Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Search results for: Ecuador

51 Assessment of Cassava Varieties in Ecuador for the Production of Lactic Acid From Starch by-Products

Authors: Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado

Abstract:

An important cassava quality production was detected in Ecuador. However, in this country, few products with low adding-value are produced from the tuber and none from cassava by-products. To our best knowledge, lactic acid was produced from Ecuadorian cassava bagasse starch in a biotechnological way. The objective of this contribution was to study the influence of the fermentation variables (pH and agitation) on the lactic acid production of Ecuadorian cassava varieties from bagasse starch. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse starch for INIAP 650 and INIAP 651 varieties spread in Ecuador was performed using α-amylase and amyloglucosidase. Then, glucose was fermented by Lactobacillus leichmannii strains in different conditions of agitation (0 and 150 rpm) and pH (4.5, 5.0, and 5.5). Significant differences in ash, fibre, protein, lipids, and amylose were found in cassava bagasse starch of INIAP 650 and INIAP 651 with 1.4 and 1.3%, 4.3 and 6%, 1.2 and 2.1%, 1.9 and 1.5%, and 24.3 and 26.5%, respectively. The determination of lactic acid was performed by potentiometric and FTIR analysis. Conversions of cassava bagasse to reduced sugars were 71.7 and 85.1% for INIAP 650 and INIAP 651, respectively. The best lactic acid concentrations were 27.6 and 33.5 g/L, obtained at agitation 150 rpm and pH 5.5 for INIAP 650 and INIAP 651. Qualitative analysis conducted by FTIR spectrophotometry confirmed the presence of lactic acid in the reacted products. This investigation could contribute to the valorisation of residues from promising cassava varieties in Ecuador and hence to increase the development of this country.

Keywords: bagasse starch, cassava, Ecuador, fermentation, lactic acid

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50 Modeling and Simulation of a Hybrid System Solar Panel and Wind Turbine in the Quingeo Heritage Center in Ecuador

Authors: Juan Portoviejo Brito, Daniel Icaza Alvarez, Christian Castro Samaniego

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In this article, we present the modeling, simulations, and energy conversion analysis of the solar-wind system for the Quingeo Heritage Center in Ecuador. A numerical model was constructed based on the 19 equations, it was coded in MATLAB R2017a, and the results were compared with the experimental data of the site. The model is built with the purpose of using it as a computer development for the optimization of resources and designs of hybrid systems in the Parish of Quingeo and its surroundings. The model obtained a fairly similar pattern compared to the data and curves obtained in the field experimentally and detailed in manuscript. It is important to indicate that this analysis has been carried out so that in the near future one or two of these power generation systems can be exploited in a massive way according to the budget assigned by the Parish GAD of Quingeo or other national or international organizations with the purpose of preserving this unique colonial helmet in Ecuador.

Keywords: hybrid system, wind turbine, modeling, simulation, Smart Grid, Quingeo Azuay Ecuador

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
49 Ama de Casa: Gender Division of Labor the Response to Environmental and Economic Constraints, Ecuador

Authors: Tyrus C. Torres, Michael Harris

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In a coastal town of Ecuador, the role of women is commonly defined as an ama de casa, a woman who works in the house, raises children, and contributes to the community. This project, under the guidance of Dr. Michael Harris from the Florida Atlantic University, seeks to understand how the role of an ama de casa provides a secure environment for men and women, coexists with economic and environmental constraints that explain the origins of how this environment has been formed. The coastal community aspects of familia (family), trabajo (work), relación (relationships), machismo (masculinity), feminista (femininity), and the culture of Ecuador define the ways of life in a coastal setting. This ethnographic research project included the following methodologies: environment mapping, conducting interviews, surveys, participant observation, direct and indirect observations, and integration into daily life. Immersion into the daily life and building relationships with the local people allowed the documentation of intricacies of both the cultural and social spheres. The findings of this research offer insight on how culture, economics, and environment can form female and male agency. Our investigation shows that occupations such as fishermen, laborers, ama de casas, and even students utilize occupational routes to create social agency in the face of economic and environmental constraints in Ecuador.

Keywords: Ecuador, ethnography, gender division of labor, gender roles

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
48 Renewable Energy System Eolic-Photovoltaic for the Touristic Center La Tranca-Chordeleg in Ecuador

Authors: Christian Castro Samaniego, Daniel Icaza Alvarez, Juan Portoviejo Brito

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For this research work, hybrid wind-photovoltaic (SHEF) systems were considered as renewable energy sources that take advantage of wind energy and solar radiation to transform into electrical energy. In the present research work, the feasibility of a wind-photovoltaic hybrid generation system was analyzed for the La Tranca tourist viewpoint of the Chordeleg canton in Ecuador. The research process consisted of the collection of data on solar radiation, temperature, wind speed among others by means of a meteorological station. Simulations were carried out in MATLAB/Simulink based on a mathematical model. In the end, we compared the theoretical radiation-power curves and the measurements made at the site.

Keywords: hybrid system, wind turbine, modeling, simulation, validation, experimental data, panel, Ecuador

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
47 Authenticity of Ecuadorian Commercial Honeys

Authors: Elisabetta Schievano, Valentina Zuccato, Claudia Finotello, Patricia Vit

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Control of honey frauds is needed in Ecuador to protect bee keepers and consumers because simple syrups and new syrups with eucalyptus are sold as genuine honeys. Authenticity of Ecuadorian commercial honeys was tested with a vortex emulsion consisting on one volume of honey:water (1:1) dilution, and two volumes of diethyl ether. This method allows a separation of phases in one minute to discriminate genuine honeys that form three phase and fake honeys that form two phases; 34 of the 42 honeys analyzed from five provinces of Ecuador were genuine. This was confirmed with 1H NMR spectra of honey dilutions in deuterated water with an enhanced aminoacid region with signals for proline, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Classic quality indicators were also tested with this method (sugars, HMF), indicators of fermentation (ethanol, acetic acid), and residues of citric acid used in the syrup manufacture. One of the honeys gave a false positive for genuine, being an admixture of genuine honey with added syrup, evident for the high sucrose. Sensory analysis was the final confirmation to recognize the honey groups studied here, namely honey produced in combs by Apis mellifera, fake honey, and honey produced in cerumen pots by Geotrigona, Melipona, and Scaptotrigona. This is a valuable contribution to protect honey consumers, and to develop the beekeeping industry in Ecuador.

