Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 414

Search results for: Staphylococcus aureus

414 An Alternative Antimicrobial Approach to Fight Bacterial Pathogens from Phellinus linteus

Authors: S. Techaoei, K. Jarmkom, P. Eakwaropas, W. Khobjai

Abstract:

The objective of this research was focused on investigating in vitro antimicrobial activity of Phellinus linteus fruiting body extracts on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Phellinus linteus fruiting body was extracted with ethanol and ethyl acetate and was vaporized. The disc diffusion assay was used to assess antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial strains. Primary screening of chemical profile of crude extract was determined by using thin layer chromatography. The positive control and the negative control were used as erythromycin and dimethyl sulfoxide, respectively. Initial screening of Phellinus linteus crude extract with the disc diffusion assay demonstrated that only ethanol had greater antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC assay showed that the lower MIC was observed with 0.5 mg/ml of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and 0.25 mg/ml. of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. TLC chemical profile of extract was represented at Rf ≈ 0.71-0.76.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Phellinus linteus, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, antimicrobial activity

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413 Anti Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Action of Thermophilic Fungi Acrophialophora levis IBSD19 and Determination of Its Mode of Action Using Electron Microscopy

Authors: Shivankar Agrawal, Indira Sarangthem

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the major causes of healthcare-associated and community-onset infections worldwide. Hence the search for non-toxic natural compounds having antibacterial activity has intensified for future drug development. The exploration of less studied niches of Earth can highly increase the possibility to discover novel bioactive compounds. Therefore, in this study, the cultivable fraction of fungi from the sediments of natural hot springs has been studied to mine potential fungal candidates with antibacterial activity against the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We isolated diverse strains of thermophilic fungi from a collection of samples from sediment. Following a standard method, we isolated a promising thermophilic fungus strain IBSD19, identified as Acrophialophora levis, possessing the potential to produce an anti-Staphylococcus aureus agent. The growth conditions were optimized and scaled to fermentation, and its produced extract was subjected to chemical extraction. The ethyl acetate fraction was found to display significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.5 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. The cell membrane integrity assay and SEM suggested that the fungal metabolites cause bacteria clustering and further lysis of the cell.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant, fungi, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, thermophiles

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412 Rapid and Culture-Independent Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus by PCR Based Protocols

Authors: V. Verma, Syed Riyaz-ul-Hassan

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Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most commonly found pathogenic bacteria and is hard to eliminate from the human environment. It is responsible for many nosocomial infections, besides being the main causative agent of food intoxication by virtue of its variety of enterotoxins. Routine detection of S. aureus in food is usually carried out by traditional methods based on morphological and biochemical characterization. These methods are time-consuming and tedious. In addition, misclassifications with automated susceptibility testing systems or commercially available latex agglutination kits have been reported by several workers. Consequently, there is a need for methods to specifically discriminate S. aureus from other staphylococci as quickly as possible. Data on protocols developed using molecular means like PCR technology will be presented for rapid and specific detection of this pathogen in food, clinical and environmental samples, especially milk.

Keywords: food Pathogens, PCR technology, rapid and specific detection, staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
411 Antibacterial Activity of Northern Algerian Honey

Authors: Messaouda Belaid, Salima Kebbouche-Gana, Djamila Benaziza

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Our study focuses on determining the antibacterial activity of some honeys from northern Algeria. To test this activity, the agar well diffusion methods was employed. The bacterial strains tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeroginosae. The results showed that all the microbes tested were inhibited by all honey used in this study but Those bacteria that appear to be more sensitive to all honey tested are Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosae.

Keywords: honey, antibacterial activity, Northern Algeria, Staphylococcus aureus

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410 Sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Subclinical Bovine Mastitis to Ciprofloxacin in Dairy Herd in Tabriz during 2013

Authors: Alireza Jafarzadeh, Samad Mosaferi, Mansour Khakpour

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Mastitis is an inflammation of the parenchyma of mammary gland regardless of the causes. Mastitis is characterized by a range of physical and chemical changes in the glandular tissue. The most important change in milk includes discoloration, the presence of clots and large number of leucocytes. There is swelling, heat, pain and edema in mammary gland in many clinical cases. Positive coagulase S. aureus is a major pathogen of the bovine mammary gland and a common cause of contagious mastitis in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. This study is conducted in ten dairy herds about one thousand cows. After doing CMT and identifying infected cows, the milk samples obtained from infected teats and transported to microbiological laboratories. After microbial culture of milk samples and isolating S. aureus, antimicrobial, sensitivity test was performed with disk diffusion method by ciprofloxacin, co-amoxiclav, erythromycin, penicillin, oxytetracyclin, sulfonamides, lincomycin and cefquinome. The study defined that the outbreak of subclinical positive coagulase Staphylococcus mastitis in dairy herd was 13.11% (5.6% S. aureus and 7.51% S. intermedicus). The antimicrobial sensitivity test shown that 87.23% of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in dairy herd was susceptible to ciprofloxacin, 93.9% to cefquinome, 4.67% to co-amoxiclav, 12.16% to erythromycin 86.11% to sulfonamides (co-trimoxazole), 3.35% lincomycin, 12.7% to oxytetracyclin and 5.98% to penicillin. Results of present defined that ciprofloxacin has a great effect on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from subclinical bovine mastitis dairy herd. It seems that cefquinome sulfonamides has a great effect on isolated Staphylococcus aureus in vivo.

