Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5769

Search results for: bare life

5769 Presenting Internals of Networks Using Bare Machine Technology

Authors: Joel Weymouth, Ramesh K. Karne, Alexander L. Wijesinha

Abstract:

Bare Machine Internet is part of the Bare Machine Computing (BMC) paradigm. It is used in programming application ns to run directly on a device. It is software that runs directly against the hardware using CPU, Memory, and I/O. The software application runs without an Operating System and resident mass storage. An important part of the BMC paradigm is the Bare Machine Internet. It utilizes an Application Development model software that interfaces directly with the hardware on a network server and file server. Because it is “bare,” it is a powerful teaching and research tool that can readily display the internals of the network protocols, software, and hardware of the applications running on the Bare Server. It was also demonstrated that the bare server was accessible by laptop and by smartphone/android. The purpose was to show the further practicality of Bare Internet in Computer Engineering and Computer Science Education and Research. It was also to show that an undergraduate student could take advantage of a bare server with any device and any browser at any release version connected to the internet. This paper presents the Bare Web Server as an educational tool. We will discuss possible applications of this paradigm.

Keywords: bare machine computing, online research, network technology, visualizing network internals

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5768 Application of Artificial Neural Network for Single Horizontal Bare Tube and Bare Tube Bundles (Staggered) of Large Particles: Heat Transfer Prediction

Authors: G. Ravindranath, S. Savitha

Abstract:

This paper presents heat transfer analysis of single horizontal bare tube and heat transfer analysis of staggered arrangement of bare tube bundles bare tube bundles in gas-solid (air-solid) fluidized bed and predictions are done by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based on experimental data. Fluidized bed provide nearly isothermal environment with high heat transfer rate to submerged objects i.e. due to through mixing and large contact area between the gas and the particle, a fully fluidized bed has little temperature variation and gas leaves at a temperature which is close to that of the bed. Measurement of average heat transfer coefficient was made by local thermal simulation technique in a cold bubbling air-fluidized bed of size 0.305 m. x 0.305 m. Studies were conducted for single horizontal Bare Tube of length 305mm and 28.6mm outer diameter and for bare tube bundles of staggered arrangement using beds of large (average particle diameter greater than 1 mm) particle (raagi and mustard). Within the range of experimental conditions influence of bed particle diameter ( Dp), Fluidizing Velocity (U) were studied, which are significant parameters affecting heat transfer. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have been receiving an increasing attention for simulating engineering systems due to some interesting characteristics such as learning capability, fault tolerance, and non-linearity. Here, feed-forward architecture and trained by back-propagation technique is adopted to predict heat transfer analysis found from experimental results. The ANN is designed to suit the present system which has 3 inputs and 2 out puts. The network predictions are found to be in very good agreement with the experimental observed values of bare heat transfer coefficient (hb) and nusselt number of bare tube (Nub).

Keywords: fluidized bed, large particles, particle diameter, ANN

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5767 Effect of Infill Walls on Response of Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Ayman Abd-Elhamed, Sayed Mahmoud

Abstract:

The present research work investigates the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame building considering the effect of modeling masonry infill (MI) walls. The seismic behavior of a residential 6-storey RC frame building, considering and ignoring the effect of masonry, is numerically investigated using response spectrum (RS) analysis. The considered herein building is designed as a moment resisting frame (MRF) system following the Egyptian code (EC) requirements. Two developed models in terms of bare frame and infill walls frame are used in the study. Equivalent diagonal strut methodology is used to represent the behavior of infill walls, whilst the well-known software package ETABS is used for implementing all frame models and performing the analysis. The results of the numerical simulations such as base shear, displacements, and internal forces for the bare frame as well as the infill wall frame are presented in a comparative way. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between infill walls and frames significantly change the responses of buildings during earthquakes compared to the results of bare frame building model. Specifically, the seismic analysis of RC bare frame structure leads to underestimation of base shear and consequently damage or even collapse of buildings may occur under strong shaking. On the other hand, considering infill walls significantly decrease the peak floor displacements and drifts in both X and Y-directions.

