Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: spatiotemporal

73 Spatiotemporal Neural Network for Video-Based Pose Estimation

Authors: Bin Ji, Kai Xu, Shunyu Yao, Jingjing Liu, Ye Pan

Abstract:

Human pose estimation is a popular research area in computer vision for its important application in human-machine interface. In recent years, 2D human pose estimation based on convolution neural network has got great progress and development. However, in more and more practical applications, people often need to deal with tasks based on video. It’s not far-fetched for us to consider how to combine the spatial and temporal information together to achieve a balance between computing cost and accuracy. To address this issue, this study proposes a new spatiotemporal model, namely Spatiotemporal Net (STNet) to combine both temporal and spatial information more rationally. As a result, the predicted keypoints heatmap is potentially more accurate and spatially more precise. Under the condition of ensuring the recognition accuracy, the algorithm deal with spatiotemporal series in a decoupled way, which greatly reduces the computation of the model, thus reducing the resource consumption. This study demonstrate the effectiveness of our network over the Penn Action Dataset, and the results indicate superior performance of our network over the existing methods.

Keywords: convolutional long short-term memory, deep learning, human pose estimation, spatiotemporal series

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72 Design and Development of a Platform for Analyzing Spatio-Temporal Data from Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Walid Fantazi

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The development of sensor technology (such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), wireless communications, embedded systems, distributed processing and wireless sensor applications) has contributed to a broad range of WSN applications which are capable of collecting a large amount of spatiotemporal data in real time. These systems require real-time data processing to manage storage in real time and query the data they process. In order to cover these needs, we propose in this paper a Snapshot spatiotemporal data model based on object-oriented concepts. This model allows saving storing and reducing data redundancy which makes it easier to execute spatiotemporal queries and save analyzes time. Further, to ensure the robustness of the system as well as the elimination of congestion from the main access memory we propose a spatiotemporal indexing technique in RAM called Captree *. As a result, we offer an RIA (Rich Internet Application) -based SOA application architecture which allows the remote monitoring and control.

Keywords: WSN, indexing data, SOA, RIA, geographic information system

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71 Sparse Representation Based Spatiotemporal Fusion Employing Additional Image Pairs to Improve Dictionary Training

Authors: Dacheng Li, Bo Huang, Qinjin Han, Ming Li

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Remotely sensed imagery with the high spatial and temporal characteristics, which it is hard to acquire under the current land observation satellites, has been considered as a key factor for monitoring environmental changes over both global and local scales. On a basis of the limited high spatial-resolution observations, challenged studies called spatiotemporal fusion have been developed for generating high spatiotemporal images through employing other auxiliary low spatial-resolution data while with high-frequency observations. However, a majority of spatiotemporal fusion approaches yield to satisfactory assumption, empirical but unstable parameters, low accuracy or inefficient performance. Although the spatiotemporal fusion methodology via sparse representation theory has advantage in capturing reflectance changes, stability and execution efficiency (even more efficient when overcomplete dictionaries have been pre-trained), the retrieval of high-accuracy dictionary and its response to fusion results are still pending issues. In this paper, we employ additional image pairs (here each image-pair includes a Landsat Operational Land Imager and a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer acquisitions covering the partial area of Baotou, China) only into the coupled dictionary training process based on K-SVD (K-means Singular Value Decomposition) algorithm, and attempt to improve the fusion results of two existing sparse representation based fusion models (respectively utilizing one and two available image-pair). The results show that more eligible image pairs are probably related to a more accurate overcomplete dictionary, which generally indicates a better image representation, and is then contribute to an effective fusion performance in case that the added image-pair has similar seasonal aspects and image spatial structure features to the original image-pair. It is, therefore, reasonable to construct multi-dictionary training pattern for generating a series of high spatial resolution images based on limited acquisitions.

Keywords: spatiotemporal fusion, sparse representation, K-SVD algorithm, dictionary learning

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70 R Software for Parameter Estimation of Spatio-Temporal Model

Authors: Budi Nurani Ruchjana, Atje Setiawan Abdullah, I. Gede Nyoman Mindra Jaya, Eddy Hermawan

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In this paper, we propose the application package to estimate parameters of spatiotemporal model based on the multivariate time series analysis using the R open-source software. We build packages mainly to estimate the parameters of the Generalized Space Time Autoregressive (GSTAR) model. GSTAR is a combination of time series and spatial models that have parameters vary per location. We use the method of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and use the Mean Average Percentage Error (MAPE) to fit the model to spatiotemporal real phenomenon. For case study, we use oil production data from volcanic layer at Jatibarang Indonesia or climate data such as rainfall in Indonesia. Software R is very user-friendly and it is making calculation easier, processing the data is accurate and faster. Limitations R script for the estimation of model parameters spatiotemporal GSTAR built is still limited to a stationary time series model. Therefore, the R program under windows can be developed either for theoretical studies and application.