Keywords: fake, genuine, honey, 1H NMR, Ecuador

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46 Transformation of the Institutionality of International Cooperation in Ecuador from 2007 to 2017: 2017: A Case of State Identity Affirmation through Role Performance

Authors: Natalia Carolina Encalada Castillo

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As part of an intended radical policy change compared to former administrations in Ecuador, the transformation of the institutionality of international cooperation during the period of President Rafael Correa was considered as a key element for the construction of the state of 'Good Living'. This intention led to several regulatory changes in the reception of cooperation for development, and even the departure of some foreign cooperation agencies. Moreover, Ecuador launched the initiative to become a donor of cooperation towards other developing countries through the ‘South-South Cooperation’ approach. All these changes were institutionalized through the Ecuadorian System of International Cooperation as a new framework to establish rules and policies that guarantee a sovereign management of foreign aid. Therefore, this research project has been guided by two questions: What were the factors that motivated the transformation of the institutionality of international cooperation in Ecuador from 2007 to 2017? and, what were the implications of this transformation in terms of the international role of the country? This paper seeks to answer these questions through Role Theory within a Constructivist meta-theoretical perspective, considering that in this case, changes at the institutional level in the field of cooperation, responded not only to material motivations but also to interests built on the basis of a specific state identity. The latter was only possible to affirm through specific roles such as ‘sovereign recipient of cooperation’ as well as ‘donor of international cooperation’. However, the performance of these roles was problematic as they were not easily accepted by the other actors in the international arena or in the domestic level. In terms of methodology, these dynamics are analyzed in a qualitative way mainly through interpretive analysis of the discourse of high-level decision-makers from Ecuador and other cooperation actors. Complementary to this, document-based research of relevant information as well as interviews have been conducted. Finally, it is concluded that even if material factors such as infrastructure needs, trade and investment interests, as well as reinforcement of state control and monitoring of cooperation flows, motivated the institutional transformation of international cooperation in Ecuador; the essential basis of these changes was the search for a new identity for the country to be projected in the international arena. This identity started to be built but continues to be unstable. Therefore, it is important to potentiate the achievements of the new international cooperation policies, and review their weaknesses, so that non-reimbursable cooperation funds received as well as ‘South-South cooperation’ actions, contribute effectively to national objectives.

Keywords: Ecuador, international cooperation, Role Theory, state identity

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
45 The Other Dreamers: A Study of the Relationship between Returned Migration and Entrepreneurship

Authors: Pascual García, Francisco Ochoa, Jessica Ordoñez

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The links between migration and development have been widely written and analyzed from different perspectives. However, the nexus between entrepreneurship and migration is of recent interest. The different studies related to this have focused on the ventures of ethnic enclaves, or on transnational businesses, which link the community of origin and destination. Beyond this perspective, this work analyzes the return migration, (a few studies until now, but forming part of a theoretical body of migration). As a result of the European crisis started between 2007-2008. Many Ecuadorians who lived in Europe, decided to return to their place of origin. The rise of the price of the oil and commodities presented a better panorama in Ecuador than in Europe. Faced with the magnitude of returnees, the opportunities for entrepreneurship in Ecuador increased (Accumulation of human capital, social capital, learned skills and capital). Thus there is an interest in the possibility of returned migrants in the country to start a business in their place of origin. The following study is the result of this. A survey of 110 returned migrants was carried out in the south of Ecuador and, using a Probit econometric model, we determined that the variables specified as geographic area, sex, education level are not significant, so they are not determinant when undertaking. However, time abroad and skills learned, if they were significant at the time of the decision to start a business.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, development, migration, returned migration

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44 Entomological Origin of Honey Discriminated by NMR Chloroform Extracts in Ecuadorian Honey

Authors: P. Vit, J. Uddin, V. Zuccato, F. Maza, E. Schievano

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In Ecuador honeys are produced by Apis mellifera and stingless bees (Meliponini). We studied honey produced in beeswax combs by Apis mellifera, and honey produced in pots by Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona bees. Chloroform extracts of honey were obtained for fast NMR spectra. The 1D spectra were acquired at 298 K, with a 600 MHz NMR Bruker instrument, using a modified double pulsed field gradient spin echoes (DPFGSE) sequence. Signals of 1H NMR spectra were integrated and used as inputs for PCA, PLS-DA analysis, and labelled sets of classes were successfully identified, enhancing the separation between the three groups of honey according to the entomological origin: A. mellifera, Geotrigona and Scaptotrigona. This procedure is therefore recommended for authenticity test of honey in Ecuador.

Keywords: Apis mellifera, honey, 1H NMR, entomological origin, meliponini

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43 Spawning Induction and Early Larval Development of the Penshell Atrina maura (Sowerby, 1835) under Controlled Conditions in Ecuador

Authors: Jose Melena, Rosa Santander, Tanya Gonzalez, Richard Duque, Juan Illanes