Keywords: masonry infill, bare frame, response spectrum, seismic response

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5766 Representation of Agamben's Concept of 'Homo Sacer': Interpretative Analysis in Turkish TV Series Based on Turkey's 1980 Military Coup

Authors: Oyku Yenen

Abstract:

The notion of biopolitics, as studied by such intellectuals as Foucault, Agamben, and Negri, is an important guide for comprehending the current understanding of politics. While Foucault evaluates biopolitics as a survival policy, Giorgio Agamben, German legist, identifies the theory with death. Agamben claims the fact we can all considered to be homo sacer who are abandoned by the law, left in the field of exception, and whose killing does not require punishment. Agamben defines the person who is tried by the public for committing a crime but is not allowed to be sacrificed and whose killing is not considered a crime, as 'homo sacer'. This study analyzes how the concept of 'homo sacer' is made visible in TV series such as Çemberimde Gül Oya (Cagan Irmak, 2005-2005), Hatırla Sevgili (Ummu Burhan, 2006-2008), Bu Kalp Seni Unutur Mu? (Aydin Bulut, 2009-1010) all of which portray the period Turkey's 1980 military coup, within the framework of Agamben's thoughts and notions about biopolitics. When the main plots of these abovementioned TV series, which constitute the universe of this study, are scrutinized closely, they lay out the understanding of politics that has existed throughout history and prevails today. Although there is a large number of TV series on the coup of 1980, these three series are the only main productions that specifically focused on the event itself. Our final analysis will reveal that the concepts of homo sacer, bare life, exception, camp have been embodied in different ways in these three series. In these three series, which all deal with similar subjects using differing perspectives, the dominant understanding of politics is clearly conveyed to the audience. In all three series, the reigning power always decides on the exceptions, those who will live, those who will die, and those who will be ignored by law. Such characters as Mehmet, Sinan, Yıldız, Deniz, Defne, all of which we come across in these series, are on trial as a criminals of thought and are subjected to various forms of torture while isolated in an area where they are virtually deprived of law. Their citizenship rights are revoked. All of them are left alone with their bare lives (zoe).

Keywords: bare life, biopolitics, homo sacer, sovereign power, state of exception

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5765 Electrochemical Behavior and Cathodic Stripping Voltammetric Determination of Dianabol Steroid in Urine at Bare Glassy Carbon Paste Electrode

Authors: N. Al-Orfi, M. S. El-Shahawi, A. S. Bashammakh

Abstract:

The electrochemical response of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the sensitive and selective determination of dianabol steroid (DS) in phosphate, Britton-Robinson (B-R) and HEPES buffers of pH 2.0 - 11, 2.0 - 11 and 6.2 - 8.0, respectively using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse- adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (DP-CSV) at bare GCE was studied. The dependence of the CV response of the developed cathodic peak potential (Ep, c), peak current (ip, c) and the current function (ip, c / υ1/2) on the scan rate (υ) at the bare GCE revealed the occurrence of electrode coupled chemical reaction of EC type mechanism. The selectivity of the proposed method was assessed in the presence of high concentrations of major interfering species e.g. uric acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch and ions Na+, K+, PO4-3, NO3- and SO42-. The recovery of the method was not significant where t(critical)=2.20 > texp=1.81-1.93 at 95% confidence. The analytical application of the sensor for the quantification of DS in biological fluids as urine was investigated. The results were demonstrated as recovery percentages in the range 95±2.5-97±4.7% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.5-1.5%.

Keywords: dianabol, determination, modified electrode, urine

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5764 High Temperature Behavior of a 75Cr3C2–25NiCr Coated T91 Boiler Steel in an Actual Industrial Environment of a Coal Fired Boiler

Authors: Buta Singh Sidhu, Sukhpal Singh Chatha, Hazoor Singh Sidhu

Abstract:

In the present investigation, 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating was deposited on T91 boiler tube steel substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to enhance high-temperature corrosion resistance. High-temperature performance of bare, as well as HVOF-coated steel specimens was evaluated for 1500 h under cyclic conditions in the platen superheater zone coal-fired boiler, where the temperature was around 900 °C. Experiments were carried out for 15 cycles each of 100 h duration followed by 1 h cooling at ambient temperature. The performance of the bare and coated specimens was assessed via metal thickness loss corresponding to the corrosion scale formation and the depth of internal corrosion attack. 75Cr3C2-25NiCr coating deposited on T91 steel imparted better hot corrosion resistance than the uncoated steel. Inferior resistance of bare T91 steel is attributed to the formation of pores and loosely bounded oxide scale rich in Fe2O3.

Keywords: 75Cr3C2-25NiCr, HVOF process, boiler steel, coal fired boilers

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5763 The Effect of Stent Coating on the Stent Flexibility: Comparison of Covered Stent and Bare Metal Stent

Authors: Keping Zuo, Foad Kabinejadian, Gideon Praveen Kumar Vijayakumar, Fangsen Cui, Pei Ho, Hwa Liang Leo

Abstract:

Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is the standard procedure for patients with severe carotid stenosis at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CAE). A major drawback of CAS is the higher incidence of procedure-related stroke compared with traditional open surgical treatment for carotid stenosis - CEA, even with the use of the embolic protection devices (EPD). As the currently available bare metal stents cannot address this problem, our research group developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet maintaining the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of membrane coating on the stent flexibility in order to improve the clinical performance of our novel covered stents. A total of 21 stents were evaluated in this study: 15 self expanding bare nitinol stents and 6 PTFE-covered stents. 10 of the bare stents were coated with 11%, 16% and 22% Polyurethane(PU), 4%, 6.25% and 11% EE, as well as 22% PU plus 5 μm Parylene. Different laser cutting designs were performed on 4 of the PTFE covert stents. All the stents, with or without the covered membrane, were subjected to a three-point flexural test. The stents were placed on two supports that are 30 mm apart, and the actuator is applying a force in the exact middle of the two supports with a loading pin with radius 2.5 mm. The loading pin displacement change, the force and the variation in stent shape were recorded for analysis. The flexibility of the stents was evaluated by the lumen area preservation at three displacement bending levels: 5mm, 7mm, and 10mm. All the lumen areas in all stents decreased with the increase of the displacement from 0 to 10 mm. The bare stents were able to maintain 0.864 ± 0.015, 0.740 ± 0.025 and 0.597 ± 0.031of original lumen area at 5 mm, 7 mm and 10mm displacement respectively. For covered stents, the stents with EE coating membrane showed the best lumen area preservation (0.839 ± 0.005, 0.7334 ± 0.043 and 0.559 ± 0.014), whereas, the stents with PU and Parylene coating were only 0.662, 0.439 and 0.305. Bending stiffness was also calculated and compared. These results provided optimal material information and it was crucial for enhancing clinical performance of our novel covered stents.

Keywords: carotid artery, covered stent, nonlinear, hyperelastic, stress, strain

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5762 Structural Assessment of Low-Rise Reinforced Concrete Frames under Tsunami Loads

Authors: Hussain Jiffry, Kypros Pilakoutas, Reyes Garcia Lopez

Abstract:

This study examines the effect of tsunami loads on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings analytically. The impact of tsunami wave loads and waterborne objects are analyzed using a typical substandard full-scale two-story RC frame building tested as part of the EU-funded Ecoleader project. The building was subjected to shake table tests in bare condition and subsequently strengthened using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites and retested. Numerical models of the building in both bare and CFRP-strengthened conditions are calibrated in DRAIN-3DX software to match the test results. To investigate the response of wave loads and impact forces, the numerical models are subjected to nonlinear dynamic analyses using force-time history input records. The analytical results are compared in terms of displacements at the floors and the 'impact point' of a boat. The results show that the roof displacement of the CFRP-strengthened building reduced by 63% when compared to the bare building. The results also indicate that strengthening only the mid-height of the impact column using CFRP is more efficient at reducing damage when compared to strengthening other parts of the column. Alternative solutions to mitigate damage due to tsunami loads are suggested.

Keywords: tsunami loads, hydrodynamic load, impact load, waterborne objects, RC buildings

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5761 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures Retrofitted with Damped Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Mohamed Nour Eldin, Jinkoo Kim

Abstract:

In this study, the seismic performance and life cycle cost (LCC) are evaluated of the structure retrofitted with the damped cable system (DCS). The DCS is a seismic retrofit system composed of a high-strength steel cable and pressurized viscous dampers. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in SAP2000, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the DCS and viscous dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the residual displacements of the structure equipped with the DCS are smaller than those of the structure with retrofitted with only conventional viscous dampers, due to the enhanced stiffness/strength and self-centering capability of the damped cable system. The fragility analysis shows that the structure retrofitted with the DCS has the least probability of reaching the specific limit states compared to the bare structure and the structure with viscous damper. It is also observed that the initial cost of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers and that the LCC of the structure equipped with the DCS is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers.

Keywords: damped cable system, fragility curve, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit, self-centering

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5760 Studies on Modified Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Potential Drug Carrier

Authors: Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Olga Dlugosz, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The toxicity of bare zinc oxide nanoparticles used as drug carriers may be the result of releasing zinc ions. Thus, zinc oxide nanoparticles modified with galactose were obtained. The process of their formation was conducted in the microwave field. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were studied. The size and electrokinetic potential were defined by using dynamic light scattering technique. The crystalline properties were assessed by X-ray diffractometry. In order to confirm the formation of the desired products, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used. The releasing of zinc ions from the prepared products when comparing to the bare oxide was analyzed. It was found out that modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with galactose limits the releasing of zinc ions which are responsible for the toxic effect of the whole carrier-drug conjugate.

