Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: dosimeter

30 Directionally-Sensitive Personal Wearable Radiation Dosimeter

Authors: Hai Huu Le, Paul Junor, Moshi Geso, Graeme O’Keefe


In this paper, the authors propose a personal wearable directionally-sensitive radiation dosimeter using multiple semiconductor CdZnTe detectors. The proposed dosimeter not only measures the real-time dose rate but also provide the direction of the radioactive source. A linear relationship between radioactive source direction and the radiation intensity measured by each detectors is established and an equation to determine the source direction is derived by the authors. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed dosimeter is verified by simulation using Geant4 package. Results have indicated that in a measurement duration of about 7 seconds, the proposed dosimeter was able to estimate the direction of a 10μCi 137/55Cs radioactive source to within 2 degrees.

Keywords: dose rate, Geant4 package, radiation dosimeter, radioactive source direction

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29 Comparison of Dose Rate and Energy Dependence of Soft Tissue Equivalence Dosimeter with Electron and Photon Beams Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Bakhtiar Azadbakht, Karim Adinehvand, Amin Sahebnasagh


The purpose of this study was to evaluate dependence of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter 1/T2 on different electron and photon energies as well as on different mean dose rates for a standard clinically used Co-60 therapy unit and an ELECTA linear accelerator. A multi echo sequence with 32 equidistant echoes was used for the evaluation of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The optimal post-manufacture irradiation and post imaging times were both determined to be one day. The sensitivity of PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter with irradiation of photon and electron beams was represented by the slope of calibration curve in the linear region measured for each modality. The response of PAGAT gel with photon and electron beams is very similar in the lower dose region. The R2-dose response was linear up to 30Gy. In electron beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 3Gy is not exact, but in photon beams the R2-dose response for doses less than 2Gy is not exact. Dosimeter energy dependence was studied for electron energies of 4, 12 and 18MeV and photon energies of 1.25, 4, 6 and 18MV. Dose rate dependence was studied in 6MeV electron beam and 6MV photon beam with the use of dose rates 80, 160, 240, 320, 400, and 480cGy/min. Evaluation of dosimeters were performed on Siemens Symphony, Germany 1.5T Scanner in the head coil. In this study no trend in polymer-gel dosimeter 1/T2 dependence was found on mean dose rate and energy for electron and photon beams.

Keywords: polymer gels, PAGAT gel, electron and photon beams, MRI

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28 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar


Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer

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27 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi


Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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26 The application of Gel Dosimeters and Comparison with other Dosimeters in Radiotherapy: A Literature Review

Authors: Sujan Mahamud


Purpose: A major challenge in radiotherapy treatment is to deliver precise dose of radiation to the tumor with minimum dose to the healthy normal tissues. Recently, gel dosimetry has emerged as a powerful tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution for complex delivery verification and quality assurance. These dosimeters act both as a phantom and detector, thus confirming the versatility of dosimetry technique. The aim of the study is to know the application of Gel Dosimeters in Radiotherapy and find out the comparison with 1D and 2D dimensional dosimeters. Methods and Materials: The study is carried out from Gel Dosimeter literatures. Secondary data and images have been collected from different sources such as different guidelines, books, and internet, etc. Result: Analyzing, verifying, and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) is determined that gel dosimeter is a very excellent powerful tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous gel. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimized MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The method developed for comparing measuring gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method, was proven to be a useful for radiation treatment planning verification. In 1D and 2D Film, the depth dose and lateral for RMSD are 1.8% and 2%, and max (Di-Dj) are 2.5% and 8%. Other side 2D+ ( 3D) Film Gel and Plan Gel for RMSDstruct and RMSDstoch are 2.3% & 3.6% and 1% & 1% and system deviation are -0.6% and 2.5%. The study is investigated that the result fined 2D+ (3D) Film Dosimeter is better than the 1D and 2D Dosimeter. Discussion: Gel Dosimeters is quality control and quality assurance tool which will used the future clinical application.

Keywords: gel dosimeters, phantom, rmsd, QC, detector

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25 Dosimetric Comparison among Different Head and Neck Radiotherapy Techniques Using PRESAGE™ Dosimeter

Authors: Jalil ur Rehman, Ramesh C. Tailor, Muhammad Isa Khan, Jahnzeeb Ashraf, Muhammad Afzal, Geofferry S. Ibbott