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Ecuador is one of the countries with the greatest aquatic biodiversity worldwide. In particular, there are at least a dozen native marine species with great aquaculture potential locally. This research concerns one of those species. It has proposed to implement experimental protocols in order to induce spawning and to generate the early larval development of the penshell Atrina maura under controlled conditions. Bioassays were carried out with one adult batch (n= 26) with an average valvar length of 307,6 ± 9,4 mm, which were collected in the Puerto El Morro Mangrove (2° 42' 33'' S, 80° 14' 28'' W), Guayas Province. During a short acclimation stage, five adults of penshell A. maura were sacrificed in order to determine their sexual maturity degree and to estimate their sex ratio. Dissection showed that three were ripe females (60%) and two were ripe males (40%). Later, three groups (n= 7 by each) were tested with two treatments in order to induce the broodstock spawning: thermal stress, osmotic shock, and one control. Spawning induction was achieved by the immersion in water to 0 g L⁻¹ per 1 h and immersion in sea water to 34 g L⁻¹ per 1 h. After the delivery of gametes, it was achieved 1,35 × 10⁶ viable zygotes. As results, fertilized eggs had 60 µm diameter; while first and second cell divisions were observed to 1 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 65 ± 4 µm and polar body. Latter cell divisions, including gastrula stage, appeared at 9 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 71 ± 4 µm; and trochophore stage at 16 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 75 ± 5 µm. In addition, veliger stage was registered at 20 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 81 ± 5 µm. Umboned larvae appeared at day 8 post-fertilization, with individual average length of 145 ± 6 µm. These pioneering results in Ecuador can strengthen the local conservation process of the overexploited A. maura and to encourage its production for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Atrina maura, Ecuador, larval development, spawning induction

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42 The Role of the Returned Migration in the Regional Economic Growth

Authors: Jessica Ordoñez, Francisco Ochoa, Pascual García

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The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between return migration in Ecuador and economic growth. The improvement of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America, starting in 2012, makes the region a new migratory destination, in both senses in north-south and south-south flows. Current studies highlight only the role of the entrepreneurial migrant in generating employment and economic growth in the region. Nevertheless, it has not been considered that not all migrants are entrepreneurs and that not all entrepreneurs contribute to economic growth. This research compares the socioeconomic and labor characteristics of migrant returnees working as freelancers in Ecuador. The principal aim is to demystify the role of migrant entrepreneurs in regional growth and to identify socioeconomic characteristics that can enhance growth. A panel econometric model was used, which is part of the information from labor and macroeconomic surveys.

Keywords: economic growth, entrepreneur, migration, returned migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
41 The Experience of Community-based Tourism in Yunguilla, Ecuador and Its Social-Cultural Impact

Authors: York Neudel

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The phenomenon of tourism has been considered as tool to overcome cultural frontiers, to comprehend the other and to cope with mutual mistrust and suspicion. Well, that has been a myth, at least when it comes to mass-tourism. Other approaches, like community-based tourism, still are based on the idea of embracing the other in order to help or to understand the cultural difference. In 1997, two American NGOs incentivized a tourism-project in a community in the highlands of Ecuador, in order to protect the cloud forest from destructive exploitation of its own inhabitants. Nineteen years after that, I analyze in this investigation the interactions between the Ecuadorian hosts in the mestizo-community of Yunguilla and the foreign tourist in the quest for “authentic life” in the Ecuadorian cloud forest. As a sort of “contemporary pilgrim” the traveller tries to find authenticity in other times and places far away from their everyday life in Europe or North America. Therefore, tourists are guided by stereotypes and expectations that are produced by the touristic industry. The host, on the other hand, has to negotiate this pre-established imaginary. That generates a kind of theatre-play with front- and backstage in organic gardens, little fabrics and even private housing, since this alternative project offers to share the private space of the host with the tourist in the setting the community-based tourism. In order to protect their privacy, the community creates new hybrid spaces that oscillate between front- and backstages that culminates in a game of hide and seek – a phenomenon that promises interesting frictions for an anthropological case-study.

Keywords: Tourism, Authenticity, Community-based tourism, Ecuador, Yunguilla

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40 Combined Effect of Gluten-Free Superfoods and by-Products from Ecuador to Evaluate the Functional and Sensory Properties of Breadmaking

Authors: Andrea Vasquez, Pedro Maldonado-Alvarado

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In general, 'gluten-free' foods like breadmaking products provide functional or nutraceutical benefits for the consumer's health and increased their demand on the market. In Ecuador, there is an overproduction of superfoods, and the food by-products are undervalued. For the first time, to the author's best knowledge, gluten-free bread mixtures from quinoa and banana flour, cassava starch, lupine flour (LF), or whey protein (WP) with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and transglutaminase (TG) were evaluated on their functional and sensory properties. Free amino groups and thiols, rheology, and electrophoresis SDS PAGE were performed to analyze the crosslinking of TG at different concentrations with HC or PL proteins. Dough characterization, pasting properties were evaluated, respectively, by a MIXOLAB and a rheometer with a pasting cell. The texture, porosity, and loaf volume were characterized using a texturometer, ImageJ software, and breadmaking ability, respectively. Finally, a breadmaking aptitude and sensorial bread acceptability were performed. A significant decrease in the content of free amino groups (0.16 to 0.11 and 0.46 to 0.36 mM/mg of protein) and free thiol groups (0.37 to 0.21 and 1.79 to 1.32 mM/mg protein) was observed when 1.0% and 0.5% TG were added to LF and WP, respectively. In apparent viscosity analysis, the action of TG on HC proteins changes their viscosity, while the viscosity of LF is not modified by TG. Results of electrophoresis in PL showed bands of higher molecular weight of different fragments of proteins with 1% TG. Formulation with 59.8, 39.9, 160.8, 6.0, 1.0, and 1.5% of, respectively, QF, BF, CS, LF or WP, TG, and HPMC had the best properties in dough parameters, pasting parameters (lower pasting temperature and higher peak viscosity), best crumb structure, lower crumb hardness and higher loaf volume (2.24 and 2.28 mL/g). All the loaves of bread were acceptable in baking aptitude and general acceptability.