Keywords: nanomaterials, zinc oxide, drug delivery system, toxicity

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5759 Study The Role Effect of Poly Pyrrole on LiFePO4 as Positive Electrode

Authors: Atef Youssef, Marwa Mostafa Moharam

Abstract:

The effects of poly pyrrole (PP) addition on LiFePO4 have been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and galvanostatic measurements. PP was prepared with LiFePO₄ in different ways, such as chemically dispersion, insinuation polymerization, and electrochemically polymerization. The EIS results showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) of LiFePO₄ was decreased by adding 10% PP polymerized in a situation to 153 vs. 1660  for bare LiFePO₄. The CV curves show that 10% PP added LiFePO₄ had higher electrochemical reactivity for lithium insertion and extraction than the un-doped material. The mean redox potential is E1/2 = 3.45 V vs. Li+/Li. The first discharge curve of the 10% poly pyrrole doped LiFePO₄ showed a mainly flat voltage plateau over the 3.45–3.5 V range, indicating the lithium extraction and insertion reactions between LiFePO₄ and FePO₄. A specific discharge capacity of cells prepared from in-situ 10% PP added LiFePO4to was about 210 vs. 65 mAhg-1 for bare LiFePO₄.

Keywords: liFePO₄, poly pyrrole addition, positive electrode, lithium battery

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5758 Determination of Soil Loss by Erosion in Different Land Covers Categories and Slope Classes in Bovilla Watershed, Tirana, Albania

Authors: Valmir Baloshi, Fran Gjoka, Nehat Çollaku, Elvin Toromani

Abstract:

As a sediment production mechanism, soil erosion is the main environmental threat to the Bovilla watershed, including the decline of water quality of the Bovilla reservoir that provides drinking water to Tirana city (the capital of Albania). Therefore, an experiment with 25 erosion plots for soil erosion monitoring has been set up since June 2017. The aim was to determine the soil loss on plot and watershed scale in Bovilla watershed (Tirana region) for implementation of soil and water protection measures or payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs. The results of erosion monitoring for the period June 2017 - May 2018 showed that the highest values of surface runoff were noted in bare land of 38829.91 liters on slope of 74% and the lowest values in forest land of 12840.6 liters on slope of 64% while the highest values of soil loss were found in bare land of 595.15 t/ha on slope of 62% and lowest values in forest land of 18.99 t/ha on slope of 64%. These values are much higher than the average rate of soil loss in the European Union (2.46 ton/ha/year). In the same sloping class, the soil loss was reduced from orchard or bare land to the forest land, and in the same category of land use, the soil loss increased with increasing land slope. It is necessary to conduct chemical analyses of sediments to determine the amount of chemical elements leached out of the soil and end up in the reservoir of Bovilla. It is concluded that PES programs should be implemented for rehabilitation of sub-watersheds Ranxe, Vilez and Zall-Bastar of the Bovilla watershed with valuable conservation practices.

Keywords: ANOVA, Bovilla, land cover, slope, soil loss, watershed management

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5757 Analysis of Enhanced Built-up and Bare Land Index in the Urban Area of Yangon, Myanmar

Authors: Su Nandar Tin, Wutjanun Muttitanon

Abstract:

The availability of free global and historical satellite imagery provides a valuable opportunity for mapping and monitoring the year by year for the built-up area, constantly and effectively. Land distribution guidelines and identification of changes are important in preparing and reviewing changes in the ground overview data. This study utilizes Landsat images for thirty years of information to acquire significant, and land spread data that are extremely valuable for urban arranging. This paper is mainly introducing to focus the basic of extracting built-up area for the city development area from the satellite images of LANDSAT 5,7,8 and Sentinel 2A from USGS in every five years. The purpose analyses the changing of the urban built-up area according to the year by year and to get the accuracy of mapping built-up and bare land areas in studying the trend of urban built-up changes the periods from 1990 to 2020. The GIS tools such as raster calculator and built-up area modelling are using in this study and then calculating the indices, which include enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI), Normalized difference Built-up index (NDBI), Urban index (UI), Built-up index (BUI) and Normalized difference bareness index (NDBAI) are used to get the high accuracy urban built-up area. Therefore, this study will point out a variable approach to automatically mapping typical enhanced built-up and bare land changes (EBBI) with simple indices and according to the outputs of indexes. Therefore, the percentage of the outputs of enhanced built-up and bareness index (EBBI) of the sentinel-2A can be realized with 48.4% of accuracy than the other index of Landsat images which are 15.6% in 1990 where there is increasing urban expansion area from 43.6% in 1990 to 92.5% in 2020 on the study area for last thirty years.