Keywords: GSTAR Model, MAPE, OLS method, oil production, R software

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69 High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth from Geostationary Satellite Using Sara Algorithm

Authors: Muhammad Bilal, Zhongfeng Qiu

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Aerosols, suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in the earth energy budget, climate change, degradation of atmospheric visibility, urban air quality, and human health. To fully understand aerosol effects, retrieval of aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) at high spatiotemporal resolution is required. Therefore, in the present study, hourly AOD observations at 500 m resolution were retrieved from the geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) using the simplified aerosol retrieval algorithm (SARA) over the urban area of Beijing for the year 2016. The SARA requires top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, solar and sensor geometry information and surface reflectance observations to retrieve an accurate AOD. For validation of the GOCI retrieved AOD, AOD measurements were obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET) version 3 level 2.0 (cloud-screened and quality assured) data. The errors and uncertainties were reported using the root mean square error (RMSE), relative percent mean error (RPME), and the expected error (EE = ± (0.05 + 0.15AOD). Results showed that the high spatiotemporal GOCI AOD observations were well correlated with the AERONET AOD measurements with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.92, RMSE of 0.07, and RPME of 5%, and 90% of the observations were within the EE. The results suggested that the SARA is robust and has the ability to retrieve high-resolution spatiotemporal AOD observations over the urban area using the geostationary satellite.

Keywords: AEORNET, AOD, SARA, GOCI, Beijing

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68 Spatiotemporal Community Detection and Analysis of Associations among Overlapping Communities

Authors: JooYoung Lee, Rasheed Hussain

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Understanding the relationships among communities of users is the key to blueprint the evolution of human society. Majority of people are equipped with GPS devices, such as smart phones and smart cars, which can trace their whereabouts. In this paper, we discover communities of device users based on real locations in a given time frame. We, then, study the associations of discovered communities, referred to as temporal communities, and generate temporal and probabilistic association rules. The rules describe how strong communities are associated. By studying the generated rules, we can automatically extract underlying hierarchies of communities and permanent communities such as work places.

Keywords: association rules, community detection, evolution of communities, spatiotemporal

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67 Spatiotemporal Analysis of Land Surface Temperature and Urban Heat Island Evaluation of Four Metropolitan Areas of Texas, USA

Authors: Chunhong Zhao

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Remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST) is vital to understand the land-atmosphere energy balance, hydrological cycle, and thus is widely used to describe the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon. However, due to technical constraints, satellite thermal sensors are unable to provide LST measurement with both high spatial and high temporal resolution. Despite different downscaling techniques and algorithms to generate high spatiotemporal resolution LST. Four major metropolitan areas in Texas, USA: Dallas-Fort Worth, Houston, San Antonio, and Austin all demonstrate UHI effects. Different cities are expected to have varying SUHI effect during the urban development trajectory. With the help of the Landsat, ASTER, and MODIS archives, this study focuses on the spatial patterns of UHIs and the seasonal and annual variation of these metropolitan areas. With Gaussian model, and Local Indicators of Spatial Autocorrelations (LISA), as well as data fusion methods, this study identifies the hotspots and the trajectory of the UHI phenomenon of the four cities. By making comparison analysis, the result can help to alleviate the advent effect of UHI and formulate rational urban planning in the long run.

Keywords: spatiotemporal analysis, land surface temperature, urban heat island evaluation, metropolitan areas of Texas, USA

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66 Use of Data of the Remote Sensing for Spatiotemporal Analysis Land Use Changes in the Eastern Aurès (Algeria)

Authors: A. Bouzekri, H. Benmassaud

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Aurès region is one of the arid and semi-arid areas that have suffered climate crises and overexploitation of natural resources they have led to significant land degradation. The use of remote sensing data allowed us to analyze the land and its spatiotemporal changes in the Aurès between 1987 and 2013, for this work, we adopted a method of analysis based on the exploitation of the images satellite Landsat TM 1987 and Landsat OLI 2013, from the supervised classification likelihood coupled with field surveys of the mission of May and September of 2013. Using ENVI EX software by the superposition of the ground cover maps from 1987 and 2013, one can extract a spatial map change of different land cover units. The results show that between 1987 and 2013 vegetation has suffered negative changes are the significant degradation of forests and steppe rangelands, and sandy soils and bare land recorded a considerable increase. The spatial change map land cover units between 1987 and 2013 allows us to understand the extensive or regressive orientation of vegetation and soil, this map shows that dense forests give his place to clear forests and steppe vegetation develops from a degraded forest vegetation and bare, sandy soils earn big steppe surfaces that explain its remarkable extension. The analysis of remote sensing data highlights the profound changes in our environment over time and quantitative monitoring of the risk of desertification.

