Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: hyperelastic

27 Influence of Optimization Method on Parameters Identification of Hyperelastic Models

Authors: Bale Baidi Blaise, Gilles Marckmann, Liman Kaoye, Talaka Dya, Moustapha Bachirou, Gambo Betchewe, Tibi Beda


This work highlights the capabilities of particles swarm optimization (PSO) method to identify parameters of hyperelastic models. The study compares this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA) method, Least Squares (LS) method, Pattern Search Algorithm (PSA) method, Beda-Chevalier (BC) method and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method. Four classic hyperelastic models are used to test the different methods through parameters identification. Then, the study compares the ability of these models to reproduce experimental Treloar data in simple tension, biaxial tension and pure shear.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, identification, hyperelastic, model

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26 Hyperelastic Formulation for Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Daniel O'Shea, Mario M. Attard, David C. Kellermann


In this paper, we propose a hyperelastic strain energy function that maps isotopic hyperelastic constitutive laws for the use of orthotropic materials without the use of structural tensors or any kind of fiber vector, or the use of standard invariants. In particular, we focus on neo-Hookean class of models and represent them using an invariant-free formulation. To achieve this, we revise the invariant-free formulation of isotropic hyperelasticity. The formulation uses quadruple contractions between fourth-order tensors, rather than scalar products of scalar invariants. We also propose a new decomposition of the orthotropic Hookean stiffness tensor into two fourth-order Lamé tensors that collapse down to the classic Lamé parameters for isotropic continua. The resulting orthotropic hyperelastic model naturally maintains all of the advanced properties of the isotropic counterparts, and similarly collapse back down to their isotropic form by nothing more than equality of parameters in all directions (isotropy). Comparisons are made with large strain experimental results for transversely isotropic rubber type materials under tension.

Keywords: finite strain, hyperelastic, invariants, orthotropic

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25 Study on Constitutive Model of Particle Filling Material Considering Volume Expansion

Authors: Xu Jinsheng, Tong Xin, Zheng Jian, Zhou Changsheng


The NEPE (nitrate ester plasticized polyether) propellant is a kind of particle filling material with relatively high filling fraction. The experimental results show that the microcracks, microvoids and dewetting can cause the stress softening of the material. In this paper, a series of mechanical testing in inclusion with CCD technique were conducted to analyze the evolution of internal defects of propellant. The volume expansion function of the particle filling material was established by measuring of longitudinal and transverse strain with optical deformation measurement system. By analyzing the defects and internal damages of the material, a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model based on free energy theory was proposed incorporating damage function. The proposed constitutive model could accurately predict the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile tests and tensile-relaxation tests.

Keywords: dewetting, constitutive model, uniaxial tensile tests, visco-hyperelastic, nonlinear

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24 Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression

Authors: Abbas Shafiee, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian, Maryam Hoviattalab


The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.

Keywords: brain soft tissue, visco-hyperelastic, finite element analysis (FEA), friction, quasistatic strain rate

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23 Visco-Hyperelastic Finite Element Analysis for Diagnosis of Knee Joint Injury Caused by Meniscal Tearing

Authors: Eiji Nakamachi, Tsuyoshi Eguchi, Sayo Yamamoto, Yusuke Morita, H. Sakamoto


