Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: thoron

7 A Study of Indoor Radon, Thoron, Their Progeny Concentration Levels and Inhalation Dose in Dwellings of Different Districts of Punjab State, India

Authors: Komal Saini, B. K. Sahoo, B.S. Bajwa


In the present study, indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been estimated using newly developed twin cup based pin hole dosimeter with single entry face in some areas of Punjab state, India. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of radon and thoron has also been estimated directly by using progeny sensors, fabricated by BARC, India. Observed radon and thoron concentrations varied from 38.7±5.79 to 98.7±13.11 Bq/m3 and 25.38±6.56 to 126.56±14.23 Bq/m3 with an average value of 61.59±8.11 & 70.89±9.52 Bq/m3 respectively. Average equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon and thoron was 27.98±4.66 & 2.24±0.61 Bq/m3. Calculated equilibrium factor for radon and thoron was 0.467 and 0.034 in the present study. Annual inhalation dose calculated from the present observed concentrations, varied from 1.80 to 3.60 mSv/year with an average value of 2.52 mSv/year, which is well within reference level. It has been observed from the present study that thoron is a significant contributor to the inhalation dose which is about 25% of the total inhalation dose.

Keywords: radon, thoron, pin hole cup dosimeter, DTPS/DRPS, annual inhalation dose

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6 Radon and Thoron Determination in Natural Ancient Mine Using Nuclear Track Detectors: Radiation Dose Assessment

Authors: L. Oufni, M. Amrane, R. Rabi


Radon (and thoron) is a naturally occurring radioactive noble gas, having variable distribution in the geological environment. The exposure of human beings to ionizing radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. Radon, thoron and their short-lived decay products in the atmosphere are the most important contributors to human exposure from natural sources. The aim of this study is to determine alpha-and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon (222Rn), thoron (220Rn) and their progenies in the air of ancient mine of Aouli in which there is no working activity is situated at approximately 25 km north of the city of Midelt (Morocco), by using LR-115 type II and CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Equilibrium factors between radon and its daughters and between thoron and its progeny were evaluated in the studied atmospheres. The committed equivalent doses due to the 218Po and 214Po radon short-lived progeny were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the visitors of the considered ancient mine. The visitors in these mines spent a good amount of time. It was essential to let the staff know about these values and take the needed steps to prevent any health complications.

Keywords: radon, thoron, concentration, exposure dose, SSNTD, mine

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5 Time Integrated Measurements of Radon and Thoron Progeny Concentration in Various Dwellings of Bathinda District of Punjab Using Deposition Based Progeny Sensors

Authors: Kirandeep Kaur, Rohit Mehra, Pargin Bangotra


Radon and thoron are pervasive radioactive gases and so are their progenies. The progenies of radon and thoron are present in the indoor atmosphere as attached/unattached fractions. In the present work, seasonal variation of concentration of attached and total (attached + unattached) nanosized decay products of indoor radon and thoron has been studied in the dwellings of Bathinda District of Punjab using Deposition based progeny sensors over long integrated times, which are independent of air turbulence. The preliminary results of these measurements are reported particularly regarding DTPS (Direct Thoron Progeny Sensor) and DRPS (Direct Radon Progeny Sensor) for the first time in Bathinda. It has been observed that there is a strong linear relationship in total EERC (Equilibrium Equivalent Radon Concentration) and EETC (Equilibrium Equivalent Thoron Concentration) in rainy season (R2 = 0.83). Further a strong linear relation between total indoor radon concentration and attached fraction has also been observed for the same rainy season (R2= 0.91). The concentration of attached progeny of radon (EERCatt) is 76.3 % of the total Equilibrium Equivalent Radon Concentration (EERC).

Keywords: radon, thoron, progeny, DTPS/DRPS, EERC, EETC, seasonal variation

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4 A Follow up Study on Indoor 222Rn, 220Rn and Their Decay Product Concentrations in a Mineralized Zone of Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: B. S. Bajwa, Parminder Singh, Prabhjot Singh, Surinder Singh, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra


A follow up study was taken up in a mineralized zone situated in Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh, India to investigate high values of radon concentration reported in past studies as well to update the old radon data based on bare SSNTD technique. In the present investigation, indoor radon, thoron and their decay products concentrations have been measured using the newly developed Radon-Thoron discriminating diffusion chamber with single entry face, direct radon and thoron progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) respectively. The measurements have been carried out in seventy five dwellings of fourteen different villages. Houses were selected taking into consideration of the past data as well as the type of houses such as mud, concrete, brick etc. It was observed that high values of earlier reported radon concentrations were mainly because of thoron interference in the Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (LR-115 type II) exposed in bare mode. Now, the average concentration values and the estimated annual inhalation dose in these villages have been found to be within the reference level as recommended by the ICRP. The annual average indoor radon and thoron concentrations observed in these dwellings have been found to vary from 44±12-157±73 Bq m-3 and 44±11-240±125 Bq m-3 respectively. The equilibrium equivalent concentrations of radon and thoron decay products have been observed to be in the range of 10-63 Bq m-3 and 1-5 Bq m-3 respectively.