Keywords: ciprofloxacin, mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus, dairy herd

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409 Effect of Cuminum Cyminum L. Essential Oil on Staphylococcus Aureus during the Manufacture, Ripening and Storage of White Brined Cheese

Authors: Ali Misaghi, Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Ehsan Sadeghi

Abstract:

Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern for clinical infection and food borne illness. Humans and most domesticated animals harbor S. aureus, and so we may expect staphylococci to be present in food products of animal origin or in those handled directly by humans, unless heat processing is applied to destroy them. Cuminum cyminum L. has been allocated the topic of some recent studies in addition to its well-documented traditional usage for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhea, epilepsy and jaundice. The air-dried seed of the plant was completely immersed in water and subjected to hydro distillation for 3 h, using a clevenger-type apparatus. In this study, the effect of Cuminum cyminum L. essential oil (EO) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus in white brined cheese was evaluated. The experiment included different levels of EO (0, 7.5, 15 and 30 mL/ 100 mL milk) to assess their effects on S. aureus count during the manufacture, ripening and storage of Iranian white brined cheese for up to 75 days. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effects of EO (even at its lowest concentration) on this organism were observed. The significant (P < 0.05) inhibitory effect of the EO on S. aureus shown in this study may improve the scope of the EO function in the food industry.

Keywords: cuminum cyminum L. essential oil, staphylococcus aureus, white brined cheese

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408 Adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus to Intravascular cannulae

Authors: Ghadah Abusalim, Suliman Alharbi, Hesham Khalil, Milton Wainwright, Mohammad A. Khiyami

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The use of implantable foreign devices in medicine has recently increased dramatically. Intravascular cannulae and catheters are used to administer fluids, medications, parenteral nutrition, and blood products in order to monitor hemodynamic status and also to provide hemodialysis. The early and late failure of inserted or implanted devices is largely the result of bacterial infection and may lead to the disruption of integration between the device and the tissues which surround it. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are widely considered to be the most common organisms causing device-related infection. Our study showed that S. aureus and S. epidermidis adhered to intravascular cannulae made up of PTFE, SPTFE and vialon. Adhesion of S. epidermidis and S. aureus to intravascular cannulae varied significantly depending upon the type of material used and the presence of coating materials. Both bacteria adhered less to PTFE followed by Vialon and SPTFE and the adhesion capacity of S. aureus and S. epidermidis increased over time. Coating intravascular cannulae with human serum albumin inhibited the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to these cannulae, and pretreatment of cannulae with fibronectin inhibited the adhesion of S. epidermidis but increased the adhesion of S. aureus to all types of cannulae. Pretreatment of cannulae surface with potassium chloride or calcium chloride increased the adhesion of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to cannulae, suggesting a role for electrostatic forces in the mechanism of such adhesion. This study will hopefully clarify the mechanism of adhesion and provide possible means of preventing such adhesion either by the use of better material coatings or by interfering with the process of adhesion by targeting bacterial structures responsible for it. Currently we recommend the use of PTFE cannulae as they exhibit a lower bacterial adhesion capacity compared to the other tested cannulae.

Keywords: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, adhesion, cannulae, PTFE, Vialon

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407 Staphylococcus argenteus: An Emerging Subclinical Bovine Mastitis Pathogen in Thailand

Authors: Natapol Pumipuntu

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Staphylococcus argenteus is the emerging species of S. aureus complex. It was generally misidentified as S. aureus by standard techniques and their features. S. argenteus is possibly emerging in both humans and animals, as well as increasing worldwide distribution. The objective of this study was to differentiate and identify S. argenteus from S. aureus, which has been collected and isolated from milk samples of subclinical bovine mastitis cases in Maha Sarakham province, Northeastern of Thailand. Twenty-one isolates of S. aureus, which confirmed by conventional methods and immune-agglutination method were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The result from MALDI-TOF MS and MLST showed 6 from 42 isolates were confirmed as S. argenteus, and 36 isolates were S. aureus, respectively. This study indicated that the identification and classification method by using MALDI-TOF MS and MLST could accurately differentiate the emerging species, S. argenteus, from S. aureus complex which usually misdiagnosed. In addition, the identification of S. argenteus seems to be very limited despite the fact that it may be the important causative pathogen in bovine mastitis as well as pathogenic bacteria in food and milk. Therefore, it is very necessary for both bovine medicine and veterinary public health to emphasize and recognize this bacterial pathogen as the emerging disease of Staphylococcal bacteria and need further study about S. argenteus infection.

Keywords: Staphylococcus argenteus, subclinical bovine mastitis, Staphylococcus aureus complex, mass spectrometry, MLST

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406 Antimicrobial Activity of Different Essential Oils in Synergy with Amoxicillin against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Naheed Niaz, Nimra Naeem, Bushra Uzair, Riffat Tahira

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Antibacterial activity of different traditional plants essential oils against clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) through disk diffusion method was evaluated. All the tested essential oils, in different concentrations, inhibited growth of S. aureus to varying degrees. Cinnamon and Thyme essential oils were observed to be the “best” against test pathogen. Even at lowest concentration of these essential oils i.e. 25 µl/ml, clear zone of inhibition was recorded 9+0.085mm and 8+0.051mm respectively, and at higher concentrations there was a total reduction in growth of MRSA. The study also focused on analyzing the synergistic effects of essential oils in combination with amoxicillin. Results showed that oregano and pennyroyal mint essential oils which were not very effective alone turned out to be strong synergistic enhancers. The activity increased with increase in concentration of the essential oils. It may be concluded from present results that cinnamon and thyme essential oils could be used as potential antimicrobial source for the treatment of infections caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, essential oils, antibiotics, combination therapy, minimum inhibitory concentration