In this study, we aim to reveal the relationship between the meniscal tearing and the articular cartilage injury of knee joint by using the dynamic explicit finite element (FE) method. Meniscal injuries reduce its functional ability and consequently increase the load on the articular cartilage of knee joint. In order to prevent the induction of osteoarthritis (OA) caused by meniscal injuries, many medical treatment techniques, such as artificial meniscus replacement and meniscal regeneration, have been developed. However, it is reported that these treatments are not the comprehensive methods. In order to reveal the fundamental mechanism of OA induction, the mechanical characterization of meniscus under the condition of normal and injured states is carried out by using FE analyses. At first, a FE model of the human knee joint in the case of normal state – ‘intact’ - was constructed by using the magnetron resonance (MR) tomography images and the image construction code, Materialize Mimics. Next, two types of meniscal injury models with the radial tears of medial and lateral menisci were constructed. In FE analyses, the linear elastic constitutive law was adopted for the femur and tibia bones, the visco-hyperelastic constitutive law for the articular cartilage, and the visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive law for the meniscus, respectively. Material properties of articular cartilage and meniscus were identified using the stress-strain curves obtained by our compressive and the tensile tests. The numerical results under the normal walking condition revealed how and where the maximum compressive stress occurred on the articular cartilage. The maximum compressive stress and its occurrence point were varied in the intact and two meniscal tear models. These compressive stress values can be used to establish the threshold value to cause the pathological change for the diagnosis. In this study, FE analyses of knee joint were carried out to reveal the influence of meniscal injuries on the cartilage injury. The following conclusions are obtained. 1. 3D FE model, which consists femur, tibia, articular cartilage and meniscus was constructed based on MR images of human knee joint. The image processing code, Materialize Mimics was used by using the tetrahedral FE elements. 2. Visco-anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive equation was formulated by adopting the generalized Kelvin model. The material properties of meniscus and articular cartilage were determined by curve fitting with experimental results. 3. Stresses on the articular cartilage and menisci were obtained in cases of the intact and two radial tears of medial and lateral menisci. Through comparison with the case of intact knee joint, two tear models show almost same stress value and higher value than the intact one. It was shown that both meniscal tears induce the stress localization in both medial and lateral regions. It is confirmed that our newly developed FE analysis code has a potential to be a new diagnostic system to evaluate the meniscal damage on the articular cartilage through the mechanical functional assessment.

Keywords: finite element analysis, hyperelastic constitutive law, knee joint injury, meniscal tear, stress concentration

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22 A Nonlinear Visco-Hyper Elastic Constitutive Model for Modelling Behavior of Polyurea at Large Deformations

Authors: Shank Kulkarni, Alireza Tabarraei


The fantastic properties of polyurea such as flexibility, durability, and chemical resistance have brought it a wide range of application in various industries. Effective prediction of the response of polyurea under different loading and environmental conditions necessitates the development of an accurate constitutive model. Similar to most polymers, the behavior of polyurea depends on both strain and strain rate. Therefore, the constitutive model should be able to capture both these effects on the response of polyurea. To achieve this objective, in this paper, a nonlinear hyper-viscoelastic constitutive model is developed by the superposition of a hyperelastic and a viscoelastic model. The proposed constitutive model can capture the behavior of polyurea under compressive loading conditions at various strain rates. Four parameter Ogden model and Mooney Rivlin model are used to modeling the hyperelastic behavior of polyurea. The viscoelastic behavior is modeled using both a three-parameter standard linear solid (SLS) model and a K-BKZ model. Comparison of the modeling results with experiments shows that Odgen and SLS model can more accurately predict the behavior of polyurea. The material parameters of the model are found by curve fitting of the proposed model to the uniaxial compression test data. The proposed model can closely reproduce the stress-strain behavior of polyurea for strain rates up to 6500 /s.

Keywords: constitutive modelling, ogden model, polyurea, SLS model, uniaxial compression test

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21 Hyperelastic Constitutive Modelling of the Male Pelvic System to Understand the Prostate Motion, Deformation and Neoplasms Location with the Influence of MRI-TRUS Fusion Biopsy

Authors: Muhammad Qasim, Dolors Puigjaner, Josep Maria López, Joan Herrero, Carme Olivé, Gerard Fortuny