Keywords: built-up area, EBBI, NDBI, NDBAI, urban index

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5756 Mapping Man-Induced Soil Degradation in Armenia's High Mountain Pastures through Remote Sensing Methods: A Case Study

Authors: A. Saghatelyan, Sh. Asmaryan, G. Tepanosyan, V. Muradyan

Abstract:

One of major concern to Armenia has been soil degradation emerged as a result of unsustainable management and use of grasslands, this in turn largely impacting environment, agriculture and finally human health. Hence, assessment of soil degradation is an essential and urgent objective set out to measure its possible consequences and develop a potential management strategy. Since recently, an essential tool for assessing pasture degradation has been remote sensing (RS) technologies. This research was done with an intention to measure preciseness of Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) and NDVI-SMA methods to estimate soil surface components related to degradation (fractional vegetation cover-FVC, bare soils fractions, surface rock cover) and determine appropriateness of these methods for mapping man-induced soil degradation in high mountain pastures. Taking into consideration a spatially complex and heterogeneous biogeophysical structure of the studied site, we used high resolution multispectral QuickBird imagery of a pasture site in one of Armenia’s rural communities - Nerkin Sasoonashen. The accuracy assessment was done by comparing between the land cover abundance data derived through RS methods and the ground truth land cover abundance data. A significant regression was established between ground truth FVC estimate and both NDVI-LSU and LSU - produced vegetation abundance data (R2=0.636, R2=0.625, respectively). For bare soil fractions linear regression produced a general coefficient of determination R2=0.708. Because of poor spectral resolution of the QuickBird imagery LSU failed with assessment of surface rock abundance (R2=0.015). It has been well documented by this particular research, that reduction in vegetation cover runs in parallel with increase in man-induced soil degradation, whereas in the absence of man-induced soil degradation a bare soil fraction does not exceed a certain level. The outcomes show that the proposed method of man-induced soil degradation assessment through FVC, bare soil fractions and field data adequately reflects the current status of soil degradation throughout the studied pasture site and may be employed as an alternate of more complicated models for soil degradation assessment.

Keywords: Armenia, linear spectral unmixing, remote sensing, soil degradation

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5755 Experimental Investigation on Activated Carbon Based Cryosorption Pump

Authors: K. B. Vinay, K. G. Vismay, S. Kasturirengan, G. A. Vivek

Abstract:

Cryosorption pumps are considered to be safe, quiet and ultra-high vacuum production pumps which have their application from Semiconductor industries to ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] units. The principle of physisorption of gases over highly porous materials like activated charcoal at cryogenic temperatures (below -1500°C) is involved in determining the pumping speed of gases like Helium, Hydrogen, Argon and Nitrogen. This paper aims at providing detailed overview of development of Cryosorption pump which is the modern ultra-high vacuum pump and characterization of different activated charcoal materials that optimizes the performance of the pump. Different grades of charcoal were tested in order to determine the pumping speed of the pump and were compared with commercially available Varian cryopanel. The results for bare panel, bare panel with adhesive, cryopanel with pellets, and cryopanel with granules were obtained and compared. The comparison showed that cryopanel adhered with small granules gave better pumping speeds than large sized pellets.

Keywords: adhesive, cryopanel, granules, pellets

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5754 Wear Behavior of Grey Cast Iron Coated with Al2O3-13TiO2 and Ni20Cr Using Detonation Spray Process

Authors: Harjot Singh Gill, Neelkanth Grover, Jwala Parshad Singla

Abstract:

The main aim of this research work is to present the effect of coating on two different grades of grey cast iron using detonation spray method. Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 powders were sprayed using detonation gun onto GI250 and GIHC substrates and the results as well as coating surface morphology of the coating is studied by XRD and SEM/EDAX analysis. The wear resistance of Ni20Cr and Al2O3-13TiO2 has been investigated on pin-on-disc tribometer using ASTM G99 standards. Cumulative wear rate and coefficient of friction (µ) were calculated under three normal load of 30N, 40N, 50N at constant sliding velocity of 1m/s. Worn out surfaces were analyzed by SEM/EDAX. The results show significant resistance to wear with Al2O3-13TiO2 coating as compared to Ni20Cr and bare substrates. SEM/EDAX analysis and cumulative wear loss bar charts clearly explain the wear behavior of coated as well as bare sample of GI250 and GIHC.

Keywords: detonation spray, grey cast iron, wear rate, coefficient of friction

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5753 Investigation of Alumina Membrane Coated Titanium Implants on Osseointegration

Authors: Pinar Erturk, Sevde Altuntas, Fatih Buyukserin

Abstract:

In order to obtain an effective integration between an implant and a bone, implant surfaces should have similar properties to bone tissue surfaces. Especially mimicry of the chemical, mechanical and topographic properties of the implant to the bone is crucial for fast and effective osseointegration. Titanium-based biomaterials are more preferred in clinical use, and there are studies of coating these implants with oxide layers that have chemical/nanotopographic properties stimulating cell interactions for enhanced osseointegration. There are low success rates of current implantations, especially in craniofacial implant applications, which are large and vital zones, and the oxide layer coating increases bone-implant integration providing long-lasting implants without requiring revision surgery. Our aim in this study is to examine bone-cell behavior on titanium implants with an aluminum oxide layer (AAO) on effective osseointegration potential in the deformation of large zones with difficult spontaneous healing. In our study, aluminum layer coated titanium surfaces were anodized in sulfuric, phosphoric, and oxalic acid, which are the most common used AAO anodization electrolytes. After morphologic, chemical, and mechanical tests on AAO coated Ti substrates, viability, adhesion, and mineralization of adult bone cells on these substrates were analyzed. Besides with atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a sensitive and conformal technique, these surfaces were coated with pure alumina (5 nm); thus, cell studies were performed on ALD-coated nanoporous oxide layers with suppressed ionic content too. Lastly, in order to investigate the effect of the topography on the cell behavior, flat non-porous alumina layers on silicon wafers formed by ALD were compared with the porous ones. Cell viability ratio was similar between anodized surfaces, but pure alumina coated titanium and anodized surfaces showed a higher viability ratio compared to bare titanium and bare anodized ones. Alumina coated titanium surfaces, which anodized in phosphoric acid, showed significantly different mineralization ratios after 21 days over other bare titanium and titanium surfaces which anodized in other electrolytes. Bare titanium was the second surface that had the highest mineralization ratio. Otherwise, titanium, which is anodized in oxalic acid electrolyte, demonstrated the lowest mineralization. No significant difference was shown between bare titanium and anodized surfaces except AAO titanium surface anodized in phosphoric acid. Currently, osteogenic activities of these cells on the genetic level are investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis results of RUNX-2, VEGF, OPG, and osteopontin genes. Also, as a result of the activities of the genes mentioned before, Western Blot will be used for protein detection. Acknowledgment: The project is supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey.

Keywords: alumina, craniofacial implant, MG-63 cell line, osseointegration, oxalic acid, phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, titanium

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5752 Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frames Infilled by Masonry Walls with Different Heights

Authors: Ji-Wook Mauk, Yu-Suk Kim, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

This study carried out comparative seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames infilled by masonry walls with different heights. Partial and fully infilled RC frames were modeled for the research objectives and the analysis model for a bare reinforced concrete frame was established for comparison. Non-linear static analyses for the studied frames were performed to investigate their structural behavior under extreme loading conditions and to find out their collapse mechanism. It was observed from analysis results that the strengths of the partial infilled RC frames are increased and their ductility is reduced, as infilled masonry walls are higher. Especially, Reinforced concrete frames with a higher partial infilled masonry wall would experience shear failures. Non-linear dynamic analyses using 10 earthquake records show that the bare and fully infilled reinforced concrete frames present stable collapse mechanism while the reinforced concrete frames with a partially infilled masonry wall collapse in more brittle manner due to short-column effects.

Keywords: fully infilled RC frame, partially infilled RC frame, masonry wall, short-column effect

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5751 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

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5750 Effects of Fire on Vegetation of the Prairies and Black Oak Sand Savannas of Kankakee, Illinois

Authors: Megan Alkazoff, Charles Ruffner

Abstract:

Tallgrass prairies and sand savannas, once covering northern to central Illinois, are ecosystems in need of restoration and conservation in the Midwestern United States. The Nature Conservancy manages five sites containing fragments of remaining tallgrass prairies and sand savannas within the Kankakee Sands using techniques such as prescribed burning and invasive species removal. The objective of this study was to conduct a ten-year resampling of transects established on these five sites during previous studies to assess whether the management tools applied there are helping maintain the tallgrass prairie and sand savannas. During the summer of 2020, permanent transect lines were sampled using a quadrat to determine the % Cover Class of each species rooted in the quadrat. Data gathered was analyzed using linear regression to illustrate the relationship between fire occurrence and species composition on the landscape. The fire frequency had a highly significant effect (P= 0.0025) on the species richness of all sites. The frequency of fire had a non-significant effect (P>0.05) on the Floristic Quality Index, percent C value 4-10, and bare-ground percentage of a site. These results suggest that fire on the landscape, both wild and prescribed, have increased biodiversity on all five sites but has not affected the Floristic Quality Index, percent C value 4-10, and the percentage of bare-ground on the sites.

Keywords: fire, floristic quality assessment, sand savanna, species richness, tallgrass prairie

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5749 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties Evaluation of Graphene-Reinforced AlSi10Mg Matrix Composite Produced by Powder Bed Fusion Process