Keywords: remote sensing, spatiotemporal, land use, Aurès

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65 An Impairment of Spatiotemporal Gait Adaptation in Huntington's Disease when Navigating around Obstacles

Authors: Naznine Anwar, Kim Cornish, Izelle Labuschagne, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis

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Falls and subsequent injuries are common features in symptomatic Huntington’s disease (symp-HD) individuals. As part of daily walking, navigating around obstacles may incur a greater risk of falls in symp-HD. We designed obstacle-crossing experiment to examine adaptive gait dynamics and to identify underlying spatiotemporal gait characteristics that could increase the risk of falling in symp-HD. This experiment involved navigating around one or two ground-based obstacles under two conditions (walking while navigating around one obstacle, and walking while navigating around two obstacles). A total of 32 participants were included, 16 symp-HD and 16 healthy controls with age and sex matched. We used a GAITRite electronic walkway to examine the spatiotemporal gait characteristics and inter-trail gait variability when participants walked at their preferable speed. A minimum of six trials were completed which were performed for baseline free walk and also for each and every condition during navigating around the obstacles. For analysis, we separated all walking steps into three phases as approach steps, navigating steps and recovery steps. The mean and inter-trail variability (within participant standard deviation) for each step gait variable was calculated across the six trails. We found symp-HD individuals significantly decreased their gait velocity and step length and increased step duration variability during the navigating steps and recovery steps compared with approach steps. In contrast, HC individuals showed less difference in gait velocity, step time and step length variability from baseline in both respective conditions as well as all three approaches. These findings indicate that increasing spatiotemporal gait variability may be a possible compensatory strategy that is adopted by symp-HD individuals to effectively navigate obstacles during walking. Such findings may offer benefit to clinicians in the development of strategies for HD individuals to improve functional outcomes in the home and hospital based rehabilitation program.

Keywords: Huntington’s disease, gait variables, navigating around obstacle, basal ganglia dysfunction

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64 Spatial Patterns and Temporal Evolution of Octopus Abundance in the Mauritanian Zone

Authors: Dedah Ahmed Babou, Nicolas Bez

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The Min-Max autocorrelation factor (MAF) approach makes it possible to express in a space formed by spatially independent factors, spatiotemporal observations. These factors are ordered in decreasing order of spatial autocorrelation. The starting observations are thus expressed in the space formed by these factors according to temporal coordinates. Each vector of temporal coefficients expresses the temporal evolution of the weight of the corresponding factor. Applying this approach has enabled us to achieve the following results: (i) Define a spatially orthogonal space in which the projections of the raw data are determined; (ii) Define a limit threshold for the factors with the strongest structures in order to analyze the weight, and the temporal evolution of these different structures (iii) Study the correlation between the temporal evolution of the persistent spatial structures and that of the observed average abundance (iv) Propose prototypes of campaigns reflecting a high vs. low abundance (v) Propose a classification of campaigns that highlights seasonal and/or temporal similarities. These results were obtained by analyzing the octopus yield during the scientific campaigns of the oceanographic vessel Al Awam during the period 1989-2017 in the Mauritanian exclusive economic zone.

Keywords: spatiotemporal , autocorrelation, kriging, variogram, Octopus vulgaris

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63 The Study of the Socio-Economic and Environmental Impact on the Semi-Arid Environments Using GIS in the Eastern Aurès, Algeria

Authors: Benmessaoud Hassen

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We propose in this study to address the impact of socio-economic and environmental impact on the physical environment, especially their spatiotemporal dynamics in semi-arid and arid eastern Aurès. Including 11 municipalities, the study area spreads out over a relatively large surface area of about 60.000 ha. The hindsight is quite important and is determined by 03 days of analysis of environmental variation spread over thirty years (between 1987 and 2007). The multi-source data acquired in this context are integrated into a geographic information system (GIS).This allows, among other indices to calculate areas and classes for each thematic layer of the 4 layers previously defined by a method inspired MEDALUS (Mediterranean Desertification and Land Use).The database created is composed of four layers of information (population, livestock, farming and land use). His analysis in space and time has been supplemented by a validation of the ground truth. Once the database has corrected it used to develop the comprehensive map with the calculation of the index of socio-economic and environmental (ISCE). The map supports and the resulting information does not consist only of figures on the present situation but could be used to forecast future trends.

Keywords: impact of socio-economic and environmental, spatiotemporal dynamics, semi-arid environments, GIS, Eastern Aurès

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62 Diffusion Dynamics of Leech-Heart Inter-Neuron Model

Authors: Arnab Mondal, Sanjeev Kumar Sharma, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay

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We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a neuronal cable. The processes of one- dimensional (1D) and 2D diffusion are considered for a single variable, which is the membrane voltage, i.e., membrane voltage diffusively interacts for spatiotemporal pattern formalism. The recovery and other variables interact through the membrane voltage. A 3D Leech-Heart (LH) model is introduced to investigate the nonlinear responses of an excitable neuronal cable. The deterministic LH model shows different types of firing properties. We explore the parameter space of the uncoupled LH model and based on the bifurcation diagram, considering v_k2_ashift as a bifurcation parameter, we analyze the 1D diffusion dynamics in three regimes: bursting, regular spiking, and a quiescent state. Depending on parameters, it is shown that the diffusive system may generate regular and irregular bursting or spiking behavior. Further, it is explored a 2D diffusion acting on the membrane voltage, where different types of patterns can be observed. The results show that the LH neurons with different firing characteristics depending on the control parameters participate in a collective behavior of an information processing system that depends on the overall network.