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405 Bioinformatics and Molecular Biological Characterization of a Hypothetical Protein SAV1226 as a Potential Drug Target for Methicillin/Vancomycin-Staphylococcus aureus Infections

Authors: Nichole Haag, Kimberly Velk, Tyler McCune, Chun Wu

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Methicillin/multiple-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are infectious bacteria that are resistant to common antibiotics. A previous in silico study in our group has identified a hypothetical protein SAV1226 as one of the potential drug targets. In this study, we reported the bioinformatics characterization, as well as cloning, expression, purification and kinetic assays of hypothetical protein SAV1226 from methicillin/vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 strain. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed a low degree of structural similarity with known proteins. Kinetic assays demonstrated that hypothetical protein SAV1226 is neither a domain of an ATP dependent dihydroxyacetone kinase nor of a phosphotransferase system (PTS) dihydroxyacetone kinase, suggesting that the function of hypothetical protein SAV1226 might be misannotated on public databases such as UniProt and InterProScan 5.

Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, dihydroxyacetone kinase, essential genes, drug target, phosphoryl group donor

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404 Antimicrobial Activity of the Natural Products Derived from Phyllanthus Emblica and Gracilaria Fisheri Against Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Woraprat Amnuaychaichana

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Several medicinal plants are well known to contain active constituents such as flavonoids and phenolic compounds with are plausible candidates for therapeutic purposes. An infectious disease caused by microbial infection is the leading cause of death. Antibiotics are typically used to eradicate these microbes, but recent evidence indicates that they are developing antibiotic-resistant effects. This study focused on antimicrobial activities of Phyllanthus emblica and Gracilaria fisheri using the agar disk diffusion method and broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. The extracts were screened against Staphylococcus aureus. Five concentrations of plant extracts were used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by 2-fold dilution of plant extract. The results indicated that G. fisheri extract gave the maximum zones of inhibition of 11.7 mm against S. aureus while P. emblica showed no effects. The MIC values of G. fisheri extract against S. aureus was 500 µg/ml. To summarise, G. fisheri extracts demonstrated high efficacy of antibacterial activity against Gram-positive S. aureus, which may pave the way for developing a formulation containing this plant. G. fisheri extract should be subjected to additional investigation in order to determine the mechanism of action of its antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Staphylococcus aureus, gracilaria fishery, Phyllanthus emblica

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403 Antibacterial Activity of Nisin: Comparison the Role of Free and Encapsulated Nisin to Control Staphylococcus Aureus Inoculated in Minced Beef

Authors: Zh. Ghasemi, S. Nouri Saeedlou, A. Ghasemi, SL. Nasiri, P. Ayremlou, P. Mahasti

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The use of nisin is successfully used as antibacterial agent in various food products. Although the conclusions of the previous studies were that nisin is not very effective in meat environments. The reduced antimicrobial efficacy of nisin when applied in food has been frequently observed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of free and encapsulated nisin to inhibit the growth of staphylococcus aureus in minced beef. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nisin is determined against S. aureus using the agar dilution method. Nisin is encapsulated by spray drying, and encapsulation efficiency, mass yield and total solids content values are 47.79%, 61%, and 96.41 respectively. The study in vitro release kinetics shows highest release of nisin from zein capsules is obtained after 72 hour. This work shows that an appropriate delivery system is necessary to obtain desirable effect of nisin in meat and meat product.

Keywords: nisin, encapsulation, Staphylococcus aureus, minced beef, antibacterial activity

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402 Antibacterial Activity of Flavonoids from Corn Silk (Zea mays L.) in Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermidis

Authors: Fitri Ayu, Nadia, Tanti, Putri, Fatkhan, Pasid Harlisa, Suparmi

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Acne is a skin abnormal conditions experienced by many teens, this is caused by various factors such as the climate is hot, humid and excessive sun exposure can aggravate acne because it will lead to excess oil production. Flavonoids form complex compounds against extracellular proteins that disrupt the integrity of bacterial cell membrane in a way denature bacterial cell proteins and bacterial cell membrane damage. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of corn silk extract with a concentration of 10 %, 20 %, 30 %, 40 %, 50 %, 60 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90 % and 100 % in vitro by measuring the inhibition of the growth of bacteria Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis then compared with the standard antibiotic clindamycin. Extracts tested by Disk Diffusion Method, in which the blank disc soaked with their respective corn silk extract concentration for 15-30 minutes and then the medium of bacteria that have been planted with Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis in the given disk that already contains extracts with various concentration. Incubated for 24 hours and then measured the growth inhibition zone Propionibacterium acne, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Corn silk contains flavonoids, is shown by the test of flavonoids in corn silk extract by using a tube heating and without heating. Flavonoid in corn silk potentially as anti acne by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause acne. Corn silk extract concentration which has the highest antibacterial activity is then performed in a cream formulation and evaluation test of physical and chemical properties of the resulting cream preparation.