Keywords: breadmaking, gluten-free, superfoods, by-products, Ecuador

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39 Sustainable Concepts Applied in the Pre-Columbian Andean Architecture in Southern Ecuador

Authors: Diego Espinoza-Piedra, David Duran

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All architectural and land use processes are framed in a cultural, social and geographical context. The present study analyzes the Andean culture before the Spanish conquest in southern Ecuador, in the province of Azuay. This area has been habited for more than 10.000 years. The Canari and the Inca cultures occupied Azuay close to the arrival of the Spanish conquers. The Inca culture was settled in the Andes Mountains. The Canari culture was established in the south of Ecuador, on the actual provinces of Azuay and Canar. In contrast with history and archeology, to the best of our knowledge, their architecture has not yet been studied in this area because of the lack of architectural structures. Consequently, the present research reviewed the land use and culture for architectonic interpretations. The two main architectural objects in these cultures were dwellings and public buildings. In the first case, housing was conceived as temporary. It had to stand as long as its inhabitants lived. Therefore, houses were built when a couple got married. The whole community started the construction through the so-called ‘minga’ or collective work. The construction materials were tree branches, reeds, agave, ground, and straw. So that when their owners aged and then died, this house was easily disarmed and overthrown. Their materials become part of the land for agriculture. Finally, this cycle was repeated indefinitely. In the second case, the buildings, which we can call public, have presented erroneous interpretations. They have been defined as temples. But according to our conclusions, they were places for temporary accommodation, storage of objects and products, and in some special cases, even astronomical observatories. These public buildings were settled along the important road system called ‘Capac-Nam’, currently declared by UNESCO as World Cultural Heritage. The buildings had different scales at regular distances. Also, they were established in special or strategic places, which constituted a system of observatories. These observatories allowed to determine the cycles or calendars (solar or lunar) necessary for the agricultural production, as well as other natural phenomena. Most of the current minimal existence of physical structures in quantity and state of conservation is at the level of foundations or pieces of walls. Therefore, this study was realized after the identification of the history and culture of the inhabitants of this Andean region.

Keywords: Andean, pre-Colombian architecture, Southern Ecuador, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
38 Study and Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritages with the Use of Laser Scanner and Processing System for 3D Modeling Spatial Data

Authors: Julia Desiree Velastegui Caceres, Luis Alejandro Velastegui Caceres, Oswaldo Padilla, Eduardo Kirby, Francisco Guerrero, Theofilos Toulkeridis

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It is fundamental to conserve sites of natural and cultural heritage with any available technique or existing methodology of preservation in order to sustain them for the following generations. We propose a further skill to protect the actual view of such sites, in which with high technology instrumentation we are able to digitally preserve natural and cultural heritages applied in Ecuador. In this project the use of laser technology is presented for three-dimensional models, with high accuracy in a relatively short period of time. In Ecuador so far, there are not any records on the use and processing of data obtained by this new technological trend. The importance of the project is the description of the methodology of the laser scanner system using the Faro Laser Scanner Focus 3D 120, the method for 3D modeling of geospatial data and the development of virtual environments in the areas of Cultural and Natural Heritage. In order to inform users this trend in technology in which three-dimensional models are generated, the use of such tools has been developed to be able to be displayed in all kinds of digitally formats. The results of the obtained 3D models allows to demonstrate that this technology is extremely useful in these areas, but also indicating that each data campaign needs an individual slightly different proceeding starting with the data capture and processing to obtain finally the chosen virtual environments.

Keywords: laser scanner system, 3D model, cultural heritage, natural heritage

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37 A Multi-Layer Based Architecture for the Development of an Open Source CAD/CAM Integration Virtual Platform

Authors: Alvaro Aguinaga, Carlos Avila, Edgar Cando

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This article proposes a n-layer architecture, with a web client as a front-end, for the development of a virtual platform for process simulation on CNC machines. This Open-Source platform includes a CAD-CAM interface drawing primitives, and then used to furnish a CNC program that triggers a touch-screen virtual simulator. The objectives of this project are twofold. First one is an educational component that fosters new alternatives for the CAD-CAM/CNC learning process in undergrad and grade schools and technical and technological institutes emphasizing in the development of critical skills, discussion and collaborative work. The second objective puts together a research and technological component that will take the state of the art in CAD-CAM integration to a new level with the development of optimal algorithms and virtual platforms, on-line availability, that will pave the way for the long-term goal of this project, that is, to have a visible and active graduate school in Ecuador and a world wide Open-Innovation community in the area of CAD-CAM integration and operation of CNC machinery. The virtual platform, developed as a part of this study: (1) delivers improved training process of students, (2) creates a multidisciplinary team and a collaborative work space that will push the new generation of students to face future technological challenges, (3) implements industry standards for CAD/CAM, (4) presents a platform for the development of industrial applications. A protoype of this system was developed and implemented in a network of universities and technological institutes in Ecuador.

Keywords: CAD-CAM integration, virtual platforms, CNC machines, multi-layer based architecture

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36 Simulation of Technological, Energy and GHG Comparison between a Conventional Diesel Bus and E-bus: Feasibility to Promote E-bus Change in High Lands Cities

Authors: Riofrio Jonathan, Fernandez Guillermo

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Renewable energy represented around 80% of the energy matrix for power generation in Ecuador during 2020, so the deployment of current public policies is focused on taking advantage of the high presence of renewable sources to carry out several electrification projects. These projects are part of the portfolio sent to the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the established national determined contribution (NDC). In this sense, the Ecuadorian Organic Energy Efficiency Law (LOEE) published in 2019 promotes E-mobility as one of the main milestones. In fact, it states that the new vehicles for urban and interurban usage must be E-buses since 2025. As a result, and for a successful implementation of this technological change in a national context, it is important to deploy land surveys focused on technical and geographical areas to keep the quality of services in both the electricity and transport sectors. Therefore, this research presents a technological and energy comparison between a conventional diesel bus and its equivalent E-bus. Both vehicles fulfill all the technical requirements to ride in the study-case city, which is Ambato in the province of Tungurahua-Ecuador. In addition, the analysis includes the development of a model for the energy estimation of both technologies that are especially applied in a highland city such as Ambato. The altimetry of the most important bus routes in the city varies from 2557 to 3200 m.a.s.l., respectively, for the lowest and highest points. These operation conditions provide a grade of novelty to this paper. Complementary, the technical specifications of diesel buses are defined following the common features of buses registered in Ambato. On the other hand, the specifications for E-buses come from the most common units introduced in Latin America because there is not enough evidence in similar cities at the moment. The achieved results will be good input data for decision-makers since electric demand forecast, energy savings, costs, and greenhouse gases emissions are computed. Indeed, GHG is important because it allows reporting the transparency framework that it is part of the Paris Agreement. Finally, the presented results correspond to stage I of the called project “Analysis and Prospective of Electromobility in Ecuador and Energy Mix towards 2030” supported by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