Purpose: The purpose of this analysis was to investigate dose distribution of different techniques (3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT) of head and neck cancer using 3-dimensional dosimeter called PRESAGETM Dosimeter. Materials and Methods: Computer tomography (CT) scans of radiological physics center (RPC) head and neck anthropomorphic phantom with both RPC standard insert and PRESAGETM insert were acquired separated with Philipp’s CT scanner and both CT scans were exported via DICOM to the Pinnacle version 9.4 treatment planning system (TPS). Each plan was delivered twice to the RPC phantom first containing the RPC standard insert having TLD and film dosimeters and then again containing the Presage insert having 3-D dosimeter (PRESAGETM) by using a Varian True Beam linear accelerator. After irradiation, the standard insert including point dose measurements (TLD) and planar Gafchromic® EBT film measurement were read using RPC standard procedure. The 3D dose distribution from PRESAGETM was read out with the Duke Midsized optical scanner dedicated to RPC (DMOS-RPC). Dose volume histogram (DVH), mean and maximal doses for organs at risk were calculated and compared among each head and neck technique. The prescription dose was same for all head and neck radiotherapy techniques which was 6.60 Gy/friction. Beam profile comparison and gamma analysis were used to quantify agreements among film measurement, PRESAGETM measurement and calculated dose distribution. Quality assurances of all plans were performed by using ArcCHECK method. Results: VMAT delivered the lowest mean and maximum doses to organ at risk (spinal cord, parotid) than IMRT and 3DCRT. Such dose distribution was verified by absolute dose distribution using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) system. The central axial, sagittal and coronal planes were evaluated using 2D gamma map criteria(± 5%/3 mm) and results were 99.82% (axial), 99.78% (sagital), 98.38% (coronal) for VMAT plan and found the agreement between PRESAGE and pinnacle was better than IMRT and 3D-CRT plan excludes a 7 mm rim at the edge of the dosimeter. Profile showed good agreement for all plans between film, PRESAGE and pinnacle and 3D gamma was performed for PTV and OARs, VMAT and 3DCRT endow with better agreement than IMRT. Conclusion: VMAT delivered lowered mean and maximal doses to organs at risk and better PTV coverage during head and neck radiotherapy. TLD, EBT film and PRESAGETM dosimeters suggest that VMAT was better for the treatment of head and neck cancer than IMRT and 3D-CRT.


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24 Ethanol Chlorobenzene Dosimetr Usage for Measuring Dose of the Intraoperative Linear Electron Accelerator System

Authors: Mojtaba Barzegar, Alireza Shirazi, Saied Rabi Mahdavi


Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is an innovative treatment modality that the delivery of a large single dose of radiation to the tumor bed during the surgery. The radiotherapy success depends on the absorbed dose delivered to the tumor. The achievement better accuracy in patient treatment depends upon the measured dose by standard dosimeter such as ionization chamber, but because of the high density of electric charge/pulse produced by the accelerator in the ionization chamber volume, the standard correction factor for ion recombination Ksat calculated with the classic two-voltage method is overestimated so the use of dose/pulse independent dosimeters such as chemical Fricke and ethanol chlorobenzene (ECB) dosimeters have been suggested. Dose measurement is usually calculated and calibrated in the Zmax. Ksat calculated by comparison of ion chamber response and ECB dosimeter at each applicator degree, size, and dose. The relative output factors for IORT applicators have been calculated and compared with experimentally determined values and the results simulated by Monte Carlo software. The absorbed doses have been calculated and measured with statistical uncertainties less than 0.7% and 2.5% consecutively. The relative differences between calculated and measured OF’s were up to 2.5%, for major OF’s the agreement was better. In these conditions, together with the relative absorbed dose calculations, the OF’s could be considered as an indication that the IORT electron beams have been well simulated. These investigations demonstrate the utility of the full Monte Carlo simulation of accelerator head with ECB dosimeter allow us to obtain detailed information of clinical IORT beams.

Keywords: intra operative radiotherapy, ethanol chlorobenzene, ksat, output factor, monte carlo simulation

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23 A Study of Indoor Radon, Thoron, Their Progeny Concentration Levels and Inhalation Dose in Dwellings of Different Districts of Punjab State, India

Authors: Komal Saini, B. K. Sahoo, B.S. Bajwa


In the present study, indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been estimated using newly developed twin cup based pin hole dosimeter with single entry face in some areas of Punjab state, India. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of radon and thoron has also been estimated directly by using progeny sensors, fabricated by BARC, India. Observed radon and thoron concentrations varied from 38.7±5.79 to 98.7±13.11 Bq/m3 and 25.38±6.56 to 126.56±14.23 Bq/m3 with an average value of 61.59±8.11 & 70.89±9.52 Bq/m3 respectively. Average equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon and thoron was 27.98±4.66 & 2.24±0.61 Bq/m3. Calculated equilibrium factor for radon and thoron was 0.467 and 0.034 in the present study. Annual inhalation dose calculated from the present observed concentrations, varied from 1.80 to 3.60 mSv/year with an average value of 2.52 mSv/year, which is well within reference level. It has been observed from the present study that thoron is a significant contributor to the inhalation dose which is about 25% of the total inhalation dose.

Keywords: radon, thoron, pin hole cup dosimeter, DTPS/DRPS, annual inhalation dose

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22 Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Study of Nanocrystalline Radiation Dosimeter CaSO₄:Ce/Sm/Dy

Authors: Anant Pandey, Kanika Sharma, Vibha Chopra, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab, Birendra Singh


This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of nanocrystalline CaSO₄ activated by Ce, Sm, and Dy. TL properties are investigated by chiefly changing the dopant element and also by varying the concentration of the dopant elements (from 0.05 mol % to 0.5 mol %) so as to establish the optimized dopant concentration for each of the activators. The method of salt preparation used is the typical chemical co-precipitation method and the technique used for characterization of the prepared samples is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. Further, the phosphors are irradiated with gamma radiation from Co-60 (1.25 MeV) source (dose range- 30 Gy to 500 Gy). The optimized concentration (vis-a-vis TL peak intensity) of activator for CaSO₄:Ce is found to be 0.2 mol %, for CaSO₄:Sm it is 0.1 mol % and for CaSO₄:Dy it is 0.2 mol %. Further, the primary study of the TL response curves for all the three phosphors confirms linearity in the studied dose range (i.e., 30 Gy to 500 Gy). Finally, CaSO₄:Dy was also studied for its energy dependence property which plays an important role in defining the utility of a phosphor for dosimetric applications. The range of doses used for the energy dependence study was from 30 Gy to 500 Gy from Cs-137 (0.662 MeV). The nano-phosphors showed potential to be used as radiation dosimeter in the studied range of gamma radiation and thus must be studied for a wider range of doses.