Authors: Jitendar Kumar Tiwari, Ajay Mandal, N. Sathish, A. K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Since the last decade, graphene achieved great attention toward the progress of multifunction metal matrix composites, which are highly demanded in industries to develop energy-efficient systems. This study covers the two advanced aspects of the latest scientific endeavor, i.e., graphene as reinforcement in metallic materials and additive manufacturing (AM) as a processing technology. Herein, high-quality graphene and AlSi10Mg powder mechanically mixed by very low energy ball milling with 0.1 wt. % and 0.2 wt. % graphene. Mixed powder directly subjected to the powder bed fusion process, i.e., an AM technique to produce composite samples along with bare counterpart. The effects of graphene on porosity, microstructure, and mechanical properties were examined in this study. The volumetric distribution of pores was observed under X-ray computed tomography (CT). On the basis of relative density measurement by X-ray CT, it was observed that porosity increases after graphene addition, and pore morphology also transformed from spherical pores to enlarged flaky pores due to improper melting of composite powder. Furthermore, the microstructure suggests the grain refinement after graphene addition. The columnar grains were able to cross the melt pool boundaries in case of the bare sample, unlike composite samples. The smaller columnar grains were formed in composites due to heterogeneous nucleation by graphene platelets during solidification. The tensile properties get affected due to induced porosity irrespective of graphene reinforcement. The optimized tensile properties were achieved at 0.1 wt. % graphene. The increment in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength was 22% and 10%, respectively, for 0.1 wt. % graphene reinforced sample in comparison to bare counterpart while elongation decreases 20% for the same sample. The hardness indentations were taken mostly on the solid region in order to avoid the collapse of the pores. The hardness of the composite was increased progressively with graphene content. Around 30% of increment in hardness was achieved after the addition of 0.2 wt. % graphene. Therefore, it can be concluded that powder bed fusion can be adopted as a suitable technique to develop graphene reinforced AlSi10Mg composite. Though, some further process modification required to avoid the induced porosity after the addition of graphene, which can be addressed in future work.

Keywords: graphene, hardness, porosity, powder bed fusion, tensile properties

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5748 Use of Data of the Remote Sensing for Spatiotemporal Analysis Land Use Changes in the Eastern Aurès (Algeria)

Authors: A. Bouzekri, H. Benmassaud

Abstract:

Aurès region is one of the arid and semi-arid areas that have suffered climate crises and overexploitation of natural resources they have led to significant land degradation. The use of remote sensing data allowed us to analyze the land and its spatiotemporal changes in the Aurès between 1987 and 2013, for this work, we adopted a method of analysis based on the exploitation of the images satellite Landsat TM 1987 and Landsat OLI 2013, from the supervised classification likelihood coupled with field surveys of the mission of May and September of 2013. Using ENVI EX software by the superposition of the ground cover maps from 1987 and 2013, one can extract a spatial map change of different land cover units. The results show that between 1987 and 2013 vegetation has suffered negative changes are the significant degradation of forests and steppe rangelands, and sandy soils and bare land recorded a considerable increase. The spatial change map land cover units between 1987 and 2013 allows us to understand the extensive or regressive orientation of vegetation and soil, this map shows that dense forests give his place to clear forests and steppe vegetation develops from a degraded forest vegetation and bare, sandy soils earn big steppe surfaces that explain its remarkable extension. The analysis of remote sensing data highlights the profound changes in our environment over time and quantitative monitoring of the risk of desertification.

Keywords: remote sensing, spatiotemporal, land use, Aurès

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
5747 Sediment Trapping by Seagrass Blades under Oscillatory Flow

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Teresa Serra

Abstract:

Seagrass meadows increase the sedimentation within the canopy. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how seagrasses impact the vertical distribution of sediment coming from external sources and reaches the meadow. This study aims to determine the number of particles retained by a seagrass meadow. Based on the hydrodynamics in the vertical direction, a meadow can be separated into different compartments: the blades, the seabed, within the canopy layer, and the above canopy layer. A set of laboratory experiments were conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions and canopy densities with the purpose to mimic the real field conditions. This study demonstrates and quantifies that seagrass meadows decrease the volume of the suspended sediment by two mechanisms: capturing the suspended sediment by the seagrass blades and promoting the particle sedimentation to the seabed. This study also demonstrates that the number of sediment particles trapped by single seagrass blades decreases with canopy density. However, when considering the trapping by the total number of blades, the sediment captured by all the blades of the meadow increases with canopy density. Furthermore, comparing with the bare seabed, this study demonstrated that there is a reduction in the suspended particles within the canopy, which implies an improvement in the water clarity. In addition, the particle sedimentation on the seabed increases with the canopy density compared with the bare seabed, making evident the contribution of the vegetation in enhancing sedimentation.

Keywords: seagrass, sediment capture, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
5746 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as an Antimicrobial Food Package

Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh

Abstract:

Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24 h; and 50 mg of papain. The formation of -C=N- observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7 days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicates reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.