Keywords: antibacterial, flavonoid, corn silk, acne

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401 Evaluation of Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Staphlyococci Isolated from Various Clinical Specimens

Authors: Recep Kesli, Merih Simsek, Cengiz Demir, Onur Turkyilmaz

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Objective: Goal of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated at Medical Microbiology Laboratory of ANS Application and Research Hospital, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. Methods: S. aureus strains isolated between October 2012 and September 2016, from various clinical specimens were evaluated retrospectively. S. aureus strains were identified by both the conventional methods and automated identification system -VITEK 2 (bio-Mérieux, Marcy l’etoile, France), and Meticillin resistance was verified using oxacillin disk with disk-diffusion method. Antibiotic resistance testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to CLSI criteria, and intermediate susceptible strains were considered as resistant. Results: Seven hundred S.aureus strains which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in this study. These strains were mostly isolated from blood culture, tissue, wounds and bronchial aspiration. All of 306 (43,7%) were oxacillin resistant. While all the S.aureus strains were found to be susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin and linezolid, 38 (9.6 %), 77 (19.5 %), 116 (29.4 %), 152 (38.6 %) and 28 (7.1 %) were found to be resistant aganist to clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, retrospectively. Conclusions: Comparing to the Methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains, increased resistance rates of, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline were observed among the MRSA strains. In this study, the most effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the least effective antibiotic on the total of strains was found to be tetracycline.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, VITEK 2

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400 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari

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Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Staphylococcus aureus, biosensors, microbial detection

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399 Exploratory Characterization of Antibacterial Efficacy of Synthesized Nanoparticles on Staphylococcus Isolates from Hospital Specimens in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reham K. Sebaih, Afaf I. Shehata , Awatif A. Hindi, Tarek Gheith, Amal A. Hazzani Anas Al-Orjan

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Staphylococci spp are ubiquitous gram-positive bacteria is often associated with infections, especially nosocomial infections, and antibiotic resistanceStudy pathogenic bacteria and its use as a tool in the technology of Nano biology and molecular genetics research of the latest research trends of modern characterization and definition of different multiresistant of bacteria including Staphylococci. The Staphylococci are widespread all over the world and particularly in Saudi Arabia The present work study was conducted to evaluate the effect of five different types of nanoparticles (biosynthesized zinc oxide, Spherical and rod of each silver and gold nanoparticles) and their antibacterial impact on the Staphylococcus species. Ninety-six isolates of Staphylococcus species. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, MRSA were collected from different sources during the period between March 2011G to June 2011G. All isolates were isolated from inpatients and outpatients departments at Royal Commission Hospital in Yanbu Industrial, Saudi Arabia. High percentage isolation from males(55%) than females (45%). Staphylococcus epidermidis from males was (47%), (28%), and(25%). For Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Isolates from females were Staphylococcus aureus with higher percent of (47%), (30%), and (23%) for MRSA, Staphylococcus epidermidis. Staphylococcus aureus from wound swab were the highest percent (51.42%) followed by vaginal swab (25.71%). Staphylococcus epidermidis were founded with higher percentage in blood (37.14%) and wound swab (34.21%) respectively related to other. The highest percentage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(80.77%) were isolated from wound swab, while those from nostrils were (19.23%). Staphylococcus species were isolates in highest percentage from hospital Emergency department with Staphylococcus aureus (59.37%), Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (28.13%)and Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%) respectively. Evaluate the antibacterial property of Zinc oxide, Silver, and Gold nanoparticles as an alternative to conventional antibacterial agents Staphylococci isolates from hospital sources we screened them. Gold and Silver rods Nanoparticles to be sensitive to all isolates of Staphylococcus species. Zinc oxide Nanoparticles gave sensitivity impact range(52%) and (48%). The Gold and Silver spherical nanoparticles did not showed any effect on Staphylococci species. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles gave bactericidal impact (25%) and bacteriostatic impact (75%) for of Staphylococci species. Detecting the association of nanoparticles with Staphylococci isolates imaging by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of some bacteriostatic isolates for Zinc Oxide nanoparticles on Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), showed some Overlapping Bacterial cells with lower their number and appearing some appendages with deformities in external shape. Molecular analysis was applied by Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) used for the identification of genes within Staphylococcal pathogens. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed using six primer pairs to detect different genes using 50bp and 100bp DNA ladder marker. The range of Molecular gene typing ranging between 93 bp to 326 bp for Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by TSST-1,mecA,femA and eta, while the bands border were from 546 bp to 682 bp for Staphylococcus epidermidis using icaAB and atlE. Sixteen isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the femA gene at 132bp,this allowed the using of this gene as an internal positive control, fifteen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for mecA gene at163bp.This gene was responsible for antibiotic resistant Methicillin, Two isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus were positive for the TSST-1 gene at326bp which is responsible for toxic shock syndrome in some Staphylococcus species, None were positive for eta gene at 102bpto that was responsible for Exfoliative toxins. Six isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for atlE gene at 682 bp which is responsible for the initial adherence, three isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were positive for icaAB gene at 546bp that are responsible for mediates the formation of the biofilm. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the ability of the detection of the genes to discriminate between infecting Staphylococcus strains and considered biological tests, they may potentiate the clinical criteria used for the diagnosis of septicemia or catheter-related infections.