Computational modeling of the human pelvis using the finite element (FE) method has become extremely important to understand the mechanics of prostate motion and deformation when transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided biopsy is performed. The number of reliable and validated hyperelastic constitutive FE models of the male pelvis region is limited, and given models did not precisely describe the anatomical behavior of pelvis organs, mainly of the prostate and its neoplasms location. The motion and deformation of the prostate during TRUS-guided biopsy makes it difficult to know the location of potential lesions in advance. When using this procedure, practitioners can only provide roughly estimations for the lesions locations. Consequently, multiple biopsy samples are required to target one single lesion. In this study, the whole pelvis model (comprised of the rectum, bladder, pelvic muscles, prostate transitional zone (TZ), and peripheral zone (PZ)) is used for the simulation results. An isotropic hyperelastic approach (Signorini model) was used for all the soft tissues except the vesical muscles. The vesical muscles are assumed to have a linear elastic behavior due to the lack of experimental data to determine the constants involved in hyperelastic models. The tissues and organ geometry is taken from the existing literature for 3D meshes. Then the biomechanical parameters were obtained under different testing techniques described in the literature. The acquired parametric values for uniaxial stress/strain data are used in the Signorini model to see the anatomical behavior of the pelvis model. The five mesh nodes in terms of small prostate lesions are selected prior to biopsy and each lesion’s final position is targeted when TRUS probe force of 30 N is applied at the inside rectum wall. Code_Aster open-source software is used for numerical simulations. Moreover, the overall effects of pelvis organ deformation were demonstrated when TRUS–guided biopsy is induced. The deformation of the prostate and neoplasms displacement showed that the appropriate material properties to organs altered the resulting lesion's migration parametrically. As a result, the distance traveled by these lesions ranged between 3.77 and 9.42 mm. The lesion displacement and organ deformation are compared and analyzed with our previous study in which we used linear elastic properties for all pelvic organs. Furthermore, the visual comparison of axial and sagittal slices are also compared, which is taken for Magnetic Resource Imaging (MRI) and TRUS images with our preliminary study.

Keywords: code-aster, magnetic resonance imaging, neoplasms, transrectal ultrasound, TRUS-guided biopsy

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20 An Adaptable Semi-Numerical Anisotropic Hyperelastic Model for the Simulation of High Pressure Forming

Authors: Daniel Tscharnuter, Eliza Truszkiewicz, Gerald Pinter


High-quality surfaces of plastic parts can be achieved in a very cost-effective manner using in-mold processes, where e.g. scratch resistant or high gloss polymer films are pre-formed and subsequently receive their support structure by injection molding. The pre-forming may be done by high-pressure forming. In this process, a polymer sheet is heated and subsequently formed into the mold by pressurized air. Due to the heat transfer to the cooled mold the polymer temperature drops below its glass transition temperature. This ensures that the deformed microstructure is retained after depressurizing, giving the sheet its final formed shape. The development of a forming process relies heavily on the experience of engineers and trial-and-error procedures. Repeated mold design and testing cycles are however both time- and cost-intensive. It is, therefore, desirable to study the process using reliable computer simulations. Through simulations, the construction of the mold and the effect of various process parameters, e.g. temperature levels, non-uniform heating or timing and magnitude of pressure, on the deformation of the polymer sheet can be analyzed. Detailed knowledge of the deformation is particularly important in the forming of polymer films with integrated electro-optical functions. Care must be taken in the placement of devices, sensors and electrical and optical paths, which are far more sensitive to deformation than the polymers. Reliable numerical prediction of the deformation of the polymer sheets requires sophisticated material models. Polymer films are often either transversely isotropic or orthotropic due to molecular orientations induced during manufacturing. The anisotropic behavior affects the resulting strain field in the deformed film. For example, parts of the same shape but different strain fields may be created by varying the orientation of the film with respect to the mold. The numerical simulation of the high-pressure forming of such films thus requires material models that can capture the nonlinear anisotropic mechanical behavior. There are numerous commercial polymer grades for the engineers to choose from when developing a new part. The effort required for comprehensive material characterization may be prohibitive, especially when several materials are candidates for a specific application. We, therefore, propose a class of models for compressible hyperelasticity, which may be determined from basic experimental data and which can capture key features of the mechanical response. Invariant-based hyperelastic models with a reduced number of invariants are formulated in a semi-numerical way, such that the models are determined from a single uniaxial tensile tests for isotropic materials, or two tensile tests in the principal directions for transversely isotropic or orthotropic materials. The simulation of the high pressure forming of an orthotropic polymer film is finally done using an orthotropic formulation of the hyperelastic model.