Keywords: radon, thoron, progeny concentration, dosimeter

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3 Seasonal Variation of the Unattached Fraction and Equilibrium Factor of ²²²Rn, ²²⁰Rn

Authors: Rajan Jakhu, Rohit Mehra


Radon (²²²Rn) and its decay products are the major sources of natural radiation exposure to general population. The activity concentrations of radon, thoron gasses, and their unattached and attached short-lived progeny in indoor environment of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan had been calculated via passive measurements using the Pinhole cup dosimeter, deposition based progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS) and wire mesh capped (DRPS/DTPS) progeny sensors. The results of this study revealed that radon and thoron concentrations (CRn, CTn) are highest in the winter season. The variation of the radon and its decay products are observed to vary seasonally, but these environmental parameters seem not to be affecting the thoron and its decay product concentrations in a regular manner. The average values of the radon and its decay products are maximum in winter and minimum in summer. The equilibrium factor for radon is observed to be 0.50, 0.47 and 0.49 in winter, rainy and summer seasons. The annual average value of the unattached fraction of the radon progeny comes out to be 0.34. On the other hand, the average value of thoron (²²⁰Rn) concentration and its equilibrium factor in the studied area comes to be 74, 39, 45 Bq m⁻³ and 0.07, 0.11, 0.07 respectively for the winter, rainy and summer seasons with the annual average value of the unattached fraction of about 0.18. The annual average radiological dose from exposure to indoor radon and thoron progeny comes out to be 0.88 and 0.78 mSv.

Keywords: equilibrium factor, radon, seasonal variation, thoron, unattached fraction

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2 Survey of Indoor Radon/Thoron Concentrations in High Lung Cancer Incidence Area in India

Authors: Zoliana Bawitlung, P. C. Rohmingliana, L. Z. Chhangte, Remlal Siama, Hming Chungnunga, Vanram Lawma, L. Hnamte, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra, J. Malsawma


Mizoram state has the highest lung cancer incidence rate in India due to its high-level consumption of tobacco and its products which is supplemented by the food habits. While smoking is mainly responsible for this incidence, the effect of inhalation of indoor radon gas cannot be discarded as the hazardous nature of this radioactive gas and its progenies on human population have been well-established worldwide where the radiation damage to bronchial cells eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. It is also known that the effect of radiation, however, small may be the concentration, cannot be neglected as they can bring about the risk of cancer incidence. Hence, estimation of indoor radon concentration is important to give a useful reference against radiation effects as well as establishing its safety measures and to create a baseline for further case-control studies. The indoor radon/thoron concentrations in Mizoram had been measured in 41 dwellings selected on the basis of spot gamma background radiation and construction type of the houses during 2015-2016. The dwellings were monitored for one year, in 4 months cycles to indicate seasonal variations, for the indoor concentration of radon gas and its progenies, outdoor gamma dose, and indoor gamma dose respectively. A time-integrated method using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) based single entry pin-hole dosimeters were used for measurement of indoor Radon/Thoron concentration. Gamma dose measurements for indoor as well as outdoor were carried out using Geiger Muller survey meters. Seasonal variation of indoor radon/ thoron concentration was monitored. The results show that the annual average radon concentrations varied from 54.07 – 144.72 Bq/m³ with an average of 90.20 Bq/m³ and the annual average thoron concentration varied from 17.39 – 54.19 Bq/m³ with an average of 35.91 Bq/m³ which are below the permissible limit. The spot survey of gamma background radiation level varies between 9 to 24 µR/h inside and outside the dwellings throughout Mizoram which are all within acceptable limits. From the above results, there is no direct indication that radon/thoron is responsible for the high lung cancer incidence in the area. In order to find epidemiological evidence of natural radiations to high cancer incidence in the area, one may need to conduct a case-control study which is beyond this scope. However, the derived data of measurement will provide baseline data for further studies.

Keywords: background gamma radiation, indoor radon/thoron, lung cancer, seasonal variation

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1 Radionuclide Contents and Exhalation Studies in Soil Samples from Sub-Mountainous Region of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Manpreet Kaur


The effect of external and internal exposure in outdoor and indoor environment can be significantly gauged by natural radionuclides. Therefore, it is a consequential to approximate the level of radionuclide contents in soil samples of any area and the risks associated with it. Rate of radon emerging from soil is also one of the prominent parameters for the assessment of radon levels in environmental. In present study, natural radionuclide contents viz. ²³²Th, ²³⁸U and ⁴⁰K and radon/thoron exhalation rates were evaluated operating thallium doped sodium iodide gamma radiation detector and advanced Smart Rn Duo technique in the soil samples from 30 villages of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Radon flux rate was also measured by using surface chamber technique. Results obtained with two different methods were compared to investigate the cause of emanation factor in the soil profile. The radon mass exhalation rate in the soil samples has been found varying from 15 ± 0.4 to 38 ± 0.8 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ while thoron surface exhalation rate has been found varying from 90 ± 22 to 4880 ± 280 Bq m⁻² h⁻¹. The mean value of radium equivalent activity (99 ± 27 Bq kg⁻¹) was appeared to be well within the admissible limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹ suggested by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009) report. The values of various parameters related to radiological hazards were also calculated and all parameters have been found to be well below the safe limits given by various organizations. The outcomes pointed out that region was protected from danger as per health risks effects associated with these radionuclide contents is concerned.

Keywords: absorbed dose rate, exhalation rate, human health, radionuclide

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