Keywords: cheese, papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus

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5745 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

Abstract:

The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
5744 Multi-Temporal Urban Land Cover Mapping Using Spectral Indices

Authors: Mst Ilme Faridatul, Bo Wu

Abstract:

Multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is of paramount importance for monitoring urban sprawl and managing the ecological environment. For diversified urban activities, it is challenging to map land covers in a complex urban environment. Spectral indices have proved to be effective for mapping urban land covers. To improve multi-temporal urban land cover classification and mapping, we evaluate the performance of three spectral indices, e.g. modified normalized difference bare-land index (MNDBI), tasseled cap water and vegetation index (TCWVI) and shadow index (ShDI). The MNDBI is developed to evaluate its performance of enhancing urban impervious areas by separating bare lands. A tasseled cap index, TCWVI is developed to evaluate its competence to detect vegetation and water simultaneously. The ShDI is developed to maximize the spectral difference between shadows of skyscrapers and water and enhance water detection. First, this paper presents a comparative analysis of three spectral indices using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Second, optimized thresholds of the spectral indices are imputed to classify land covers, and finally, their performance of enhancing multi-temporal urban land cover mapping is assessed. The results indicate that the spectral indices are competent to enhance multi-temporal urban land cover mapping and achieves an overall classification accuracy of 93-96%.

Keywords: land cover, mapping, multi-temporal, spectral indices

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5743 A Follow up Study on Indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and Their Decay Product Concentrations in a Mineralized Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: B. S. Bajwa, Parminder Singh, Prabhjot Singh, Surinder Singh, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra

Abstract:

A follow up study was taken up in a mineralized zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India to investigate high values of radon concentration reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed Radon-Thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) respectively. The measurements have been carried out in seventy five dwellings of fourteen different villages. Houses were selected taking into consideration of the past data as well as the type of houses such as mud, concrete, brick etc. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly because of thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12-157±73 Bq m-3 and 44±11-240±125 Bq m-3 respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10-63 Bq m-3 and 1-5 Bq m-3 respectively.

Keywords: radon, thoron, progeny concentration, dosimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
5742 Quality of Work Life of Alien Workers in Thailand

Authors: Chetsada Noknoi

Abstract:

This research aims to study the quality of life of alien workers in Thailand and to compare the quality of work life of alien workers based on personal factors and work factors. Data analysis is performed using frequencies, percentage, mean standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA. Findings will benefit to the relevant authorities to be aware of the quality of life of alien workers in Thailand. This will help to find ways to enhance the quality of life of alien workers. It also brings awareness to the problems and obstacles that alien workers face in their work and life. It is a strategic approach to improve the management of the country's alien workers to be more efficient and effective. Moreover, the knowledge can be the basis of service to the society in different ways.

Keywords: quality of work life, alien worker, contemporary marketing, management

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5741 Estimating the Life-Distribution Parameters of Weibull-Life PV Systems Utilizing Non-Parametric Analysis

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan

Abstract:

In this paper, a model is proposed to determine the life distribution parameters of the useful life region for the PV system utilizing a combination of non-parametric and linear regression analysis for the failure data of these systems. Results showed that this method is dependable for analyzing failure time data for such reliable systems when the data is scarce.

Keywords: masking, bathtub model, reliability, non-parametric analysis, useful life

Procedia PDF Downloads 476
5740 Measuring Impacts of Agroforestry on Soil Erosion with Field Devices: Quantifying Potential for Water Infiltration, Soil Conservation, and Payments for Ecosystems Services Schemes

Authors: Arthur Rouanet, Marina Gavaldao

Abstract:

Throughout the second half of the 20th Century, estimates indicate that soil losses due to erosion have impacted one-third of worldwide arable lands. As such, these losses are amongst the largest threats to agriculture sustainability and production potential. Increasing tree cover is considered one of the most efficient methods to mitigate this phenomenon. The present study describes soil erosion measurements in different land cover situations in Alto Huayabamba, Peru, using the experimental plot methodology. Three parcels were studied during a one-year period (starting September 2015) with 3 different land cover scenarii evaluated: 10-year-old secondary tropical forest (P1), 3-year-old native species reforestation (P2) and bare soil (P3). Information was collected systematically after each rain to assess the average rainfall, water runoff and soil eroded. The results indicate that variance in land cover has a strong impact on the level of soil erosion. In our study, it was found that P1, P2 and P3 had erosion rates of 92 kg/ha/yr, 11 tons/ha/yr and 59,7 tons/ha/year respectively. Using a replacement cost method, the potential of limiting erosion by reforesting bare soil was estimated to be 561 $/ha/yr after three years and 687 $/ha/yr after ten years. Finally, the results of the study allow us to assess the potential soil services provided by vegetation, which could be an important building block for a payment for ecosystems services (PES) scheme. The latter has been increasingly spread all over the world through Public-Private Partnerships (PPP).

Keywords: agroforestry, erosion, ecosystem services, payment for ecosystem services (PES), water conservation, public private partnership (PPP)

Procedia PDF Downloads 188