Keywords: high altitude cities, energy planning, NDC, e-buses, e-mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
35 Breastfeeding Experiences of Nutritionist who are Mothers in Quito- Ecuador

Authors: Maria Jose Mendoza Gordillo

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Introduction: Research regarding breastfeeding is devoted to how essential breastfeeding is to guarantee wellbeing for the mother and the baby from a medical standpoint relegating the cultural, material and social barriers for breastfeeding. Consequently, worldwide breastfeeding rates are low, and Ecuador is not the exception, especially among working mothers. Worldwide, health care providers have low rates of breastfeeding due to several barriers to lactation, such as the work schedule, a lack of private places for pumping while at work, and negative emotions. Goals and Methods: This study aimed to explore how do Ecuadorian women embrace their identities as nutritionists and mothers within their breastfeeding experience. The primary data come from 20 synchronous semi-structured interviews, which follow a topic guide. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data analysis followed the Phronetic Iterative Approach. Results: Women shifted the preconceived idea of the ideal breastfeeding that came from the medicalized discourse of breastfeeding, and that was constructed in their training as nutritionists. Although these women believe that breast milk and breastfeeding is the best way to feed a baby, the internalized ideal of breastfeeding shifted through the experience of motherhood. When these women developed their identity as mothers, they understood that the ideal breastfeeding is different from the medicalized discourse. Although they have that clash between the ideal and the external reality, they continued breastfeeding their babies and those experiences made them improve their professional practice. Conclusions: The narratives that women shared illustrate how complex it was to manage the different roles and identities that they wanted to fulfill to keep their identity of a good mother who breastfeeds her baby and, at the same time, a good healthcare provider identity. The process of breastfeeding for this group of women who are mothers and healthcare professionals appears to be a unique relational and identity negotiation process.

Keywords: breastfeeding, identity, nutritionist, qualitative

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34 Food Composition Tables Used as an Instrument to Estimate the Nutrient Ingest in Ecuador

Authors: Ortiz M. Rocío, Rocha G. Karina, Domenech A. Gloria

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There are several tools to assess the nutritional status of the population. A main instrument commonly used to build those tools is the food composition tables (FCT). Despite the importance of FCT, there are many error sources and variability factors that can be presented on building those tables and can lead to an under or over estimation of ingest of nutrients of a population. This work identified different food composition tables used as an instrument to estimate the nutrient ingest in Ecuador.The collection of data for choosing FCT was made through key informants –self completed questionnaires-, supplemented with institutional web research. A questionnaire with general variables (origin, year of edition, etc) and methodological variables (method of elaboration, information of the table, etc) was passed to the identified FCT. Those variables were defined based on an extensive literature review. A descriptive analysis of content was performed. Ten printed tables and three databases were reported which were all indistinctly treated as food composition tables. We managed to get information from 69% of the references. Several informants referred to printed documents that were not accessible. In addition, searching the internet was not successful. Of the 9 final tables, n=8 are from Latin America, and, n= 5 of these were constructed by indirect method (collection of already published data) having as a main source of information a database from the United States department of agriculture USDA. One FCT was constructed by using direct method (bromatological analysis) and has its origin in Ecuador. The 100% of the tables made a clear distinction of the food and its method of cooking, 88% of FCT expressed values of nutrients per 100g of edible portion, 77% gave precise additional information about the use of the table, and 55% presented all the macro and micro nutrients on a detailed way. The more complete FCT were: INCAP (Central America), Composition of foods (Mexico). The more referred table was: Ecuadorian food composition table of 1965 (70%). The indirect method was used for most tables within this study. However, this method has the disadvantage that it generates less reliable food composition tables because foods show variations in composition. Therefore, a database cannot accurately predict the composition of any isolated sample of a food product.In conclusion, analyzing the pros and cons, and, despite being a FCT elaborated by using an indirect method, it is considered appropriate to work with the FCT of INCAP Central America, given the proximity to our country and a food items list that is very similar to ours. Also, it is imperative to have as a reference the table of composition for Ecuadorian food, which, although is not updated, was constructed using the direct method with Ecuadorian foods. Hence, both tables will be used to elaborate a questionnaire with the purpose of assessing the food consumption of the Ecuadorian population. In case of having disparate values, we will proceed by taking just the INCAP values because this is an updated table.

Keywords: Ecuadorian food composition tables, FCT elaborated by direct method, ingest of nutrients of Ecuadorians, Latin America food composition tables

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33 Positivity of Pathogenic Leptospira in Pigs from Rural Communities on the Coast of Ecuador

Authors: Veronica Barragan, Ligia Luna, Maria Patricia Zambrano, Carlos Bulnes, Eduardo Diaz, Talima Pearson

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Leptospirosis impacts animal production and is responsible for important economic losses in the pig industry. Infection is associated with reproductive failures that lead to abortions, stillbirth, and perinatal mortality. The leptospira serogroups that have been traditionally linked to disease in pigs are Pomona, Australis, and Tarassovi. Unfortunately, knowledge about pig leptospirosis is biased towards infection in large-scale commercial farms from developed countries, where exposure is usually limited to host-specific serotypes. The aim of our study is to describe leptospirosis in pigs from rural communities located in the coast of Ecuador-South America, where leptospirosis is endemic. A particularity of these pigs is that, because they are usually raised in the backyard of their owner’s houses, exposure to other leptospira excreted by other animals is likely to occur. Therefore, we collected 420 kidney samples from pigs sacrificed at a local slaughterhouse, and Leptospira positivity was tested in all samples by amplifying the Lipl32 gen. Our results show pathogenic Leptospira positivity in 19.3% (81/420) of pigs. Microaglutination test was performed in 60 PCR positive samples with titers >1:100 in 17 pigs, titers of 1:50 in 28 pigs, and no MAT titers in 15 pigs even though Leptospira DNA was found in their kidneys. Interestingly, reacting serovars were very diverse, with 18.3% of pig sera reacting with two or more serovars. Additionally, serovar Canicola was found in 16.7% of pigs followed by Tarassovi (10%), Australis (6.7%), Pyogenes (5%), Icterohaemorrhageae (1.7%), and Grippotyphosa (1.7%). It is also important to highlight that most of the analyzed animals came from small-scale farms where pigs may be exposed to the pathogen by exposure to other domestic and peridomestic animals such as rats, dogs, horses, donkeys, and even wildlife. This would explain the finding of non-pig adapted Leptospira serovars such as Canicola, which is commonly reported in dogs.