Keywords: bifurcation, pattern formation, spatio-temporal dynamics, stability analysis

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61 Analyzing of the Urban Landscape Configurations and Expansion of Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia Using Satellite Data and Landscape Metrics Approaches

Authors: Berhanu Keno Terfa

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To realize the consequences of urbanization, accurate, and up-to-date representation of the urban landscape patterns is critical for urban planners and policymakers. Thus, the study quantitatively characterized the spatiotemporal composition and configuration of the urban landscape and urban expansion process in Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia, form the year 2006 to 2018. The integrated approaches of various sensors satellite data, Spot (2006) and Sentinel 2 (2018) combined with landscape metrics analysis was employed to explore the pattern, process, and overall growth status in the city. The result showed that the built-up area had increased by 62% between 2006 and 2018, at an average annual increment of 3.6%, while the other land covers were lost significantly due to urban expansion. The highest urban expansion has occurred in the northwest direction, whereas the most fragmented landscape pattern was recorded in the west direction. Overall, the analysis showed that Dire Dawa City experienced accelerated urban expansion with a fragmented and complicated spatiotemporal urban landscape patterns, suggesting a strong tendency towards sprawl over the past 12 years. The findings in the study could help planners and policy developers to insight the historical dynamics of the urban region for sustainable development.

Keywords: zonal metrics, multi-temporal, multi-resolution, urban growth, remote sensing data

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60 Unsteady Three-Dimensional Adaptive Spatial-Temporal Multi-Scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Solver to Simulate Rarefied Gas Flows in Micro/Nano Devices

Authors: Mirvat Shamseddine, Issam Lakkis

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We present an efficient, three-dimensional parallel multi-scale Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) algorithm for the simulation of unsteady rarefied gas flows in micro/nanosystems. The algorithm employs a novel spatiotemporal adaptivity scheme. The scheme performs a fully dynamic multi-level grid adaption based on the gradients of flow macro-parameters and an automatic temporal adaptation. The computational domain consists of a hierarchical octree-based Cartesian grid representation of the flow domain and a triangular mesh for the solid object surfaces. The hybrid mesh, combined with the spatiotemporal adaptivity scheme, allows for increased flexibility and efficient data management, rendering the framework suitable for efficient particle-tracing and dynamic grid refinement and coarsening. The parallel algorithm is optimized to run DSMC simulations of strongly unsteady, non-equilibrium flows over multiple cores. The presented method is validated by comparing with benchmark studies and then employed to improve the design of micro-scale hotwire thermal sensors in rarefied gas flows.

Keywords: DSMC, oct-tree hierarchical grid, ray tracing, spatial-temporal adaptivity scheme, unsteady rarefied gas flows

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59 Creating Risk Maps on the Spatiotemporal Occurrence of Agricultural Insecticides in Sub-Saharan Africa

Authors: Chantal Hendriks, Harry Gibson, Anna Trett, Penny Hancock, Catherine Moyes

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The use of modern inputs for crop protection, such as insecticides, is strongly underestimated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies measured toxic concentrations of insecticides in fruits, vegetables and fish that were cultivated in Sub-Saharan Africa. The use of agricultural insecticides has impact on human and environmental health, but it also has the potential to impact on insecticide resistance in malaria transmitting mosquitos. To analyse associations between historic use of agricultural insecticides and the distribution of insecticide resistance through space and time, the use and environmental fate of agricultural insecticides needs to be mapped through the same time period. However, data on the use and environmental fate of agricultural insecticides in Africa are limited and therefore risk maps on the spatiotemporal occurrence of agricultural insecticides are created using environmental data. Environmental data on crop density and crop type were used to select the areas that most likely receive insecticides. These areas were verified by a literature review and expert knowledge. Pesticide fate models were compared to select most dominant processes that are involved in the environmental fate of insecticides and that can be mapped at a continental scale. The selected processes include: surface runoff, erosion, infiltration, volatilization and the storing and filtering capacity of soils. The processes indicate the risk for insecticide accumulation in soil, water, sediment and air. A compilation of all available data for traces of insecticides in the environment was used to validate the maps. The risk maps can result in space and time specific measures that reduce the risk of insecticide exposure to non-target organisms.

Keywords: crop protection, pesticide fate, tropics, insecticide resistance

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58 A Qualitative Description of the Dynamics in the Interactions between Three Populations: Pollinators, Plants, and Herbivores

Authors: Miriam Sosa-Díaz, Faustino Sánchez-Garduño

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In population dynamics the study of both, the abundance and the spatial distribution of the populations in a given habitat, is a fundamental issue a From ecological point of view, the determination of the factors influencing such changes involves important problems. In this paper a mathematical model to describe the temporal dynamic and the spatiotemporal dynamic of the interaction of three populations (pollinators, plants and herbivores) is presented. The study we present is carried out by stages: 1. The temporal dynamics and 2. The spatio-temporal dynamics. In turn, each of these stages is developed by considering three cases which correspond to the dynamics of each type of interaction. For instance, for stage 1, we consider three ODE nonlinear systems describing the pollinator-plant, plant-herbivore and plant-pollinator-herbivore, interactions, respectively. In each of these systems different types of dynamical behaviors are reported. Namely, transcritical and pitchfork bifurcations, existence of a limit cycle, existence of a heteroclinic orbit, etc. For the spatiotemporal dynamics of the two mathematical models a novel factor are introduced. This consists in considering that both, the pollinators and the herbivores, move towards those places of the habitat where the plant population density is high. In mathematical terms, this means that the diffusive part of the pollinators and herbivores equations depend on the plant population density. The analysis of this part is presented by considering pairs of populations, i. e., the pollinator-plant and plant-herbivore interactions and at the end the two mathematical model is presented, these models consist of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of reaction-diffusion type. These are defined on a rectangular domain with the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions. We focused in the role played by the density dependent diffusion term into the coexistence of the populations. For both, the temporal and spatio-temporal dynamics, a several of numerical simulations are included.