Keywords: hyperelastic, anisotropic, polymer film, thermoforming

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19 An Eulerian Method for Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation Applied to Wave Damping by Elastic Structures

Authors: Julien Deborde, Thomas Milcent, Stéphane Glockner, Pierre Lubin


A fully Eulerian method is developed to solve the problem of fluid-elastic structure interactions based on a 1-fluid method. The interface between the fluid and the elastic structure is captured by a level set function, advected by the fluid velocity and solved with a WENO 5 scheme. The elastic deformations are computed in an Eulerian framework thanks to the backward characteristics. We use the Neo Hookean or Mooney Rivlin hyperelastic models and the elastic forces are incorporated as a source term in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The velocity/pressure coupling is solved with a pressure-correction method and the equations are discretized by finite volume schemes on a Cartesian grid. The main difficulty resides in that large deformations in the fluid cause numerical instabilities. In order to avoid these problems, we use a re-initialization process for the level set and linear extrapolation of the backward characteristics. First, we verify and validate our approach on several test cases, including the benchmark of FSI proposed by Turek. Next, we apply this method to study the wave damping phenomenon which is a mean to reduce the waves impact on the coastline. So far, to our knowledge, only simulations with rigid or one dimensional elastic structure has been studied in the literature. We propose to place elastic structures on the seabed and we present results where 50 % of waves energy is absorbed.

Keywords: damping wave, Eulerian formulation, finite volume, fluid structure interaction, hyperelastic material

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18 The Effect of Fibre Orientation on the Mechanical Behaviour of Skeletal Muscle: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Christobel Gondwe, Yongtao Lu, Claudia Mazzà, Xinshan Li


Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the human body system and function by generating voluntary forces and facilitating body motion. However, The mechanical properties and behaviour of skeletal muscle are still not comprehensively known yet. As such, various robust engineering techniques have been applied to better elucidate the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle. It is considered that muscle mechanics are highly governed by the architecture of the fibre orientations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different fibre orientations on the mechanical behaviour of skeletal muscle.In this study, a continuum mechanics approach–finite element (FE) analysis was applied to the left bicep femoris long head to determine the contractile mechanism of the muscle using Hill’s three-element model. The geometry of the muscle was segmented from the magnetic resonance images. The muscle was modelled as a quasi-incompressible hyperelastic (Mooney-Rivlin) material. Two types of fibre orientations were implemented: one with the idealised fibre arrangement, i.e. parallel single-direction fibres going from the muscle origin to insertion sites, and the other with curved fibre arrangement which is aligned with the muscle shape.The second fibre arrangement was implemented through the finite element method; non-uniform rational B-spline (FEM-NURBs) technique by means of user material (UMAT) subroutines. The stress-strain behaviour of the muscle was investigated under idealised exercise conditions, and will be further analysed under physiological conditions. The results of the two different FE models have been outputted and qualitatively compared.

Keywords: FEM-NURBS, finite element analysis, Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic, muscle architecture

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17 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Outflow through a Retinal Hole after Scleral Buckling

Authors: T. Walczak, J. K. Grabski, P. Fritzkowski, M. Stopa


Objectives of the study are i) to perform numerical simulations that permit an analysis of the dynamics of subretinal fluid when an implant has induced scleral intussusception and ii) assess the impact of the physical parameters of the model on the flow rate. Computer simulations were created using finite element method (FEM) based on a model that takes into account the interaction of a viscous fluid (subretinal fluid) with a hyperelastic body (retina). The purpose of the calculation was to investigate the dependence of the flow rate of subretinal fluid through a hole in the retina on different factors such as viscosity of subretinal fluid, material parameters of the retina, and the offset of the implant from the retina’s hole. These simulations were performed for different speeds of eye movement that reflect the behavior of the eye when reading, REM, and saccadic movements. Similar to other works in the field of subretinal fluid flow, it was assumed stationary, single sided, forced fluid flow in the considered area simulating the subretinal space. Additionally, a hyperelastic material model of the retina and parameterized geometry of the considered model was adopted. The calculations also examined the influence the direction of the force of gravity due to the position of the patient’s head on the trend of outflow of fluid. The simulations revealed that fluid outflow from the retina becomes significant with eyeball movement speed of 100°/sec. This speed is greater than in the case of reading but is four times less than saccadic movement. The increase of viscosity of the fluid increased beneficial effect. Further, the simulation results suggest that moderate eye movement speed is optimal and that the conventional prescription of the avoidance of routine eye movement following retinal detachment surgery should be relaxed. Additionally, to verify numerical results, some calculations were repeated with use of meshless method (method of fundamental solutions), which is relatively fast and easy to implement. The paper has been supported by 02/21/DSPB/3477 grant.