Keywords: Leptospira, Lipl32, peridomestic, pig, serovar

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32 The Elimination of Fossil Fuel Subsidies from the Road Transportation Sector and the Promotion of Electro Mobility – The Ecuadorian Case

Authors: Alvaro Corral Naveda, Juan Fonseca, Henry Acurio, Guillermo Fernández

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In Ecuador, subventions on fossil fuels for the road transportation sector have always been part of its economy throughout time, mainly because of demagogy and populism from political leaders. It is clearly seen that the government cannot maintain the subsidies anymore due to its commercial balance and its general state budget, subsidies are a key barrier to implement the use of cleaner technologies. However, during the last few months, the elimination of subsidies has been done gradually with the purpose of reaching international prices. It is expected that with this measure, the population will opt for other means of transportation, and in a certain way, it will promote the use of private electric vehicles, public, e.g., taxis, buses (urban transport). It is also important to consider that Ecuador´s production of energy is mainly hydropower. Considering the three main elements of sustainable development, an analysis of the social, economic, and environmental impacts of eliminating subsidies will be generated at the country level. To achieve this, four scenarios will be developed in order to determine how the subsidies will contribute to the promotion of electro mobility. 1)A Business as Usual BAU scenario;2) the introduction of 10.000 electric vehicles by 2025; 3) the introduction of 100.000 electric vehicles by 2030; 4) the introduction of 750.000 electric vehicles by 2040 (for all the scenarios buses, taxis, lightweight duty vehicles, and private vehicles will be introduced, as it was established in the National ElectroMobility Strategy for Ecuador). The Low Emissions Analysis Platform LEAP will be used, and it will be suitable to determine the cost for the government in terms of importing derivatives for fossil fuels and the cost of electricity to power the electric fleet that can be changed. The elimination of subventions generates fiscal resources to the state that can be used to develop other kinds of projects that will benefit Ecuadorian society. It will definitely change the energy matrix, and it will provide energy security for the country. It will be an opportunity for the government to incentivize a greater introduction of renewable energies, e.g., solar and wind. At the same time, it will help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases emissions GHG from the transportation sector, considering its mitigation potential, which in result will improve the inhabitant´s quality of life by improving the quality of air, therefore reducing respiratory diseases associated with exhaust emissions. Consequently, achieving sustainability, the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs, and complying with the agreements established in the Paris Agreement COP 21 in 2015. Electromobility in Latin America and the Caribbean can only be achieved by the implementation of the right policies at the central government, that need to be accompanied by a National Urban Mobility Policy NUMP, and can encompass a greater vision to develop holistic sustainable transport systems at local governments.

Keywords: electromobility, energy, policy, sustainable transportation

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31 Smart Cities, Morphology of the Uncertain: A Study on Development Processes Applied by Amazonian Cities in Ecuador

Authors: Leonardo Coloma

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The world changes constantly, every second its properties vary due either natural factors or human intervention. As the most intelligent creatures on the planet, human beings have transformed the environment and paradoxically –have allowed ‘mother nature’ to lose species, accelerate the processes of climate change, the deterioration of the ozone layer, among others. The rapid population growth, the procurement, administration and distribution of resources, waste management, and technological advances are some of the factors that boost urban sprawl whose gray stain extends over the territory, facing challenges such as pollution, overpopulation and scarcity of resources. In Ecuador, these problems are added to the social, cultural, economic and political anomalies that have historically affected it. This fact can represent a greater delay when trying to solve global problems, without having paid attention to local inconveniences –smaller ones, but ones that could be the key to project smart solutions on bigger ones. This research aims to highlight the main characteristics of the development models adopted by two Amazonian cities, and analyze the impact of such urban growth on society; to finally define the parameters that would allow the development of an intelligent city in Ecuador, prepared for the challenges of the XXI Century. Contrasts in the climate, temperature, and landscape of Ecuadorian cities are fused with the cultural diversity of its people, generating a multiplicity of nuances of an indecipherable wealth. However, we strive to apply development models that do not recognize that wealth, not understanding them and ignoring that their proposals will vary according to where they are applied. Urban plans seem to take a bit of each of the new theories and proposals of development, which, in the encounter with the informal growth of cities, with those excluded and ‘isolated’ societies, generate absurd morphologies - where the uncertain becomes tangible. The desire to project smart cities is ever growing, but it is important to consider that this concept does not only have to do with the use of information and communication technologies. Its success is achieved when advances in science and technology allow the establishment of a better relationship between people and their context (natural and built). As a research methodology, urban analysis through mappings, diagrams and geographical studies, as well as the identification of sensorial elements when living the city, will make evident the shortcomings of the urban models adopted by certain populations of the Ecuadorian Amazon. Following the vision of previous investigations started since 2014 as part of ‘Centro de Acciones Urbanas,’ the results of this study will encourage the dialogue between the city (as a physical fact) and those who ‘make the city’ (people as its main actors). This research will allow the development of workshops and meetings with different professionals, organizations and individuals in general.