Keywords: bifurcation, heteroclinic orbits, steady state, traveling wave

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57 Investigating Seasonal Changes of Urban Land Cover with High Spatio-Temporal Resolution Satellite Data via Image Fusion

Authors: Hantian Wu, Bo Huang, Yuan Zeng

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Divisions between wealthy and poor, private and public landscapes are propagated by the increasing economic inequality of cities. While these are the spatial reflections of larger social issues and problems, urban design can at least employ spatial techniques that promote more inclusive rather than exclusive, overlapping rather than segregated, interlinked rather than disconnected landscapes. Indeed, the type of edge or border between urban landscapes plays a critical role in the way the environment is perceived. China experiences rapid urbanization, which poses unpredictable environmental challenges. The urban green cover and water body are under changes, which highly relevant to resident wealth and happiness. However, very limited knowledge and data on their rapid changes are available. In this regard, enhancing the monitoring of urban landscape with high-frequency method, evaluating and estimating the impacts of the urban landscape changes, and understating the driving forces of urban landscape changes can be a significant contribution for urban planning and studying. High-resolution remote sensing data has been widely applied to urban management in China. The map of urban land use map for the entire China of 2018 with 10 meters resolution has been published. However, this research focuses on the large-scale and high-resolution remote sensing land use but does not precisely focus on the seasonal change of urban covers. High-resolution remote sensing data has a long-operation cycle (e.g., Landsat 8 required 16 days for the same location), which is unable to satisfy the requirement of monitoring urban-landscape changes. On the other hand, aerial-remote or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) sensing are limited by the aviation-regulation and cost was hardly widely applied in the mega-cities. Moreover, those data are limited by the climate and weather conditions (e.g., cloud, fog), and those problems make capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is always a challenge for the remote sensing community. Particularly, during the rainy season, no data are available even for Sentinel Satellite data with 5 days interval. Many natural events and/or human activities drive the changes of urban covers. In this case, enhancing the monitoring of urban landscape with high-frequency method, evaluating and estimating the impacts of the urban landscape changes, and understanding the mechanism of urban landscape changes can be a significant contribution for urban planning and studying. This project aims to use the high spatiotemporal fusion of remote sensing data to create short-cycle, high-resolution remote sensing data sets for exploring the high-frequently urban cover changes. This research will enhance the long-term monitoring applicability of high spatiotemporal fusion of remote sensing data for the urban landscape for optimizing the urban management of landscape border to promoting the inclusive of the urban landscape to all communities.

Keywords: urban land cover changes, remote sensing, high spatiotemporal fusion, urban management

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56 Urban Flood Risk Mapping–a Review

Authors: Sherly M. A., Subhankar Karmakar, Terence Chan, Christian Rau

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Floods are one of the most frequent natural disasters, causing widespread devastation, economic damage and threat to human lives. Hydrologic impacts of climate change and intensification of urbanization are two root causes of increased flood occurrences, and recent research trends are oriented towards understanding these aspects. Due to rapid urbanization, population of cities across the world has increased exponentially leading to improperly planned developments. Climate change due to natural and anthropogenic activities on our environment has resulted in spatiotemporal changes in rainfall patterns. The combined effect of both aggravates the vulnerability of urban populations to floods. In this context, an efficient and effective flood risk management with its core component as flood risk mapping is essential in prevention and mitigation of flood disasters. Urban flood risk mapping involves zoning of an urban region based on its flood risk, which depicts the spatiotemporal pattern of frequency and severity of hazards, exposure to hazards, and degree of vulnerability of the population in terms of socio-economic, environmental and infrastructural aspects. Although vulnerability is a key component of risk, its assessment and mapping is often less advanced than hazard mapping and quantification. A synergic effort from technical experts and social scientists is vital for the effectiveness of flood risk management programs. Despite an increasing volume of quality research conducted on urban flood risk, a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach towards flood risk mapping still remains neglected due to which many of the input parameters and definitions of flood risk concepts are imprecise. Thus, the objectives of this review are to introduce and precisely define the relevant input parameters, concepts and terms in urban flood risk mapping, along with its methodology, current status and limitations. The review also aims at providing thought-provoking insights to potential future researchers and flood management professionals.