Keywords: CFD simulations, FEM analysis, meshless method, retinal detachment

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16 Lamb Waves in Plates Subjected to Uniaxial Stresses

Authors: Munawwar Mohabuth, Andrei Kotousov, Ching-Tai Ng


On the basis of the finite deformation theory, the effect of homogeneous stress on the propagation of Lamb waves in an initially isotropic hyperelastic plate is analysed. The equations governing the propagation of small amplitude waves in the prestressed plate are derived using the theory of small deformations superimposed on large deformations. By enforcing traction free boundary conditions at the upper and lower surfaces of the plate, acoustoelastic dispersion equations for Lamb wave propagation are obtained, which are solved numerically. Results are given for an aluminum plate subjected to a range of applied stresses.

Keywords: acoustoelasticity, dispersion, finite deformation, lamb waves

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15 Analysis of Tactile Perception of Textiles by Fingertip Skin Model

Authors: Izabela L. Ciesielska-Wrόbel


This paper presents finite element models of the fingertip skin which have been created to simulate the contact of textile objects with the skin to gain a better understanding of the perception of textiles through the skin, so-called Hand of Textiles (HoT). Many objective and subjective techniques have been developed to analyze HoT, however none of them provide exact overall information concerning the sensation of textiles through the skin. As the human skin is a complex heterogeneous hyperelastic body composed of many particles, some simplifications had to be made at the stage of building the models. The same concerns models of woven structures, however their utilitarian value was maintained. The models reflect only friction between skin and woven textiles, deformation of the skin and fabrics when “touching” textiles and heat transfer from the surface of the skin into direction of textiles.

Keywords: fingertip skin models, finite element models, modelling of textiles, sensation of textiles through the skin

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14 Polyurethane Membrane Mechanical Property Study for a Novel Carotid Covered Stent

Authors: Keping Zuo, Jia Yin Chia, Gideon Praveen Kumar Vijayakumar, Foad Kabinejadian, Fangsen Cui, Pei Ho, Hwa Liang Leo


Carotid artery is the major vessel supplying blood to the brain. Carotid artery stenosis is one of the three major causes of stroke and the stroke is the fourth leading cause of death and the first leading cause of disability in most developed countries. Although there is an increasing interest in carotid artery stenting for treatment of cervical carotid artery bifurcation therosclerotic disease, currently available bare metal stents cannot provide an adequate protection against the detachment of the plaque fragments over diseased carotid artery, which could result in the formation of micro-emboli and subsequent stroke. Our research group has recently developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet retaining the ability to preserve the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid therosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the biomechanical property of PU membrane of different concentration configurations in order to refine the stent coating technique and enhance the clinical performance of our novel carotid covered stent. Results from this study also provide necessary material property information crucial for accurate simulation analysis for our stents. Method: Medical grade Polyurethane (ChronoFlex AR) was used to prepare PU membrane specimens. Different PU membrane configurations were subjected to uniaxial test: 22%, 16%, and 11% PU solution were made by mixing the original solution with proper amount of the Dimethylacetamide (DMAC). The specimens were then immersed in physiological saline solution for 24 hours before test. All specimens were moistened with saline solution before mounting and subsequent uniaxial testing. The specimens were preconditioned by loading the PU membrane sample to a peak stress of 5.5 Mpa for 10 consecutive cycles at a rate of 50 mm/min. The specimens were then stretched to failure at the same loading rate. Result: The results showed that the stress-strain response curves of all PU membrane samples exhibited nonlinear characteristic. For the ultimate failure stress, 22% PU membrane was significantly higher than 16% (p<0.05). In general, our preliminary results showed that lower concentration PU membrane is stiffer than the higher concentration one. From the perspective of mechanical properties, 22% PU membrane is a better choice for the covered stent. Interestingly, the hyperelastic Ogden model is able to accurately capture the nonlinear, isotropic stress-strain behavior of PU membrane with R2 of 0.9977 ± 0.00172. This result will be useful for future biomechanical analysis of our stent designs and will play an important role for computational modeling of our covered stent fatigue study.