Keywords: gamma radiation, nanocrystalline, radiation dosimetry, thermoluminescence

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21 Relative Depth Dose Profile and Peak Scatter Factors Measurement for Co-60 Teletherapy Machine Using Chemical Dosimetry

Authors: O. Moussous, T. Medjadj


The suitability of a Fricke dosimeter for the measurement of a relative depth dose profile and the peak scatter factors was studied. The measurements were carried out in the secondary standard dosimetry laboratory at CRNA Algiers using a collimated 60Co gamma source teletherapy machine. The measurements were performed for different field sizes at the phantom front face, at a fixed source-to-phantom distance of 80 cm. The dose measurements were performed by first placing the dosimeters free-in-air at the distance-source-detector (DSD) of 80.5 cm from the source. Additional measurements were made with the phantom in place. The water phantom type Med-Tec 40x40x40 cm for vertical beam was used in this work as scattering martial. The phantom was placed on the irradiation bench of the cobalt unit at the SSD of 80 cm from the beam focus and the centre of the field coincided with the geometric centre of the dosimeters placed at the depth in water of 5 mm Relative depth dose profile and Peak scatter factors measurements were carried out using our Fricke system. This was intercompared with similar measurements by ionization chamber under identical conditions. There is a good agreement between the relative percentage depth–dose profiles and the PSF values measured by both systems using a water phantom.

Keywords: Fricke dosimeter, depth–dose profiles, peak scatter factors, DSD

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20 Thermoluminescence Characteristic of Nanocrystalline BaSO4 Doped with Europium

Authors: Kanika S. Raheja, A. Pandey, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab


The subject of undertaking for this paper is the study of BaSO4 nanophosphor doped with Europium in which mainly the concentration of the rare earth impurity Eu (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mol %) has been varied. A comparative study of the thermoluminescence(TL) properties of the given nanophosphor has also been done using a well-known standard dosimetry material i.e. TLD-100.Firstly, a number of samples were prepared successfully by the chemical co-precipitation method. The whole lot was then compared to a well established standard material (TLD-100) for its TL sensitivity property. BaSO4:Eu ( 0.2 mol%) showed the highest sensitivity out of the lot. It was also found that when compared to the standard TLD-100, BaSo4:Eu (0.2mol%) showed surprisingly high sensitivity for a large range of doses. The TL response curve for all prepared samples has also been studied over a wide range of doses i.e 10Gy to 2kGy for gamma radiation. Almost all the samples of BaSO4:Eu showed a remarkable linearity for a broad range of doses, which is a characteristic feature of a fine TL dosimeter. The graph remained linear even beyond 1kGy for gamma radiation. Thus, the given nanophosphor has been successfully optimised for the concentration of the dopant material to achieve its highest TL sensitivity. Further, the comparative study with the standard material revealed that the current optimised sample shows an astonishingly better TL sensitivity and a phenomenal linear response curve for an incredibly wide range of doses for gamma radiation (Co-60) as compared to the standard TLD-100, which makes the current optimised BaSo4:Eu quite promising as an efficient gamma radiation dosimeter. Lastly, the present phosphor has been optimised for its annealing temperature to acquire the best results while also studying its fading and reusability properties.

Keywords: gamma radiation, nanoparticles, radiation dosimetry, thermoluminescence

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19 Characterization of the MOSkin Dosimeter for Accumulated Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography

Authors: Lenon M. Pereira, Helen J. Khoury, Marcos E. A. Andrade, Dean L. Cutajar, Vinicius S. M. Barros, Anatoly B. Rozenfeld


With the increase of beam widths and the advent of multiple-slice and helical scanners, concerns related to the current dose measurement protocols and instrumentation in computed tomography (CT) have arisen. The current methodology of dose evaluation, which is based on the measurement of the integral of a single slice dose profile using a 100 mm long cylinder ionization chamber (Ca,100 and CPPMA, 100), has been shown to be inadequate for wide beams as it does not collect enough of the scatter-tails to make an accurate measurement. In addition, a long ionization chamber does not offer a good representation of the dose profile when tube current modulation is used. An alternative approach has been suggested by translating smaller detectors through the beam plane and assessing the accumulated dose trough the integral of the dose profile, which can be done for any arbitrary length in phantoms or in the air. For this purpose, a MOSFET dosimeter of small dosimetric volume was used. One of its recently designed versions is known as the MOSkin, which is developed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics at the University of Wollongong, and measures the radiation dose at a water equivalent depth of 0.07 mm, allowing the evaluation of skin dose when placed at the surface, or internal point doses when placed within a phantom. Thus, the aim of this research was to characterize the response of the MOSkin dosimeter for X-ray CT beams and to evaluate its application for the accumulated dose assessment. Initially, tests using an industrial x-ray unit were carried out at the Laboratory of Ionization Radiation Metrology (LMRI) of Federal University of Pernambuco, in order to investigate the sensitivity, energy dependence, angular dependence, and reproducibility of the dose response for the device for the standard radiation qualities RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10. Finally, the MOSkin was used for the accumulated dose evaluation of scans using a Philips Brilliance 6 CT unit, with comparisons made between the CPPMA,100 value assessed with a pencil ionization chamber (PTW Freiburg TW 30009). Both dosimeters were placed in the center of a PMMA head phantom (diameter of 16 cm) and exposed in the axial mode with collimation of 9 mm, 250 mAs and 120 kV. The results have shown that the MOSkin response was linear with doses in the CT range and reproducible (98.52%). The sensitivity for a single MOSkin in mV/cGy was as follows: 9.208, 7.691 and 6.723 for the RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10 beams qualities respectively. The energy dependence varied up to a factor of ±1.19 among those energies and angular dependence was not greater than 7.78% within the angle range from 0 to 90 degrees. The accumulated dose and the CPMMA, 100 value were 3,97 and 3,79 cGy respectively, which were statistically equivalent within the 95% confidence level. The MOSkin was shown to be a good alternative for CT dose profile measurements and more than adequate to provide accumulated dose assessments for CT procedures.