Keywords: flood risk, flood hazard, flood vulnerability, flood modeling, urban flooding, urban flood risk mapping

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55 A Decadal Flood Assessment Using Time-Series Satellite Data in Cambodia

Authors: Nguyen-Thanh Son

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Flood is among the most frequent and costliest natural hazards. The flood disasters especially affect the poor people in rural areas, who are heavily dependent on agriculture and have lower incomes. Cambodia is identified as one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world, ranked 13th out of 181 countries most affected by the impacts of climate change. Flood monitoring is thus a strategic priority at national and regional levels because policymakers need reliable spatial and temporal information on flood-prone areas to form successful monitoring programs to reduce possible impacts on the country’s economy and people’s likelihood. This study aims to develop methods for flood mapping and assessment from MODIS data in Cambodia. We processed the data for the period from 2000 to 2017, following three main steps: (1) data pre-processing to construct smooth time-series vegetation and water surface indices, (2) delineation of flood-prone areas, and (3) accuracy assessment. The results of flood mapping were verified with the ground reference data, indicating the overall accuracy of 88.7% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.77, respectively. These results were reaffirmed by close agreement between the flood-mapping area and ground reference data, with the correlation coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.94. The seasonally flooded areas observed for 2010, 2015, and 2016 were remarkably smaller than other years, mainly attributed to the El Niño weather phenomenon exacerbated by impacts of climate change. Eventually, although several sources potentially lowered the mapping accuracy of flood-prone areas, including image cloud contamination, mixed-pixel issues, and low-resolution bias between the mapping results and ground reference data, our methods indicated the satisfactory results for delineating spatiotemporal evolutions of floods. The results in the form of quantitative information on spatiotemporal flood distributions could be beneficial to policymakers in evaluating their management strategies for mitigating the negative effects of floods on agriculture and people’s likelihood in the country.

Keywords: MODIS, flood, mapping, Cambodia

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54 Walking Progression in Ambulatory Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury Who Daily Walked with a Walking Device

Authors: Makamas Kumprou, Pipatana Amatachaya, Sugalya Amatachaya, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Preeda Arayawichanon

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Many individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) need an ambulatory assistive device (AAD) to promote their independence and experience of task-specific walking practice. Without a periodic follow-up for their walking progression, however, many individuals may use the same AAD even though up to 66% of them had the potential to progress walking ability. This may distort their optimal ability and increase the possibility of having negative impacts due to the long-lasting used of an AAD. However, these findings were cross-sectionally collected without data confirmation for the benefit or negative impacts of those who changed the types of AAD used. Therefore, this study prospectively assessed the proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who were able to progress their walking ability as determined using a type of AAD, and the changes of their functional ability as well as the incidence of falls over 6 months. Twenty-four subjects with SCI who daily walked with an AAD were involved in the study for 2 visits over 6 months. At the first visit (baseline assessments), the subjects were assessed for their spatiotemporal variables (i.e., cadence, step length, stride length, and step symmetry) and walking ability using the 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Then, they were assessed for the possibility of their walking progression as determined using the ability of walking with the least support AAD with no more than contact guarding assist. Those who were capable of changing an AAD were trained for the ability to walk with a new AAD. Thereafter, all subjects were monthly monitored for incidence of fall over 6 months. At the second visit (after 6 months followed-up), subjects were reassessed for their spatiotemporal variables and 10MWT. The findings indicated that, of all 24 subjects, 8 subjects (33.3%) were able to walk with less support AAD than their usual one. The walking cadence, step length symmetry, and walking ability of these subjects improved significantly greater than those who walked with the same AAD (p < 0.05). Among these subjects, one subject (12.5%) reported fell (3 times) during the follow-up period, whereas 5 subjects (31.3%) who walked with the same AAD experienced at least one fall (range 1 – 16 times). The findings indicated that a large proportion of ambulatory individuals with SCI who daily walked with an AAD could progress their walking ability, whereby their walking ability and safety also significantly improved after they walked with an optimal AAD. The findings suggest the need for a periodic follow-up for an appropriate AAD used for these individuals.

Keywords: walking device, walker, crutches, cane, rehabilitation

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53 Distributed Listening in Intensive Care: Nurses’ Collective Alarm Responses Unravelled through Auditory Spatiotemporal Trajectories

Authors: Michael Sonne Kristensen, Frank Loesche, James Foster, Elif Ozcan, Judy Edworthy

Abstract:

Auditory alarms play an integral role in intensive care nurses’ daily work. Most medical devices in the intensive care unit (ICU) are designed to produce alarm sounds in order to make nurses aware of immediate or prospective safety risks. The utilisation of sound as a carrier of crucial patient information is highly dependent on nurses’ presence - both physically and mentally. For ICU nurses, especially the ones who work with stationary alarm devices at the patient bed space, it is a challenge to display ‘appropriate’ alarm responses at all times as they have to navigate with great flexibility in a complex work environment. While being primarily responsible for a small number of allocated patients they are often required to engage with other nurses’ patients, relatives, and colleagues at different locations inside and outside the unit. This work explores the social strategies used by a team of nurses to comprehend and react to the information conveyed by the alarms in the ICU. Two main research questions guide the study: To what extent do alarms from a patient bed space reach the relevant responsible nurse by direct auditory exposure? By which means do responsible nurses get informed about their patients’ alarms when not directly exposed to the alarms? A comprehensive video-ethnographic field study was carried out to capture and evaluate alarm-related events in an ICU. The study involved close collaboration with four nurses who wore eye-level cameras and ear-level binaural audio recorders during several work shifts. At all time the entire unit was monitored by multiple video and audio recorders. From a data set of hundreds of hours of recorded material information about the nurses’ location, social interaction, and alarm exposure at any point in time was coded in a multi-channel replay-interface. The data shows that responsible nurses’ direct exposure and awareness of the alarms of their allocated patients vary significantly depending on work load, social relationships, and the location of the patient’s bed space. Distributed listening is deliberately employed by the nursing team as a social strategy to respond adequately to alarms, but the patterns of information flow prompted by alarm-related events are not uniform. Auditory Spatiotemporal Trajectory (AST) is proposed as a methodological label to designate the integration of temporal, spatial and auditory load information. As a mixed-method metrics it provides tangible evidence of how nurses’ individual alarm-related experiences differ from one another and from stationary points in the ICU. Furthermore, it is used to demonstrate how alarm-related information reaches the individual nurse through principles of social and distributed cognition, and how that information relates to the actual alarm event. Thereby it bridges a long-standing gap in the literature on medical alarm utilisation between, on the one hand, initiatives to measure objective data of the medical sound environment without consideration for any human experience, and, on the other hand, initiatives to study subjective experiences of the medical sound environment without detailed evidence of the objective characteristics of the environment.

Keywords: auditory spatiotemporal trajectory, medical alarms, social cognition, video-ethography

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52 Comparing the Effect of Virtual Reality and Sound on Landscape Perception

Authors: Mark Lindquist

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary results of exploratory empirical research investigating the effect of viewing 3D landscape visualizations in virtual reality compared to a computer monitor, and how sound impacts perception. Five landscape types were paired with three sound conditions (no sound, generic sound, realistic sound). Perceived realism, preference, recreational value, and biodiversity were evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Results indicate that sound has a larger perceptual impact than display mode regardless of sound source across all perceptual measures. The results are considered to assess how sound can impact landscape preference and spatiotemporal understanding. The paper concludes with a discussion of the impact on designers, planners, and the public and targets future research endeavors in this area.

Keywords: landscape experience, perception, soundscape, virtual reality

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51 Spatio-Temporal Properties of p53 States Raised by Glucose

Authors: Md. Jahoor Alam

Abstract:

Recent studies suggest that Glucose controls several lifesaving pathways. Glucose molecule is reported to be responsible for the production of ROS (reactive oxygen species). In the present work, a p53-MDM2-Glucose model is developed in order to study spatiotemporal properties of the p53 pathway. The systematic model is mathematically described. The model is numerically simulated using high computational facility. It is observed that the variation in glucose concentration level triggers the system at different states, namely, oscillation death (stabilized), sustain and damped oscillations which correspond to various cellular states. The transition of these states induced by glucose is phase transition-like behaviour. Further, the amplitude of p53 dynamics with the variation of glucose concentration level follows power law behaviour, As(k) ~ kϒ, where, ϒ is a constant. Further Stochastic approach is needed for understanding of realistic behaviour of the model. The present model predicts the variation of p53 states under the influence of glucose molecule which is also supported by experimental facts reported by various research articles.

Keywords: oscillation, temporal behavior, p53, glucose

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50 The Impact of Climate Change on Cropland Ecosystem in Tibet Plateau

Authors: Weishou Shen, Chunyan Yang, Zhongliang Li

Abstract:

The crop climate productivity and the distribution of cropland reflect long-term adaption of agriculture to climate. In order to fully understand the impact of climate change on cropland ecosystem in Tibet, the spatiotemporal changes of crop climate productivity and cropland distribution were analyzed with the help of GIS and RS software. Results indicated that the climate change to the direction of wet and warm in Tibet in the recent 30 years, with a rate of 0.79℃/10 yr and 23.28 mm/10yr respectively. Correspondingly, the climate productivity increased gradually, with a rate of 346.3kg/(hm2•10a), of which, the fastest-growing rate of the crop climate productivity is in Southern Tibet Mountain- plain-valley. During the study period, the total cropland area increased from 32.54 million ha to 37.13 million ha, and cropland has expanded to higher altitude area and northward. Overall, increased cropland area and crop climate productivity due to climate change plays a positive role for agriculture in Tibet.