Keywords: multiplex polymerase chain reaction, toxic shock syndrome, Staphylococcus aureus, nosocomial infections

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398 Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Momordica cochinchinesis and Pinus kesiya Extracts

Authors: Pattaramon Pongjetpong

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In recent years, infectious diseases have increased considerably, and they are amongst the most common leading causes of death all over the world. Several medicinal plants are well known to contain active constituents such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, which are plausible candidates for therapeutic purposes. This study aimed to examine the antimicrobial activities of M. cochinchinensis and P. kesiya extracts using the agar disk diffusion method and broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. In this study, Momordica cochinchinensis and Pinus kesiya extracts are investigated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that S. aureus was susceptible to P. kesiya extracts with an MIC value of 62.5 µg/ml, while M. cochinchinensis showed MIC against S. aureus was greater than 2000 µg/ml. In summary, P. kesiya extract showed potent antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which could greatly value developing as adjuvant therapy for infectious diseases. However, further investigation regarding purification of the active constituents as well as a determination of the mechanism of antimicrobial action of P. kesiya active compound should be performed to identify the molecular target of the active compounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, Momordica cochinchinensis, Pinus kesiya, Staphylococcus aureus

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397 In-silico Antimicrobial Activity of Bioactive Compounds of Ricinus communis against DNA Gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus as Molecular Target

Authors: S. Rajeswari

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Medicinal Plant extracts and their bioactive compounds have been used for antimicrobial activities and have significant remedial properties. In the recent years, a wide range of investigations have been carried out throughout the world to confirm antimicrobial properties of different medicinally important plants. A number of plants showed efficient antimicrobial activities, which were comparable to that of synthetic standard drugs or antimicrobial agents. The large family Euphorbiaceae contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 speciesand one among is Ricinus communis or castor plant which has high traditional and medicinal value for disease free healthy life. Traditionally the plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicide etc. whereas the plant possess beneficial effects such as anti-oxidant, antihistamine, antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunomodulatory anti diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, and many other medicinal properties. This activity of the plant possess due to the important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids and steroids. The presents study includes the phytochemical properties of Ricinus communis and to prediction of the anti-microbial activity of Ricinus communis using DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus as molecular target. Docking results of varies chemicals compounds of Ricinus communis against DNA gyrase of Staphylococcus aureus by maestro 9.8 of Schrodinger show that the phytochemicals are effective against the target protein DNA gyrase. our studies suggest that the phytochemical from Ricinus communis such has INDICAN (G.Score 4.98) and SUPLOPIN-2(G.Score 5.74) can be used as lead molecule against Staphylococcus infections.

Keywords: euphorbiaceae, antimicrobial activity, Ricinus communis, Staphylococcus aureus

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396 Anti-Microbial Activity of Ag-N Co-Doped ZnS and ZnS-Fe2O3 Composite Nanoparticles

Authors: O. P. Yadav

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Ag-N co-doped ZnS and ZnS/Fe2O3 composite nanoparticles have been synthesized by chemical and sol-gel methods. As-synthesized nanomaterial have been characterized by XRD and TEM techniques and their antimicrobial effects were studied using paper disc diffusion technique against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. As-synthesized nanomaterial showed potent antimicrobial activity against studied bacterial strains. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized nanomaterial has also been compared with some commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: antibiotic, Escherichia coli, nanomaterial, TEM, Staphylococcus aureus

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395 Gold Nanoprobes Assay for the Identification of Foodborn Pathogens Such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis

Authors: D. P. Houhoula, J. Papaparaskevas, S. Konteles, A. Dargenta, A. Farka, C. Spyrou, M. Ziaka, S. Koussisis, E. Charvalos

Abstract:

Objectives: Nanotechnology is providing revolutionary opportunities for the rapid and simple diagnosis of many infectious diseases. Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis are important human pathogens. Diagnostic assays for bacterial culture and identification are time consuming and laborious. There is an urgent need to develop rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive diagnostic tests. In this study, a gold nanoprobe strategy developed and relies on the colorimetric differentiation of specific DNA sequences based approach on differential aggregation profiles in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Method: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were purchased from Nanopartz. They were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides specific for the femA gene for the identification of members of Staphylococcus aureus, the mecA gene for the differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus, hly gene encoding the pore-forming cytolysin listeriolysin for the identification of Listeria monocytogenes and the invA sequence for the identification of Salmonella enteritis. DNA isolation from Staphylococcus aureus Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis cultures was performed using the commercial kit Nucleospin Tissue (Macherey Nagel). Specifically 20μl of DNA was diluted in 10mMPBS (pH5). After the denaturation of 10min, 20μl of AuNPs was added followed by the annealing step at 58oC. The presence of a complementary target prevents aggregation with the addition of acid and the solution remains pink, whereas in the opposite event it turns to purple. The color could be detected visually and it was confirmed with an absorption spectrum. Results: Specifically, 0.123 μg/μl DNA of St. aureus, L.monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis was serially diluted from 1:10 to 1:100. Blanks containing PBS buffer instead of DNA were used. The application of the proposed method on isolated bacteria produced positive results with all the species of St. aureus and L. monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis using the femA, mecA, hly and invA genes respectively. The minimum detection limit of the assay was defined at 0.2 ng/μL of DNA. Below of 0.2 ng/μL of bacterial DNA the solution turned purple after addition of HCl, defining the minimum detection limit of the assay. None of the blank samples was positive. The specificity was 100%. The application of the proposed method produced exactly the same results every time (n = 4) the evaluation was repeated (100% repeatability) using the femA, hly and invA genes. Using the gene mecA for the differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus the method had a repeatability 50%. Conclusion: The proposed method could be used as a highly specific and sensitive screening tool for the detection and differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enteritis. The use AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets represents an inexpensive and easy-to-perform alternative to common molecular assays. The technology described here, may develop into a platform that could accommodate detection of many bacterial species.