Keywords: computed tomography dosimetry, MOSFET, MOSkin, semiconductor dosimetry

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18 Comparison of an Anthropomorphic PRESAGE® Dosimeter and Radiochromic Film with a Commercial Radiation Treatment Planning System for Breast IMRT: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Khalid Iqbal


This work presents a comparison of an anthropomorphic PRESAGE® dosimeter and radiochromic film measurements with a commercial treatment planning system to determine the feasibility of PRESAGE® for 3D dosimetry in breast IMRT. An anthropomorphic PRESAGE® phantom was created in the shape of a breast phantom. A five-field IMRT plan was generated with a commercially available treatment planning system and delivered to the PRESAGE® phantom. The anthropomorphic PRESAGE® was scanned with the Duke midsized optical CT scanner (DMOS-RPC) and the OD distribution was converted to dose. Comparisons were performed between the dose distribution calculated with the Pinnacle3 treatment planning system, PRESAGE®, and EBT2 film measurements. DVHs, gamma maps, and line profiles were used to evaluate the agreement. Gamma map comparisons showed that Pinnacle3 agreed with PRESAGE® as greater than 95% of comparison points for the PTV passed a ± 3%/± 3 mm criterion when the outer 8 mm of phantom data were discluded. Edge artifacts were observed in the optical CT reconstruction, from the surface to approximately 8 mm depth. These artifacts resulted in dose differences between Pinnacle3 and PRESAGE® of up to 5% between the surface and a depth of 8 mm and decreased with increasing depth in the phantom. Line profile comparisons between all three independent measurements yielded a maximum difference of 2% within the central 80% of the field width. For the breast IMRT plan studied, the Pinnacle3 calculations agreed with PRESAGE® measurements to within the ±3%/± 3 mm gamma criterion. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the PRESAGE® to be fashioned into anthropomorphic shape, and establishes the accuracy of Pinnacle3 for breast IMRT. Furthermore, these data have established the groundwork for future investigations into 3D dosimetry with more complex anthropomorphic phantoms.

Keywords: 3D dosimetry, PRESAGE®, IMRT, QA, EBT2 GAFCHROMIC film

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17 Quality Assurance Comparison of Map Check 2, Epid, and Gafchromic® EBT3 Film for IMRT Treatment Planning

Authors: Khalid Iqbal, Saima Altaf, M. Akram, Muhammad Abdur Rafaye, Saeed Ahmad Buzdar


Objective: Verification of patient-specific intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans using different 2-D detectors has become increasingly popular due to their ease of use and immediate readout of the results. The purpose of this study was to test and compare various 2-D detectors for dosimetric quality assurance (QA) of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with the vision to find alternative QA methods. Material and Methods: Twenty IMRT patients (12 of brain and 8 of the prostate) were planned on Eclipse treatment planning system using Varian Clinac DHX on both energies 6MV and 15MV. Verification plans of all such patients were also made and delivered to Map check2, EPID (Electronic portal imaging device) and Gafchromic EBT3. Gamma index analyses were performed using different criteria to evaluate and compare the dosimetric results. Results: Statistical analysis shows the passing rate of 99.55%, 97.23% and 92.9% for 6MV and 99.53%, 98.3% and 94.85% for 15 MV energy using a criteria of ±5% of 3mm, ±3% of 3mm and ±3% of 2mm respectively for brain, whereas using ±5% of 3mm and ±3% of 3mm gamma evaluation criteria, the passing rate is 94.55% and 90.45% for 6MV and 95.25%9 and 95% for 15 MV energy for the case of prostate using EBT3 film. Map check 2 results shows the passing rates of 98.17%, 97.68% and 86.78% for 6MV energy and 94.87%,97.46% and 88.31% for 15 MV energy respectively for brain using a criteria of ±5% of 3mm, ±3% of 3mm and ±3% of 2mm, whereas using ±5% of 3mm and ±3% of 3mm gamma evaluation criteria gives the passing rate of 97.7% and 96.4% for 6MV and 98.75%9 and 98.05% for 15 MV energy for the case of prostate. EPID 6 MV and gamma analysis shows the passing rate of 99.56%, 98.63% and 98.4% for the brain, 100% and 99.9% for prostate using the same criteria as for map check 2 and EBT 3 film. Conclusion: The results demonstrate excellent passing rates were obtained for all dosimeter when compared with the planar dose distributions for 6 MV IMRT fields as well as for 15 MV. EPID results are better than EBT3 films and map check 2 because it is likely that part of this difference is real, and part is due to manhandling and different treatment set up verification which contributes dose distribution difference. Overall all three dosimeter exhibits results within limits according to AAPM report.120.