Keywords: climate change, productivity, cropland area, Tibet plateau

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49 Modeling and Tracking of Deformable Structures in Medical Images

Authors: Said Ettaieb, Kamel Hamrouni, Su Ruan

Abstract:

This paper presents a new method based both on Active Shape Model and a priori knowledge about the spatio-temporal shape variation for tracking deformable structures in medical imaging. The main idea is to exploit the a priori knowledge of shape that exists in ASM and introduce new knowledge about the shape variation over time. The aim is to define a new more stable method, allowing the reliable detection of structures whose shape changes considerably in time. This method can also be used for the three-dimensional segmentation by replacing the temporal component by the third spatial axis (z). The proposed method is applied for the functional and morphological study of the heart pump. The functional aspect was studied through temporal sequences of scintigraphic images and morphology was studied through MRI volumes. The obtained results are encouraging and show the performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: active shape model, a priori knowledge, spatiotemporal shape variation, deformable structures, medical images

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48 Modeling Activity Pattern Using XGBoost for Mining Smart Card Data

Authors: Eui-Jin Kim, Hasik Lee, Su-Jin Park, Dong-Kyu Kim

Abstract:

Smart-card data are expected to provide information on activity pattern as an alternative to conventional person trip surveys. The focus of this study is to propose a method for training the person trip surveys to supplement the smart-card data that does not contain the purpose of each trip. We selected only available features from smart card data such as spatiotemporal information on the trip and geographic information system (GIS) data near the stations to train the survey data. XGboost, which is state-of-the-art tree-based ensemble classifier, was used to train data from multiple sources. This classifier uses a more regularized model formalization to control the over-fitting and show very fast execution time with well-performance. The validation results showed that proposed method efficiently estimated the trip purpose. GIS data of station and duration of stay at the destination were significant features in modeling trip purpose.

Keywords: activity pattern, data fusion, smart-card, XGboost

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47 Rainfall Estimation Using Himawari-8 Meteorological Satellite Imagery in Central Taiwan

Authors: Chiang Wei, Hui-Chung Yeh, Yen-Chang Chen

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to estimate the rainfall using the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite with multi-band, high-bit format, and high spatiotemporal resolution, ground rainfall data at the Chen-Yu-Lan watershed of Joushuei River Basin (443.6 square kilometers) in Central Taiwan. Accurate and fine-scale rainfall information is essential for rugged terrain with high local variation for early warning of flood, landslide, and debris flow disasters. 10-minute and 2 km pixel-based rainfall of Typhoon Megi of 2016 and meiyu on June 1-4 of 2017 were tested to demonstrate the new generation Himawari-8 meteorological satellite can capture rainfall variation in the rugged mountainous area both at fine-scale and watershed scale. The results provide the valuable rainfall information for early warning of future disasters.

Keywords: estimation, Himawari-8, rainfall, satellite imagery

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46 Dissecting Big Trajectory Data to Analyse Road Network Travel Efficiency

Authors: Rania Alshikhe, Vinita Jindal

Abstract:

Digital innovation has played a crucial role in managing smart transportation. For this, big trajectory data collected from traveling vehicles, such as taxis through installed global positioning system (GPS)-enabled devices can be utilized. It offers an unprecedented opportunity to trace the movements of vehicles in fine spatiotemporal granularity. This paper aims to explore big trajectory data to measure the travel efficiency of road networks using the proposed statistical travel efficiency measure (STEM) across an entire city. Further, it identifies the cause of low travel efficiency by proposed least square approximation network-based causality exploration (LANCE). Finally, the resulting data analysis reveals the causes of low travel efficiency, along with the road segments that need to be optimized to improve the traffic conditions and thus minimize the average travel time from given point A to point B in the road network. Obtained results show that our proposed approach outperforms the baseline algorithms for measuring the travel efficiency of the road network.

Keywords: GPS trajectory, road network, taxi trips, digital map, big data, STEM, LANCE

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45 Periodicity Analysis of Long-Term Waterquality Data Series of the Hungarian Section of the River Tisza Using Morlet Wavelet Spectrum Estimation

Authors: Péter Tanos, József Kovács, Angéla Anda, Gábor Várbíró, Sándor Molnár, István Gábor Hatvani

Abstract:

The River Tisza is the second largest river in Central Europe. In this study, Morlet wavelet spectrum (periodicity) analysis was used with chemical, biological and physical water quality data for the Hungarian section of the River Tisza. In the research 15, water quality parameters measured at 14 sampling sites in the River Tisza and 4 sampling sites in the main artificial changes were assessed for the time period 1993 - 2005. Results show that annual periodicity was not always to be found in the water quality parameters, at least at certain sampling sites. Periodicity was found to vary over space and time, but in general, an increase was observed in the company of higher trophic states of the river heading downstream.

Keywords: annual periodicity water quality, spatiotemporal variability of periodic behavior, Morlet wavelet spectrum analysis, River Tisza

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44 Dynamics of a Reaction-Diffusion Problems Modeling Two Predators Competing for a Prey

Authors: Owolabi Kolade Matthew

Abstract:

In this work, we investigate both the analytical and numerical studies of the dynamical model comprising of three species system. We analyze the linear stability of stationary solutions in the one-dimensional multi-system modeling the interactions of two predators and one prey species. The stability analysis has a lot of implications for understanding the various spatiotemporal and chaotic behaviors of the species in the spatial domain. The analysis results presented have established the possibility of the three interacting species to coexist harmoniously, this feat is achieved by combining the local and global analyzes to determine the global dynamics of the system. In the presence of diffusion, a viable exponential time differencing method is applied to multi-species nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equation to address the points and queries that may naturally arise. The scheme is described in detail, and justified by a number of computational experiments.

Keywords: asymptotically stable, coexistence, exponential time differencing method, global and local stability, predator-prey model, nonlinear, reaction-diffusion system

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