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, pathogens, nanotechnology, bacteria

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394 Investigation of Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus in Kitchen of Catering

Authors: Çiğdem Sezer, Aksem Aksoy, Leyla Vatansever

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This study has been done for the purpose of evaluation of public health and identifying of enterotoxigenic Staphyloccocus aureus in kitchen of catering. In the kitchen of catering, samples have been taken by swabs from surface of equipments which are in the salad section, meat section and bakery section. Samples have been investigated with classical cultural methods in terms of Staphyloccocus aureus. Therefore, as a 10x10 cm area was identified (salad, cutting and chopping surfaces, knives, meat grinder, meat chopping surface) samples have been taken with sterile swabs with helping FTS from this area. In total, 50 samples were obtained. In aseptic conditions, Baird-Parker agar (with egg yolk tellurite) surface was seeded with swabs. After 24-48 hours of incubation at 37°C, the black colonies with 1-1.5 mm diameter and which are surrounded by a zone indicating lecithinase activity were identified as S. aureus after applying Gram staining, catalase, coagulase, glucose and mannitol fermentation and termonuclease tests. Genotypic characterization (Staphylococcus genus and S.aureus species spesific) of isolates was performed by PCR. The ELISA test was applied to the isolates for the identification of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SET) A, B, C, D, E in bacterial cultures. Measurements were taken at 450 nm in an ELISA reader using an Ridascreen-Total set ELISA test kit (r-biopharm R4105-Enterotoxin A, B, C, D, E). The results were calculated according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A total of 50 samples of 97 S. aureus was isolated. This number has been identified as 60 with PCR analysis. According to ELISA test, only 1 of 60 isolates were found to be enterotoxigenic. Enterotoxigenic strains were identified from the surface of salad chopping and cutting. In the kitchen of catering, S. aureus identification indicates a significant source of contamination. Especially, in raw consumed salad preparation phase of contamination is very important. This food can be a potential source of food-borne poisoning their terms, and they pose a significant risk to consumers have been identified.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, enterotoxin, catering, kitchen, health

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393 The Bacteriocin Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria as an Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows

Authors: Nenny Harijani, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana

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The aim of this study is to know the bacteriocin as antimicrobial activity produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as Antibacterial of Sub Clinic Mastitis on Dairy Cows. The antimicrobial is produced by LAB which isolates from cattle intestine can inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, Steptocococcus agalactiae an Escherichia coli which were caused by dairy cattle subclinical mastitis. The failure of this bacteria growth was indicated by the formation of a clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. The bacteriocin was produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) as antimicrobial, which could inhibit the growth of indicator bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, S.aglactiae and E.coli. This study was also developed bacteriocin to be used as a therapeutic of subclinical mastitis on dairy cows. The method used in this study was isolation, selection and identification of LAB using Mann Rogosa Sharp Medium, followed by characterization of the bacteriocin produced by LAB. The result of the study showed that bacteriocin isolated from beef cattle’s intestine could inhibit the growth Staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, an Escherichia coli, which was indicated by clear zone surrounding the colonies on Brain Heart Infusion Agar plate. Characteristics of bacteriocin were heat-stable exposed to 80 0C for 30 minutes and 100 ⁰C for 15 minutes and inactivated by proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin. This approach has suggested the development of bacteriocin as a therapeutic agent for subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, bacteriocin, staphylococcus aureus, S. agalactiae, E. coli, sub

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392 Impact of Locally Synthesized Carbon Nanotubes against Some Local Clinical Bacterial Isolates

Authors: Abdul Matin, Muazzama Akhtar, Shahid Nisar, Saddaf Mazzar, Umer Rashid

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Antibiotic resistance is an increasing concern worldwide now a day. Neisseria gonorrhea and Staphylococcus aureus are known to cause major human sexually transmitted and respiratory diseases respectively. Nanotechnology is an emerging discipline and its application in various fields especially in medical sciences is gigantic. In the present study, we synthesized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using acid oxidation method and solubilized MWNTs were with length predominantly >500 nm and diameters ranging from 40 to 50 nm. The locally synthesized MWNTs were used against gram positive and negative bacteria to determine their impact on bacterial growth. Clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhea (isolate: 4C-11) and Staphylococcus aureus (isolate: 38541) were obtained from local hospital and normally cultured in LB broth at 37°C. Both clinical strains can be obtained on request from University of Gujarat. Spectophometric assay was performed to determine the impact of MWNTs on bacterial growth in vitro. To determine the effect of MWTNs on test organisms, various concentration of MWNTs were used and recorded observation on various time intervals to understand the growth inhibition pattern. Our results demonstrated that MWNTs exhibited toxic effects to Staphylococcus aureus while showed very limited growth inhibition to Neisseria gonorrhea, which suggests the resistant potential of Neisseria against nanoparticles. Our results clearly demonstrate the gradual decrease in bacterial numbers with passage of time when compared with control. Maximum bacterial inhibition was observed at maximum concentration (50 µg/ml). Our future work will include further characterization and mode of action of our locally synthesized MWNTs. In conclusion, we investigated and reported for the first time the inhibitory potential of locally synthesized MWNTs on local clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhea.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, multi walled carbon nanotubes, Neisseria gonorrhea, spectrophotometer assay, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
391 Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Specific Bacteriophage Isolation from Sewage Treatment Plant and in vivo Analysis of Phage Efficiency in Swiss Albino Mice