Keywords: gafchromic EBT3, radiochromic film dosimetry, IMRT verification, EPID

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16 Characterization of an Extrapolation Chamber for Dosimetry of Low Energy X-Ray Beams

Authors: Fernanda M. Bastos, Teógenes A. da Silva


Extrapolation chambers were designed to be used as primary standard dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose in a medium in beta radiation and low energy x-rays. The International Organization for Standardization established series of reference x-radiation for calibrating and determining the energy dependence of dosimeters that are to be reproduced in metrology laboratories. Standardization of the low energy x-ray beams with tube potential lower than 30 kV may be affected by the instrument used for dosimetry. In this work, parameters of a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber were determined aiming its use in low energy x-ray beams as a reference instrument.

Keywords: extrapolation chamber, low energy x-rays, x-ray dosimetry, X-ray metrology

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15 Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis for Radon Dispersion Study and Mitigation

Authors: A. K. Visnuprasad, P. J. Jojo, Reshma Bhaskaran


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the distribution of indoor radon concentration in a living room with elevated levels of radon concentration which varies from 22 Bqm-3 to 1533 Bqm-3 in 24 hours. Finite volume method (FVM) was used for the simulation. The simulation results were experimentally validated at 16 points in two horizontal planes (y=1.4m & y=2.0m) using pin-hole dosimeters and at 3 points using scintillation radon monitor (SRM). Passive measurement using pin-hole dosimeters were performed in all seasons. Another simulation was done to find a suitable position for a passive ventilation system for the effective mitigation of radon.

Keywords: indoor radon, computational fluid dynamics, radon flux, ventilation rate, pin-hole dosimeter

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14 Evaluation of Musical Conductor Exposure to Noise

Authors: Ahmed Saleh Summan


This article presents the results of a technical report on the evaluation of occupational noise exposures among a musical conductor in a musical rehearsal hall (party–center). A calibrated noise dosimeter was used to measure the personal exposure of a music teacher/conductor for 8 hours in two days of rehearsal involving 90 players. Results showed that noise exposure levels were much higher than the permissible levels regulated 85dBA/8hr by NIOSH. In fact, the first day of measurements recorded the highest exposure levels (91 dBA). A number of factors contributed to these results, such as players number, types of instruments used, and activities. Noise control measures were recommended to solve this situation.

Keywords: noise exposure, music conductors, occupational noise, noise in rooms

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13 Observational Study of Ionising Radiation Exposure in Orthopaedic Theatre

Authors: Adam Aboalkaz, Rana Shamoon, Duncan Meikle, James Lewis


Background and aims: In orthopaedic theatres, radiological screening during operations is a commonly used and useful technique to visualise and guide the operating surgeon. Within any theatre using ionising radiation, it is imperative that the use of protective equipment and the wearing of a dosimeter at all times. 1. To assess compliance with use of protective equipment during orthopaedic procedures involving ionising radiation. 2. To assess the radiation risk knowledge of staff members regularly present in an orthopaedic theatre of a national major trauma centre, in accordance to the ionising radiation regulation (2000) guidelines. Method: We conducted an Observational study of 21 operations at the University Hospital of Wales, which is a major trauma centre, recording the compliance with use of protective equipment (lead aprons and thyroid shields) and dosimeters. The observations were performed sporadically over a two week period to ensure that all staff in monitored operating theatres were not aware of the ongoing study, as to avoid bias. A questionnaire testing the knowledge of trainees and staff within the orthopaedic department was given following completion of the initial phase of the study, with 19 responses. The questions were based on knowledge of ionising radiation exposure and monitoring. The questions also tested the general staff knowledge of what equipment should be worn and where to locate such equipment. Results: This study found that only 25% of staff members were wearing thyroid protectors when less than 1 meter from the radiation source and only 50% were wearing appropriate lead aprons whilst in this same vicinity. The study also showed that 0% of all staff members used a dosimeter whilst in an area of radiation exposure. From the distributed questionnaires, only 40% of staff understood where to stand whilst radiation was being used, and only 25% of staff knew where to find protective equipment. Conclusion: Overall our audit showed poor compliance with regards to the National and local policies, due to lack of awareness of the policy and lack of basic ionising radiation exposure knowledge. It was evident from the observational study and questionnaire that staff were not fully aware of what equipment should be worn, where to find such equipment and did not appreciate that the distance from the ionising radiation source altered its exposure effect. This lack of knowledge may affect the staff health and safety after long term exposure. Changes to clinical practice: From the outcome of this study, we managed to drastically increase awareness of ionising radiation within the orthopaedic department. A mandatory teaching session on the safety of ionising radiation has been incorporated into the orthopaedic induction week for all staff. The dosimeters have been moved to a visible location within the trauma operating theatre and all staff made aware of where to find protective equipment.