Keywords: carotid artery, covered stent, nonlinear, hyperelastic, stress, strain

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13 A Constitutive Model of Ligaments and Tendons Accounting for Fiber-Matrix Interaction

Authors: Ratchada Sopakayang, Gerhard A. Holzapfel


In this study, a new constitutive model is developed to describe the hyperelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with a parallel arrangement of collagen fibers such as ligaments and tendons. The model is formulated using a continuum approach incorporating the structural changes of the main tissue components: collagen fibers, proteoglycan-rich matrix and fiber-matrix interaction. The mechanical contribution of the interaction between the fibers and the matrix is simply expressed by a coupling term. The structural change of the collagen fibers is incorporated in the constitutive model to describe the activation of the fibers under tissue straining. Finally, the constitutive model can easily describe the stress-stretch nonlinearity which occurs when a ligament/tendon is axially stretched. This study shows that the interaction between the fibers and the matrix contributes to the mechanical tissue response. Therefore, the model may lead to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms of ligaments and tendons under axial loading.

Keywords: constitutive model, fiber-matrix, hyperelasticity, interaction, ligament, tendon

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12 Reduction of Dynamic Influences in Composite Rubber-Concrete Block Designed to Walls Construction

Authors: Maciej Major, Izabela Major


The aim of this paper is a numerical analysis of three-layered block design to walls construction subjected to the dynamic load. The block consists of the layers: concrete with rubber pads in shape of crosses, space filled with air and concrete with I-shape rubber pads. The main purpose of rubber inserts embedded during the production process is additional protection against the transversal dynamic load. For the analysis, as rubber, the Zahorski hyperelastic incompressible material model was assumed. A concentrated force as dynamic load applied to the external block surface was investigated. The results for the considered block observed as the stress distribution plot were compared to the results obtained for the solid concrete block. In order to estimate the percentage damping of proposed composite, rubber-concrete block in relation to the solid block the numerical analysis with the use of finite element method based on ADINA software was performed.

Keywords: dynamics, composite, rubber, Zahorski

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11 Non-Invasive Characterization of the Mechanical Properties of Arterial Walls

Authors: Bruno RamaëL, GwenaëL Page, Catherine Knopf-Lenoir, Olivier Baledent, Anne-Virginie Salsac


No routine technique currently exists for clinicians to measure the mechanical properties of vascular walls non-invasively. Most of the data available in the literature come from traction or dilatation tests conducted ex vivo on native blood vessels. The objective of the study is to develop a non-invasive characterization technique based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements of the deformation of vascular walls under pulsating blood flow conditions. The goal is to determine the mechanical properties of the vessels by inverse analysis, coupling imaging measurements and numerical simulations of the fluid-structure interactions. The hyperelastic properties are identified using Solidworks and Ansys workbench (ANSYS Inc.) solving an optimization technique. The vessel of interest targeted in the study is the common carotid artery. In vivo MRI measurements of the vessel anatomy and inlet velocity profiles was acquired along the facial vascular network on a cohort of 30 healthy volunteers: - The time-evolution of the blood vessel contours and, thus, of the cross-section surface area was measured by 3D imaging angiography sequences of phase-contrast MRI. - The blood flow velocity was measured using a 2D CINE MRI phase contrast (PC-MRI) method. Reference arterial pressure waveforms were simultaneously measured in the brachial artery using a sphygmomanometer. The three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the arterial network was reconstructed by first creating an STL file from the raw MRI data using the open source imaging software ITK-SNAP. The resulting geometry was then transformed with Solidworks into volumes that are compatible with Ansys softwares. Tetrahedral meshes of the wall and fluid domains were built using the ANSYS Meshing software, with a near-wall mesh refinement method in the case of the fluid domain to improve the accuracy of the fluid flow calculations. Ansys Structural was used for the numerical simulation of the vessel deformation and Ansys CFX for the simulation of the blood flow. The fluid structure interaction simulations showed that the systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the common carotid artery could be taken as reference pressures to identify the mechanical properties of the different arteries of the network. The coefficients of the hyperelastic law were identified using Ansys Design model for the common carotid. Under large deformations, a stiffness of 800 kPa is measured, which is of the same order of magnitude as the Young modulus of collagen fibers. Areas of maximum deformations were highlighted near bifurcations. This study is a first step towards patient-specific characterization of the mechanical properties of the facial vessels. The method is currently applied on patients suffering from facial vascular malformations and on patients scheduled for facial reconstruction. Information on the blood flow velocity as well as on the vessel anatomy and deformability will be key to improve surgical planning in the case of such vascular pathologies.