Authors: Pratibha Goyal, Nupur Mathur, Anuradha Singh

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Antibiotic resistance is the worldwide threat to human health in this century. Excessive use of antibiotic after their discovery in 1940 makes certain bacteria to become resistant against antibiotics. Most common antibiotic-resistant bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Streptococcus pneumonia. Among all Staphylococcus resistant strain called Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several lives threatening infection in human commonly found in the hospital environment. Our study aimed to isolate bacteriophage against MRSA from the hospital sewage treatment plant and to analyze its efficiency In Vivo in Swiss albino mice model. Sewage sample for the isolation of bacteriophages was collected from SDMH hospital sewage treatment plant in Jaipur. Bacteriophages isolated by the use of enrichment technique and after characterization, isolated phages used to determine phage treatment efficiency in mice. Mice model used to check the safety and suitability of phage application in human need which in turn directly support the use of natural bacteriophage rather than synthetic chemical to kill pathogens. Results show the plaque formation in-vitro and recovery of MRSA infected mice during the experiment. Favorable lytic efficiency determination of MRSA and Salmonella presents a natural way to treat lethal infections caused by Multidrug-resistant bacteria by using their natural host-pathogen relationship.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, bacteriophages, methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus, pathogens, phage therapy, Salmonella typhi

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390 The Impact of the Cell-Free Solution of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Cadaverine Production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Lysine-Decarboxylase Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Nurten Toy, Yesim Özogul

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The influences of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on cadaverine and other biogenic amine production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in lysine decarboxylase broth (LDB) using HPLC. Cell-free solutions were prepared from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophiles. Two different concentrations that were 50% and 25% CFS and the control without CFSs were prepared. Significant variations on biogenic amine production were observed in the presence of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus (P<0.05). The role of CFS on biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens varied depending on strains and specific amine. Cadaverine formation in control by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 500.9 and 948.1 mg/L, respectively while the CFSs of LAB induced 4-fold lower cadaverine production by L. monocytogenes and 7-fold lower cadaverine production by S. aureus. CFSs resulted in strong decreases in cadaverine and putrescine production by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, although remarkable increases were observed for histamine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, tyramine, and agmatine, in the presence of LAB in lysine decarboxylase broth.

Keywords: cell-free solution, lactic acid bacteria, cadaverine, food borne-pathogen

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389 Microbial Quality of Raw Camel Milk Produced in South of Morocco

Authors: Maha Alaoui Ismaili, Bouchta Saidi, Mohamed Zahar, Abed Hamama

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Thirty one samples of raw camel milk obtained from the region of Laâyoune (South of Morocco) were examined for their microbial quality and presence of some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp.). pH of the samples ranged from 6.31 to 6.64 and their titratable acidity had a mean value of 18.56 °Dornic. Data obtained showed a strong microbial contamination with an average total aerobic flora of 1.76 108 ufc ml-1 and a very high fecal counts: 1.82 107 ; 3.25 106 and 3.75 106 ufc.ml-1 in average for total coliforms, fecal coliforms and enterococci respectively. Yeasts and moulds were also found at average respective levels of 3.13 106 and 1.60 105 ufc.ml-1. Salmonella sp. and S. aureus was detected respectively in 13% and 30% of the milk samples. These results indicate clearly the lack of hygienic conditions of camel milk production and storage in this region. Lactic acid bacteria were found at the following average numbers: 4.25 107 ; 4.45 107 and 3.55 107 ufc.ml-1 for Lactococci, Leuconostocs and Lactobacilli respectively.

Keywords: camel milk, microbial quality, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
388 Antibiotic Potential of Bioactive Compounds from a Marine Streptomyces Isolated from South Pacific Sediments

Authors: Ilaisa Kacivakanadina, Samson Viulu, Brad Carte, Katy Soapi

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Two bioactive compounds namely Vulgamycin (also known as enterocin A) and 5-deoxyenterocin were purified from a marine bacterial strain 1903. Strain 1903 was isolated from marine sediments collected from the Solomon Islands. Morphological features of strain 1903 showed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. The two secondary metabolites were extracted using EtOAc and purified by chromatographic methods using EtOAc and hexane solvents. Mass spectrum and NMR data of pure compounds were used to elucidate the chemical structures. In this study, results showed that both compounds were strongly active against Wild Type Staphylococcus aureus (WTSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL) and in Brine shrimp assays (BSA) (MIC < 1 µg/mL). 5-deoxyenterocin was also active against Rifamycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (RRSA) (MIC, 250 µg/mL) while vulgamycin showed bioactivity against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (MIC 250 µg/mL). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that showed the bio-activity of 5-deoxyenterocin. This is also the first time that Vulgamycin has been reported to be active in a BSA. There has not been any mechanism of action studies for these two compounds against pathogens. This warrants further studies on their mechanism of action against microbial pathogens.

Keywords: 5-deoxyenterocin, bioactivity, brine shrimp assay (BSA), vulgamycin

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
387 Isolation and Characterization of Chromium Tolerant Staphylococcus aureus from Industrial Wastewater and Their Potential Use to Bioremediate Environmental Chromium

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Muhammad Waseem, Muhammad Hidayat Rasool