Keywords: audit, ionising radiation, observational study, protection

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12 Determining the Effectiveness of Radiation Shielding and Safe Time for Radiation Worker by Employing Monitoring of Accumulation Dose in the Operator Room of CT Scan

Authors: Risalatul Latifah, Bunawas Bunawas, Lailatul Muqmiroh, Anggraini D. Sensusiati


Along with the increasing frequency of the use of CT-Scan for radiodiagnostics purposes, it is necessary to study radiation protection. This study examined aspects of radiation protection of workers. This study tried using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) for evaluating radiation shielding and estimating safe time for workers during CT Scan examination. Six TLDs were placed on door, wall, and window inside and outside of the CT Scan room for 1 month. By using TLD monitoring, it could be seen how much radiation was exposed in the operator room. The results showed the effective dose at door, window, and wall was respectively 0.04 mSv, 0.05 mSv, and 0.04 mSv. With these values, it could be evaluated the effectiveness of radiation shielding on doors, glass and walls were respectively 90.6%, 95.5%, and 92.2%. By applying the dose constraint and the estimation of the accumulated dose for one month, radiation workers were still safe to perform the irradiation for 180 patients.

Keywords: CT scan room, TLD, radiation worker, dose constraint

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11 Optical Properties of N-(Hydroxymethyl) Acrylamide Polymer Gel Dosimeters for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Khalid A. Rabaeh, Belal Moftah, Ahmed A. Basfar, Akram A. Almousa


Polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent martial that fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters can uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D). A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 30 Gy. The polymerization degree is directly proportional to absorbed dose received by the polymer gel. UV/Vis spectrophotometer was used to investigate the degree of white color of irradiated NHMA gel which is associated to the degree of polymerization of polymer gel dosimeters. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose for all gel dosimeters in the dose range between 0 and 30 Gy. Dose rate , energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

Keywords: dosimeter, gel, spectrophotometer, N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide

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10 Optimizing Exposure Parameters in Digital Mammography: A Study in Morocco

Authors: Talbi Mohammed, Oustous Aziz, Ben Messaoud Mounir, Sebihi Rajaa, Khalis Mohammed


Background: Breast cancer is the leading cause of death for women around the world. Screening mammography is the reference examination, due to its sensitivity for detecting small lesions and micro-calcifications. Therefore, it is essential to ensure quality mammographic examinations with the most optimal dose. These conditions depend on the choice of exposure parameters. Clinically, practices must be evaluated in order to determine the most appropriate exposure parameters. Material and Methods: We performed our measurements on a mobile mammography unit (PLANMED Sofie-classic.) in Morocco. A solid dosimeter (AGMS Radcal) and a MTM 100 phantom allow to quantify the delivered dose and the image quality. For image quality assessment, scores are defined by the rate of visible inserts (MTM 100 phantom), obtained and compared for each acquisition. Results: The results show that the parameters of the mammography unit on which we have made our measurements can be improved in order to offer a better compromise between image quality and breast dose. The last one can be reduced up from 13.27% to 22.16%, while preserving comparable image quality.

Keywords: Mammography, Breast Dose, Image Quality, Phantom

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9 Assessment of Dose: Area Product of Common Radiographic Examinations in Selected Southern Nigerian Hospitals

Authors: Lateef Bamidele


Over the years, radiographic examinations are the most used diagnostic tools in the Nigerian health care system, but most diagnostic examinations carried out do not have records of patient doses. Lack of adequate information on patient doses has been a major hindrance in quantifying the radiological risk associated with radiographic examinations. This study aimed at estimating dose–area product (DAP) of patient examined in X-Ray units in selected hospitals in Southern Nigeria. The standard projections selected are chest posterior-anterior (PA), abdomen anterior-posterior (AP), pelvis AP, pelvis lateral (LAT), skull AP/PA, skull LAT, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine, LAT. Measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) was carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Measured ESDs were converted into DAP using the beam area of patients. The results show that the mean DAP ranged from 0.17 to 18.35 Gycm². The results obtained in this study when compared with those of NRPB-HPE were found to be higher. These are an indication of non optimization of operational conditions.

Keywords: dose–area product, radiographic examinations, patient doses, optimization

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8 Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131

Authors: Marzieh Ebrahimi, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar


Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.

Keywords: effective dose, thermoluminescence, I-131, thyroid cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
7 Investigation of Threshold Voltage Shift in Gamma Irradiated N-Channel and P-Channel MOS Transistors of CD4007

Authors: S. Boorboor, S. A. H. Feghhi, H. Jafari


The ionizing radiations cause different kinds of damages in electronic components. MOSFETs, most common transistors in today’s digital and analog circuits, are severely sensitive to TID damage. In this work, the threshold voltage shift of CD4007 device, which is an integrated circuit including P-channel and N-channel MOS transistors, was investigated for low dose gamma irradiation under different gate bias voltages. We used linear extrapolation method to extract threshold voltage from ID-VG characteristic curve. The results showed that the threshold voltage shift was approximately 27.5 mV/Gy for N-channel and 3.5 mV/Gy for P-channel transistors at the gate bias of |9 V| after irradiation by Co-60 gamma ray source. Although the sensitivity of the devices under test were strongly dependent to biasing condition and transistor type, the threshold voltage shifted linearly versus accumulated dose in all cases. The overall results show that the application of CD4007 as an electronic buffer in a radiation therapy system is limited by TID damage. However, this integrated circuit can be used as a cheap and sensitive radiation dosimeter for accumulated dose measurement in radiation therapy systems.

