microbial biomass C and N were also highest under organic farming, especially in the topsoil layer (350 and 46 mg g⁻¹ soil, respectively). Similarly, microbial biomass phosphorus (P) was higher (3.6 and 1.0 mg P kg⁻¹ at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively) in organic farming compared to conventional farming and forest at both depths. However, conventional farming and forest soils had similar microbial biomass (C, N, and P) content. After conversion of forest, the P stock significantly increased by 373% and 170% in soil under organic farming at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively. In conventional farming, the P stock increased by 64% and 36% at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively, compared to forest. Overall, organic farming practices, i.e., crop rotation, residue input and farmyard manure application, significantly alters soil fertility and microbial activity. Organic farming system is emerging as a sustainable land use system which can address the issues of food security and environment conservation by increasing sustainable agriculture production and carbon sequestration, respectively, supporting to achieve goals of sustainable development.

Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility, micobial biomas, food security

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3762 Decision Support System Based On GIS and MCDM to Identify Land Suitability for Agriculture

Authors: Abdelkader Mendas

Abstract:

The integration of MultiCriteria Decision Making (MCDM) approaches in a Geographical Information System (GIS) provides a powerful spatial decision support system which offers the opportunity to efficiently produce the land suitability maps for agriculture. Indeed, GIS is a powerful tool for analyzing spatial data and establishing a process for decision support. Because of their spatial aggregation functions, MCDM methods can facilitate decision making in situations where several solutions are available, various criteria have to be taken into account and decision-makers are in conflict. The parameters and the classification system used in this work are inspired from the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) approach dedicated to a sustainable agriculture. A spatial decision support system has been developed for establishing the land suitability map for agriculture. It incorporates the multicriteria analysis method ELECTRE Tri (ELimitation Et Choix Traduisant la REalité) in a GIS within the GIS program package environment. The main purpose of this research is to propose a conceptual and methodological framework for the combination of GIS and multicriteria methods in a single coherent system that takes into account the whole process from the acquisition of spatially referenced data to decision-making. In this context, a spatial decision support system for developing land suitability maps for agriculture has been developed. The algorithm of ELECTRE Tri is incorporated into a GIS environment and added to the other analysis functions of GIS. This approach has been tested on an area in Algeria. A land suitability map for durum wheat has been produced. Through the obtained results, it appears that ELECTRE Tri method, integrated into a GIS, is better suited to the problem of land suitability for agriculture. The coherence of the obtained maps confirms the system effectiveness.

Keywords: multicriteria decision analysis, decision support system, geographical information system, land suitability for agriculture

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3761 Indicators of Sustainable Intensification: Views from British Stakeholders

Authors: N. Mahon, I. Crute, M. Di Bonito, E. Simmons, M. M. Islam

Abstract:

Growing interest in the concept of the sustainable intensification (SI) of agriculture has been shown by, national governments, transnational agribusinesses, intergovernmental organizations and research institutes, amongst others. This interest may be because SI is seen as a ‘third way’ for agricultural development, between the seemingly disparate paradigms of ‘intensive’ agriculture and more ‘sustainable’ forms of agriculture. However, there is a lack of consensus as to what SI means in practice and how it should be measured using indicators of change. This has led to growing confusion, disagreement and skepticism regarding the concept, especially amongst civil society organizations, both in the UK and other countries. This has prompted the need for bottom-up, participatory approaches to identify indicators of SI. Our aim is to identify the views of British stakeholders regarding the areas of agreement and disagreement as to what SI is and how it should be measured in the UK using indicators of change. Data for this investigation came from 32 semi-structured interviews, conducted between 2015 and 2016, with stakeholders from throughout the UK food system. In total 110 indicators of SI were identified. These indicators covered a wide variety of subjects including biophysical, social and political considerations. A number of indicators appeared to be widely applicable and were similar to those suggested in the global literature. These include indicators related to the management of the natural resources on which agriculture relies e.g., ‘Soil organic matter’, ‘Number of pollinators per hectare’ and ‘Depth of water table’. As well as those related to agricultural externalities, e.g., ‘Greenhouse gas emissions’ and ‘Concentrations of agro-chemicals in waterways’. However, many of the indicators were much more specific to the context of the UK. These included, ‘Areas of high nature value farmland’, ‘Length of hedgerows per hectare’ and ‘Age of farmers’. Furthermore, tensions could be seen when participants considered the relative importance of agricultural mechanization versus levels of agricultural employment, the pros and cons of intensive, housed livestock systems and value of wild biodiversity versus the desire to increase agricultural yields. These areas of disagreement suggest the need to carefully consider the trade-offs inherent in the concept. Our findings indicate that in order to begin to resolve the confusions surrounding SI it needs to be considered in a context specific manner, rather than as a single uniform concept. Furthermore, both the environmental and the social parameters in which agriculture operates need to be considered in order to operationalize SI in a meaningful way. We suggest that participatory approaches are key to this process, facilitating dialogue and collaborative-learning between all the stakeholders, allowing them to reach a shared vision for the future of agricultural development.

Keywords: agriculture, indicators, participatory approach, sustainable intensification

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3760 Relationship between ICTs Application with Production and Protection Technology: Lesson from Rural Punjab-Pakistan

Authors: Tahir Munir Butt, Gao Qijie, Babar Shahbaz, Muhammad Zakaria Yousaf Hassan, Zhnag Chuanhong

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to identify the relationship between Information Communication Technology (ICTs) applications with Agricultural development in the process of communication at rural Punjab-Pakistan. The authors analyzed the relationship of ICTs applications with the most prominent factor for the Agricultural Information Services (AIS) in the Agricultural Extension Approaches (AEA). The data collection procedure was started from Jan. 2015 and completed in July 2015. It is the one of the part in PhD studies at China Agriculture, University Hadian-Beijng China. It was observed that on major constraint in the AIS disseminated was the limited number of farmers especially and unknown the farmers about new ICTs technology for Agriculture at rural areas. Majority of ICTs application e.g. Toll free number; Robo Calls; Text message was highly significances in the AIS approach. The recommendation is communication and capacity building one of the indispensable elements for sustainable and agricultural development and Agricultural extension should be provided training to farmer about new ICTs technologies to access and use of it for Sustainable Agriculture Development (SAD) and update the scenario of flow of information also with try to established ICTs hub at the village level.

Keywords: ICTs, AEA, AIS, SAD, rural farmers

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3759 Youths Economic Empowerment through Vocational Agricultural Enterprises (Entrepreneurship) for Sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria: Constraints and Initiatives for Improvement

Authors: Thomas Ogilegwu Orohu

Abstract:

This paper presents agricultural education as a vocational study, an impetus for youths, economic empowerment. The survival of Nigeria’s agriculture rests squarely on the youth who are the farmers and leaders of tomorrow. Hitherto, the teaching and learning of agriculture has proceeded in such a manner that graduates of such programs have failed to make the successful launch into the world of agricultural enterprises (entrepreneurship). Major constraints that predisposed this anomalous situation were identified to include poor policy framework, socio-economic pressures, undue parental and peer influences, improper value orientation and of course, the nature of curricula. In response to the situation, some programs and/or initiatives aimed at inculcating entrepreneurial skills were proposed by this paper with identified target beneficiaries. The initiatives bordered on curricular reorientation that integrate entrepreneurship/enterprise education, retraining of graduates, financial support system among others.

Keywords: Program initiatives. vocational agriculture, youths’ empowerment, introduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 201