Keywords: Latin American cities, smart cities, urban development, urban morphology, urban sprawl

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30 Spawning Induction and Early Larval Development of the Giant Reef Clam Periglypta multicostata (Sowerby, 1835) under Controlled Conditions

Authors: Jose Melena, Rosa Santander, Tanya Gonzalez, Richard Duque, Juan Illanes

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Ecuador is one of the countries with the greatest aquatic biodiversity worldwide. In particular, there are at least a dozen native marine species with great aquaculture potential locally. This research concerns one of those species. It has proposed to implement experimental protocols in order to induce spawning and to generate the early larval development of the giant reef clam P. multicostata under controlled conditions. Bioassays were carried out with one adult batch (n= 8) with an average valvar length of 118,4 ± 5,8 mm, which were collected near of the Puerto Santa Rosa (2° 12' 30'' S, 80° 58' 28'' W), Santa Elena Province. During a short acclimation stage, the eight adults of giant reef clam P. multicostata were exposed to thermal stress. Briefly, the experimental protocol for spawning induction was based on the application of 20°C for 1 h and 30°C for 1 h on P. multicostata broodstock at least three consecutive times by one day. After spawning, collected sexual material was released for external fertilization process. After the delivery of gametes, it was achieved 3,25 × 10⁶ viable zygotes. As results, fertilized eggs had 56 µm diameter; while first and second cell divisions were observed to 2,5 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 68 ± 5 µm and polar body. Latter cell divisions, including gastrula stage, appeared at 9 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 73 ± 4 µm and trochophore stage at 15 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 75 ± 4 µm. In addition, veliger stage was registered at 20 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 82 ± 6 µm. Umboned larvae appeared at day 8 post-fertilization, with individual average length of 148 ± 6 µm. These pioneering results worldwide can strengthen the local conservation process of the overexploited P. multicostata and to encourage its production for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Ecuador, larval development, Periglypta multicostata, spawning induction

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29 Optimization of the Jatropha curcas Supply Chain as a Criteria for the Implementation of Future Collection Points in Rural Areas of Manabi-Ecuador

Authors: Boris G. German, Edward Jiménez, Sebastián Espinoza, Andrés G. Chico, Ricardo A. Narváez

Abstract:

The unique flora and fauna of The Galapagos Islands has leveraged a tourism-driven growth in the islands. Nonetheless, such development is energy-intensive and requires thousands of gallons of diesel each year for thermoelectric electricity generation. The needed transport of fossil fuels from the continent has generated oil spillages and affectations to the fragile ecosystem of the islands. The Zero Fossil Fuels initiative for The Galapagos proposed by the Ecuadorian government as an alternative to reduce the use of fossil fuels in the islands, considers the replacement of diesel in thermoelectric generators, by Jatropha curcas vegetable oil. However, the Jatropha oil supply cannot entirely cover yet the demand for electricity generation in Galapagos. Within this context, the present work aims to provide an optimization model that can be used as a selection criterion for approving new Jatropha Curcas collection points in rural areas of Manabi-Ecuador. For this purpose, existing Jatropha collection points in Manabi were grouped under three regions: north (7 collection points), center (4 collection points) and south (9 collection points). Field work was carried out in every region in order to characterize the collection points, to establish local Jatropha supply and to determine transportation costs. Data collection was complemented using GIS software and an objective function was defined in order to determine the profit associated to Jatropha oil production. The market price of both Jatropha oil and residual cake, were considered for the total revenue; whereas Jatropha price, transportation and oil extraction costs were considered for the total cost. The tonnes of Jatropha fruit and seed, transported from collection points to the extraction plant, were considered as variables. The maximum and minimum amount of the collected Jatropha from each region constrained the optimization problem. The supply chain was optimized using linear programming in order to maximize the profits. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to find a profit-based criterion for the acceptance of future collection points in Manabi. The maximum profit reached a value of $ 4,616.93 per year, which represented a total Jatropha collection of 62.3 tonnes Jatropha per year. The northern region of Manabi had the biggest collection share (69%), followed by the southern region (17%). The criteria for accepting new Jatropha collection points in the rural areas of Manabi can be defined by the current maximum profit of the zone and by the variation in the profit when collection points are removed one at a time. The definition of new feasible collection points plays a key role in the supply chain associated to Jatropha oil production. Therefore, a mathematical model that assists decision makers in establishing new collection points while assuring profitability, contributes to guarantee a continued Jatropha oil supply for Galapagos and a sustained economic growth in the rural areas of Ecuador.

Keywords: collection points, Jatropha curcas, linear programming, supply chain

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28 OAS and Interstate Dispute Resolution at the Beginning of the 21st Century: General Pattern and Peculiarities

Authors: Victor Jeifets, Liliia Khadorich

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The paper describes the OAS role in dispute resolution. The authors make an attempt to identify a general pattern of the OAS activities within the peaceful settlement of interstate conflicts, in the beginning of 21st century, as well as to analyze some features of Honduras–Belize, Nicaragua–Honduras, Honduras–El Salvador, Costa-Rica–Nicaragua, Colombia–Ecuador cases.

Keywords: OAS, peace maintenance, border dispute, dispute resolution, peaceful settlement

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27 The Use of Network Theory in Heritage Cities

Authors: J. L. Oliver, T. Agryzkov, L. Tortosa, J. Vicent, J. Santacruz

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This paper aims to demonstrate how the use of Network Theory can be applied to a very interesting and complex urban situation: The parts of a city which may have some patrimonial value, but because of their lack of relevant architectural elements, they are not considered to be historic in a conventional sense. In this paper, we use the suburb of La Villaflora in the city of Quito, Ecuador as our case study. We first propose a system of indicators as a tool to characterize and quantify the historic value of a geographic area. Then, we apply these indicators to the suburb of La Villaflora and use Network Theory to understand and propose actions.