Keywords: threshold voltage shift, MOS transistor, linear extrapolation, gamma irradiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6 Seasonal Variation of the Unattached Fraction and Equilibrium Factor of ²²²Rn, ²²⁰Rn

Authors: Rajan Jakhu, Rohit Mehra


Radon (²²²Rn) and its decay products are the major sources of natural radiation exposure to general population. The activity concentrations of radon, thoron gasses, and their unattached and attached short-lived progeny in indoor environment of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan had been calculated via passive measurements using the Pinhole cup dosimeter, deposition based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) and wire mesh capped (DRPS/DTPS) progeny sensors. The results of this study revealed that radon and thoron concentrations (CRn, CTn) are highest in the winter season. The variation of the radon and its decay products are observed to vary seasonally, but these environmental parameters seem not to be affecting the thoron and its decay product concentrations in a regular manner. The average values of the radon and its decay products are maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The equilibrium factor for radon is observed to be 0.50, 0.47 and 0.49 in winter, rainy and summer seasons. The annual average value of the unattached fraction of the radon progeny comes out to be 0.34. On the other hand, the average value of thoron (²²⁰Rn) concentration and its equilibrium factor in the studied area comes to be 74, 39, 45 Bq m⁻³ and 0.07, 0.11, 0.07 respectively for the winter, rainy and summer seasons with the annual average value of the unattached fraction of about 0.18. The annual average radiological dose from exposure to indoor radon and thoron progeny comes out to be 0.88 and 0.78 mSv.

Keywords: equilibrium factor, radon, seasonal variation, thoron, unattached fraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
5 Thermoluminescent Response of Nanocrystalline BaSO4:Eu to 85 MeV Carbon Beams

Authors: Shaila Bahl, S. P. Lochab, Pratik Kumar


Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have attracted researchers from different fields, especially from the field of luminescence. Recent studies on various luminescent nanomaterials have shown their relevance in dosimetry of ionizing radiations for the measurements of high doses using the Thermoluminescence (TL) technique, where the conventional microcrystalline phosphors saturate. Ion beams have been used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes due to their favorable profile of dose deposition at the end of the range known as the Bragg peak. While dealing with human beings, doses from these beams need to be measured with great precision and accuracy. Henceforth detailed investigations of suitable thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for dose verification in ion beam irradiation are required. This paper investigates the TL response of nanocrystalline BaSO4 doped with Eu to 85 MeV carbon beam. The synthesis was done using Co-precipitation technique by mixing Barium chloride and ammonium sulphate solutions. To investigate the crystallinity and particle size, analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used which revealed the average particle sizes to 45 nm with orthorhombic structure. Samples in pellet form were irradiated by 85 MeV carbon beam in the fluence range of 1X1010-5X1013. TL glow curves of the irradiated samples show two prominent glow peaks at around 460 K and 495 K. The TL response is linear up to 1X1013 fluence after which saturation was observed. The wider linear TL response of nanocrystalline BaSO4: Eu and low fading make it a superior candidate as a dosimeter to be used for detecting the doses of carbon beam.

Keywords: radiation, dosimetry, carbon ions, thermoluminescence

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4 A Follow up Study on Indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and Their Decay Product Concentrations in a Mineralized Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: B. S. Bajwa, Parminder Singh, Prabhjot Singh, Surinder Singh, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra


A follow up study was taken up in a mineralized zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India to investigate high values of radon concentration reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed Radon-Thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) respectively. The measurements have been carried out in seventy five dwellings of fourteen different villages. Houses were selected taking into consideration of the past data as well as the type of houses such as mud, concrete, brick etc. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly because of thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12-157±73 Bq m-3 and 44±11-240±125 Bq m-3 respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10-63 Bq m-3 and 1-5 Bq m-3 respectively.

Keywords: radon, thoron, progeny concentration, dosimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
3 Approaching In vivo Dosimetry for Kilovoltage X-Ray Radiotherapy

Authors: Rodolfo Alfonso, David Alonso, Albin Garcia, Jose Luis Alonso


Recently a new kilovoltage radiotherapy unit model Xstrahl 200 - donated to the INOR´s Department of Radiotherapy (DR-INOR) in the framework of a IAEA's technical cooperation project- has been commissioned. This unit is able to treat shallow and low deep laying lesions, as it provides 8 discrete beam qualities, from 40 to 200 kV. As part of the patient-specific quality assurance program established at DR-INOR for external beam radiotherapy, it has been recommended to implement in vivo dose measurements (IVD), as they allow effectively discovering eventual errors or failures in the radiotherapy process. For that purpose a radio-photoluminescence (RPL) dosimetry system, model XXX, -also donated to DR-INOR by the same IAEA project- has been studied and commissioned. Main dosimetric parameters of the RPL system, such as reproducibility, linearity, and filed size influence were assessed. In a similar way, the response of radiochromic EBT3 type film was investigated for purposes of IVD. Both systems were calibrated in terms of entrance surface dose. Results of the dosimetric commissioning of RPL and EBT3 for IVD, and their pre-clinical implementation through end-to-end test cases are presented. The RPL dosimetry seems more recommendable for hyper-fractionated schemes with larger fields and curved patient contours, as those in chest wall irradiations, where the use of more than one dosimeter could be required. The radiochromic system involves smaller corrections with field size, but it sensibility is lower; hence it is more adequate for hypo-fractionated treatments with smaller fields.