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Isolation and characterization of chromium tolerant Staphylococcus aureus from industrial wastewater and their potential use to bioremediate environmental chromium. Objectives: Chromium with its great economic importance in industrial use is major metal pollutant of the environment. Chromium are used in different industries for various applications such as textile, dyeing and pigmentation, wood preservation, manufacturing pulp and paper, chrome plating, steel and tanning. The release of untreated chromium in industrial effluents causes serious threat to environment and human health, therefore, the current study designed to isolate chromium tolerant Staphylococcus aureus for removal of chromium prior to their final discharge into the environment due to its cost effective and beneficial advantage over physical and chemical methods. Methods: Wastewater samples were collected from discharge point of different industries. Heavy metal analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and microbiological analysis such as total viable count, total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli were conducted. Staphylococcus aureus was identified through gram’s staining, biomeriux vitek 2 microbial identification system and 16S rRNA gene amplification by polymerase chain reaction. Optimum growth conditions with respect to temperature, pH, salt concentrations and effect of chromium on the growth of bacteria, resistance to other heavy metal ions, minimum inhibitory concentration and chromium uptake ability of Staphylococcus aureus strain K1 was determined by spectrophotometer. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern was also determined by disc diffusion method. Furthermore, chromium uptake ability was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope equipped with Oxford Energy Dipersive X-ray (EDX) micro analysis system. Results: The results presented that optimum temperature was 35ᵒC, pH was 8.0 and salt concentration was 0.5% for growth of Staphylococcus aureus K1. The maximum uptake ability of chromium by bacteria was 20mM than other heavy metal ions. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was vancomycin and methicillin sensitive. Non hemolytic activity on blood agar and negative coagulase reaction showed that it was non-pathogenic. Furthermore, the growth of bacteria decreases in the presence of chromium and maximum chromium uptake by bacteria observed at optimum growth conditions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the presence of chromium uptake by Staphylococcus aureus K1. Conclusion: The study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus K1 have the potential to bio-remediate chromium toxicity from wastewater. Gradually, this biological treatment becomes more important due to its advantage over physical and chemical methods to protect environment and human health.

Keywords: wastewater, staphylococcus, chromium, bioremediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
386 Antibacterial Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (Curry Leaves) against Multidrug Resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Asma Naim, Warda Mushtaq

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Staphylococcus species are the most versatile and adaptive organism. They are widespread and naturally found on the skin, mucosa and nose in humans. Among these, Staphylococcus aureus is the most important species. These organisms act as opportunistic pathogens and can infect various organs of the host, causing minor skin infection to severe toxin mediated diseases, and life threatening nosocomial infections. Staphylococcus aureus has acquired resistance against β-lactam antibiotics by the production of β-lactamase, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains have also been reported with increasing frequency. MRSA strains have been associated with nosocomial as well as community acquired infections. Medicinal plants have enormous potential as antimicrobial substances and have been used in traditional medicine. Search for medicinally valuable plants with antimicrobial activity is being emphasized due to increasing antibiotic resistance in bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial potential of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) and Murraya koenigii (curry leaves) was evaluated. These are common household herbs used in food as enhancer of flavor and aroma. The crude aqueous infusion, decoction and ethanolic extracts of curry leaves and rosemary and essential oil of rosemary were investigated in the present study for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus strains using well diffusion method. In the present study, 60 Multi-drug resistant clinical isolates of S. aureus (43) and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS) (17) were screened against different concentrations of crude extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Murraya koenigii. Out of these 60 isolates, 43 were sensitive to the aqueous infusion of rosemary; 23 to aqueous decoction and 58 to ethanolic extract whereas, 24 isolates were sensitive to the essential oil. In the case of the curry leaves, no antibacterial activity was observed in aqueous infusion and decoction while only 14 isolates were sensitive to the ethanolic extract. The aqueous infusion of rosemary (50% concentration) exhibited a zone of inhibition of 21(±5.69) mm. against CoNS and 17(±4.77) mm. against S. aureus, the zone of inhibition of 50% concentration of aqueous decoction of rosemary was also larger against CoNS 17(±5.78) mm. then S. aureus 13(±6.91) mm. and the 50% concentrated ethanolic extract showed almost similar zone of inhibition in S. aureus 22(±3.61) mm. and CoNS 21(±7.64) mm. whereas, the essential oil of rosemary showed greater zone of inhibition against S. aureus i.e., 16(±4.67) mm. while CoNS showed 15(±6.94) mm. These results show that ethanolic extract of rosemary has significant antibacterial activity. Aqueous infusion and decoction of curry leaves revealed no significant antibacterial potential against all Staphylococcal species and ethanolic extract also showed only a weak response. Staphylococcus strains were susceptible to crude extracts and essential oil of rosemary in a dose depend manner, where the aqueous infusion showed highest zone of inhibition and ethanolic extract also demonstrated antistaphylococcal activity. These results demonstrate that rosemary possesses antistaphylococcal activity.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, curry leaves, multidrug resistant, rosemary, S. aureus

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385 Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil of Origanum glandulosum on Bacterial Strains of Hospital Origin Most Implicated in Nosocomial Infections

Authors: A. Lardjam, R. Mazid, S. Y. Boudghene, A. Izarouken, Y. Dali, N. Djebli, H. Toumi

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Origanum glandulosum is an aromatic plant, common in Algeria and widely used by local people for its medicinal properties. The essential oil from this plant, which grows in the west of Algeria, was studied to evaluate and determine its antibacterial activity. The extraction of the essential oil was performed by water steam distillation; the yield obtained from the aerial parts (1.78 %) is interesting, its chromatographic profile revealed by TLC showed the presence of phenolic compounds thymol and carvacrol. The evaluation of the activity of the essential oil of Origanum glandulosum on bacterial strains of hospital origin, ATCC, MRB, and HRB, most implicated in nosocomial infections (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to meticillin, Enterococcus faecium, VA R and R TEC, Acinetobacter baumanii, IMP R and R CAZ, Klebsiella pneumonia carbapenemase-producing) by the method of aromatogramme and micro atmosphere, shows that the antibacterial potency of this oil is very high, expressed by significant inhibition diameters on all strains except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and low MICs and is characterized by a bactericidal action.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, essential oil, HRB, MBR, nosocomial infections, origanum glandulosum

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