Keywords: graphs, mathematics, networks, urban studies

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26 Evaluation of Arsenic Removal in Soils Contaminated by the Phytoremediation Technique

Authors: V. Ibujes, A. Guevara, P. Barreto

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Concentration of arsenic represents a serious threat to human health. It is a bioaccumulable toxic element and is transferred through the food chain. In Ecuador, values of 0.0423 mg/kg As are registered in potatoes of the skirts of the Tungurahua volcano. The increase of arsenic contamination in Ecuador is mainly due to mining activity, since the process of gold extraction generates toxic tailings with mercury. In the Province of Azuay, due to the mining activity, the soil reaches concentrations of 2,500 to 6,420 mg/kg As whereas in the province of Tungurahua it can be found arsenic concentrations of 6.9 to 198.7 mg/kg due to volcanic eruptions. Since the contamination by arsenic, the present investigation is directed to the remediation of the soils in the provinces of Azuay and Tungurahua by phytoremediation technique and the definition of a methodology of extraction by means of analysis of arsenic in the system soil-plant. The methodology consists in selection of two types of plants that have the best arsenic removal capacity in synthetic solutions 60 μM As, a lower percentage of mortality and hydroponics resistance. The arsenic concentrations in each plant were obtained from taking 10 ml aliquots and the subsequent analysis of the ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) equipment. Soils were contaminated with synthetic solutions of arsenic with the capillarity method to achieve arsenic concentration of 13 and 15 mg/kg. Subsequently, two types of plants were evaluated to reduce the concentration of arsenic in soils for 7 weeks. The global variance for soil types was obtained with the InfoStat program. To measure the changes in arsenic concentration in the soil-plant system, the Rhizo and Wenzel arsenic extraction methodology was used and subsequently analyzed with the ICP-OES (optima 8000 Pekin Elmer). As a result, the selected plants were bluegrass and llanten, due to the high percentages of arsenic removal of 55% and 67% and low mortality rates of 9% and 8% respectively. In conclusion, Azuay soil with an initial concentration of 13 mg/kg As reached the concentrations of 11.49 and 11.04 mg/kg As for bluegrass and llanten respectively, and for the initial concentration of 15 mg/kg As reached 11.79 and 11.10 mg/kg As for blue grass and llanten after 7 weeks. For the Tungurahua soil with an initial concentration of 13 mg/kg As it reached the concentrations of 11.56 and 12.16 mg/kg As for the bluegrass and llanten respectively, and for the initial concentration of 15 mg/kg As reached 11.97 and 12.27 mg/kg Ace for bluegrass and llanten after 7 weeks. The best arsenic extraction methodology of soil-plant system is Wenzel.

Keywords: blue grass, llanten, phytoremediation, soil of Azuay, soil of Tungurahua, synthetic arsenic solution

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25 The Use of Indicators to Evaluate Minor Heritage Areas in a City

Authors: J. L. Oliver, T. Agryzkov, L. Tortosa, J. F. Vicent, J. Santacruz

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This paper aims to demonstrate how a system of indicators can be used in order to evaluate some heritage areas which can be understood as minor ones. We mean by that those urban areas with high heritage interest from an academical point of view, but never properly valued. The reasons for this situation may be diverse, either they are not old enough, or they may show the modest architecture, the fact is these areas have not been considered deserving of protection, as the historical ones. As a result of this reality, they usually show now a very degraded urban space, which in addition contribute to accelerate a process of deterioration. Using a technic well known in urban design, we propose here a system of indicators for patrimonial purposes, as a tool to identify and quantify the heritage value of these kinds of areas. As a case study, we apply this system in some part of the City of Quito (El Ecuador).

Keywords: heritage cities, indicators, spatial analysis, historic sites

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24 Preservation Model to Process 'La Bomba Del Chota' as a Living Cultural Heritage

Authors: Lucia Carrion Gordon, Maria Gabriela Lopez Yanez

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This project focuses on heritage concepts and their importance in every evolving and changing Digital Era where system solutions have to be sustainable, efficient and suitable to the basic needs. The prototype has to cover the principal requirements for the case studies. How to preserve the sociological ideas of dances in Ecuador like ‘La Bomba’ is the best example and challenge to preserve the intangible data. The same idea is applicable with books and music. The History and how to keep it, is the principal mission of Heritage Preservation. The dance of La Bomba is rooted on a specific movement system whose main part is the sideward hip movement. La Bomba´s movement system is the surface manifestation of a whole system of knowledge whose principal characteristics are the historical relation of Chote˜nos with their land and their families.

Keywords: digital preservation, heritage, IT management, data, metadata, ontology, serendipity

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23 Structural-Geotechnical Effects of the Foundation of a Medium-Height Structure

Authors: Valentina Rodas, Luis Almache

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The interaction effects between the existing soil and the substructure of a 5-story building with an underground one were evaluated in such a way that the structural-geotechnical concepts were validated through the method of impedance factors with a program based on the method of the finite elements. The continuous wall-type foundation had a constant thickness and followed inclined and orthogonal directions, while the ground had homogeneous and medium-type characteristics. The soil considered was type C according to the Ecuadorian Construction Standard (NEC) and the corresponding foundation comprised a depth of 4.00 meters and a basement wall thickness of 40 centimeters. This project is part of a mid-rise building in the city of Azogues (Ecuador). The hypotheses raised responded to the objectives in such a way that the model implemented with springs had a variation with respect to the embedded base, obtaining conservative results.

Keywords: interaction, soil, substructure, springs, effects, modeling , embedment

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22 Coevaluations Software among Students in Active Learning Methodology

Authors: Adriano Pinargote, Josue Mosquera, Eduardo Montero, Dalton Noboa, Jenny Venegas, Genesis Vasquez Escuela

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In the framework of Pre University learning of the Polytechnic School of the Litoral, Guayaquil, Ecuador, the methodology of Active Learning (Flipped Classroom) has been implemented for applicants who wish to obtain a quota within the university. To complement the Active Learning cycle, it has been proposed that the respective students influence the qualification of their work groups, for which a web platform has been created that allows them to evaluate the performance of their peers through a digital coevaluation that measures through statistical methods, the group and individual performance score that can reflect in numbers a weighting score corresponding to the grade of each student. Their feedback provided by the group help to improve the performance of the activities carried out in classes because the note reflects the commitment with their classmates shown in the class, within this analysis we will determine if this implementation directly influences the performance of the grades obtained by the student.

Keywords: active learning, coevaluation, flipped classroom, pre university

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