Keywords: glass dosimetry, in vivo dosimetry, kilovotage radiotherapy, radiochromic dosimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
2 Comparative Evaluation of EBT3 Film Dosimetry Using Flat Bad Scanner, Densitometer and Spectrophotometer Methods and Its Applications in Radiotherapy

Authors: K. Khaerunnisa, D. Ryangga, S. A. Pawiro


Over the past few decades, film dosimetry has become a tool which is used in various radiotherapy modalities, either for clinical quality assurance (QA) or dose verification. The response of the film to irradiation is usually expressed in optical density (OD) or net optical density (netOD). While the film's response to radiation is not linear, then the use of film as a dosimeter must go through a calibration process. This study aimed to compare the function of the calibration curve of various measurement methods with various densitometer, using a flat bad scanner, point densitometer and spectrophotometer. For every response function, a radichromic film calibration curve is generated from each method by performing accuracy, precision and sensitivity analysis. netOD is obtained by measuring changes in the optical density (OD) of the film before irradiation and after irradiation when using a film scanner if it uses ImageJ to extract the pixel value of the film on the red channel of three channels (RGB), calculate the change in OD before and after irradiation when using a point densitometer, and calculate changes in absorbance before and after irradiation when using a spectrophotometer. the results showed that the three calibration methods gave readings with a netOD precision of doses below 3% for the uncertainty value of 1σ (one sigma). while the sensitivity of all three methods has the same trend in responding to film readings against radiation, it has a different magnitude of sensitivity. while the accuracy of the three methods provides readings below 3% for doses above 100 cGy and 200 cGy, but for doses below 100 cGy found above 3% when using point densitometers and spectrophotometers. when all three methods are used for clinical implementation, the results of the study show accuracy and precision below 2% for the use of scanners and spectrophotometers and above 3% for precision and accuracy when using point densitometers.

Keywords: Callibration Methods, Film Dosimetry EBT3, Flat Bad Scanner, Densitomete, Spectrophotometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1 An Infrared Inorganic Scintillating Detector Applied in Radiation Therapy

Authors: Sree Bash Chandra Debnath, Didier Tonneau, Carole Fauquet, Agnes Tallet, Julien Darreon


Purpose: Inorganic scintillating dosimetry is the most recent promising technique to solve several dosimetric issues and provide quality assurance in radiation therapy. Despite several advantages, the major issue of using scintillating detectors is the Cerenkov effect, typically induced in the visible emission range. In this context, the purpose of this research work is to evaluate the performance of a novel infrared inorganic scintillator detector (IR-ISD) in the radiation therapy treatment to ensure Cerenkov free signal and the best matches between the delivered and prescribed doses during treatment. Methods: A simple and small-scale infrared inorganic scintillating detector of 100 µm diameter with a sensitive scintillating volume of 2x10-6 mm3 was developed. A prototype of the dose verification system has been introduced based on PTIR1470/F (provided by Phosphor Technology®) material used in the proposed novel IR-ISD. The detector was tested on an Elekta LINAC system tuned at 6 MV/15MV and a brachytherapy source (Ir-192) used in the patient treatment protocol. The associated dose rate was measured in count rate (photons/s) using a highly sensitive photon counter (sensitivity ~20ph/s). Overall measurements were performed in IBATM water tank phantoms by following international Technical Reports series recommendations (TRS 381) for radiotherapy and TG43U1 recommendations for brachytherapy. The performance of the detector was tested through several dosimetric parameters such as PDD, beam profiling, Cerenkov measurement, dose linearity, dose rate linearity repeatability, and scintillator stability. Finally, a comparative study is also shown using a reference microdiamond dosimeter, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation, and data from recent literature. Results: This study is highlighting the complete removal of the Cerenkov effect especially for small field radiation beam characterization. The detector provides an entire linear response with the dose in the 4cGy to 800 cGy range, independently of the field size selected from 5 x 5 cm² down to 0.5 x 0.5 cm². A perfect repeatability (0.2 % variation from average) with day-to-day reproducibility (0.3% variation) was observed. Measurements demonstrated that ISD has superlinear behavior with dose rate (R2=1) varying from 50 cGy/s to 1000 cGy/s. PDD profiles obtained in water present identical behavior with a build-up maximum depth dose at 15 mm for different small fields irradiation. A low dimension of 0.5 x 0.5 cm² field profiles have been characterized, and the field cross profile presents a Gaussian-like shape. The standard deviation (1σ) of the scintillating signal remains within 0.02% while having a very low convolution effect, thanks to lower sensitive volume. Finally, during brachytherapy, a comparison with MC simulations shows that considering energy dependency, measurement agrees within 0.8% till 0.2 cm source to detector distance. Conclusion: The proposed scintillating detector in this study shows no- Cerenkov radiation and efficient performance for several radiation therapy measurement parameters. Therefore, it is anticipated that the IR-ISD system can be promoted to validate with direct clinical investigations, such as appropriate dose verification and quality control in the Treatment Planning System (TPS).

Keywords: IR-Scintillating detector, dose measurement, micro-scintillators, Cerenkov effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 101