Keywords: identification, mechanical properties, arterial walls, MRI measurements, numerical simulations

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10 Filler Elastomers Abrasion at Steady State: Optimal Use Conditions

Authors: Djeridi Rachid, Ould Ouali Mohand


The search of a mechanism for the elastomer abrasive wear study is an open issue. The practice difficulties are complex due to the complexity of deformation mechanism, to the complex mechanism of the material tearing and to the marked interactions between the tribological parameters. In this work, we present an experimental technique to study the elastomers abrasive wear. The interaction 'elastomer/indenter' implicate dependant ant temporary of different tribological parameters. Consequently, the phenomenon that governs this interaction is not easy to explain. An optimal elastomers compounding and an adequate utilization conditions of these materials that define its resistance at the abrasion is discussed. The results are confronted to theoretical models: the weight loss variation in function of blade angle or in function of cycle number is in agreement with rupture models and with the mechanism of fissures propagation during the material tearing in abrasive wear of filler elastomers. The weight loss in function of the sliding velocity shows the existence of a critical velocity that corresponds to the maximal wear. The adding of silica or black carbon influences in a different manner on wear abrasive behavior of filler elastomers.

Keywords: abrasion wear, filler elastomer, tribology, hyperelastic

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9 [Keynote Talk]: Mathematical and Numerical Modelling of the Cardiovascular System: Macroscale, Mesoscale and Microscale Applications

Authors: Aymen Laadhari


The cardiovascular system is centered on the heart and is characterized by a very complex structure with different physical scales in space (e.g. micrometers for erythrocytes and centimeters for organs) and time (e.g. milliseconds for human brain activity and several years for development of some pathologies). The development and numerical implementation of mathematical models of the cardiovascular system is a tremendously challenging topic at the theoretical and computational levels, inducing consequently a growing interest over the past decade. The accurate computational investigations in both healthy and pathological cases of processes related to the functioning of the human cardiovascular system can be of great potential in tackling several problems of clinical relevance and in improving the diagnosis of specific diseases. In this talk, we focus on the specific task of simulating three particular phenomena related to the cardiovascular system on the macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic scales, respectively. Namely, we develop numerical methodologies tailored for the simulation of (i) the haemodynamics (i.e., fluid mechanics of blood) in the aorta and sinus of Valsalva interacting with highly deformable thin leaflets, (ii) the hyperelastic anisotropic behaviour of cardiomyocytes and the influence of calcium concentrations on the contraction of single cells, and (iii) the dynamics of red blood cells in microvasculature. For each problem, we present an appropriate fully Eulerian finite element methodology. We report several numerical examples to address in detail the relevance of the mathematical models in terms of physiological meaning and to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the numerical methods.

Keywords: finite element method, cardiovascular system, Eulerian framework, haemodynamics, heart valve, cardiomyocyte, red blood cell

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8 A Finite Element Study of Laminitis in Horses

Authors: Naeim Akbari Shahkhosravi, Reza Kakavand, Helen M. S. Davies, Amin Komeili


Equine locomotion and performance are significantly affected by hoof health. One of the most critical diseases of the hoof is laminitis, which can lead to horse lameness in a severe condition. This disease exhibits the mechanical properties degradation of the laminar junction tissue within the hoof. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the biomechanics of the hoof, focusing specifically on excessive and cumulatively accumulated stresses within the laminar junction tissue. For this aim, the current study generated a novel equine hoof Finite Element (FE) model under dynamic physiological loading conditions and employing a hyperelastic material model. Associated tissues of the equine hoof were segmented from computed tomography scans of an equine forelimb, including the navicular bone, third phalanx, sole, frog, laminar junction, digital cushion, and medial- dorsal- lateral wall areas. The inner tissues were connected based on the hoof anatomy, and the hoof was under a dynamic loading over cyclic strides at the trot. The strain distribution on the hoof wall of the model was compared with the published in vivo strain measurements to validate the model. Then the validated model was used to study the development of laminitis. The ultimate stress tolerated by the laminar junction before rupture was considered as a stress threshold. The tissue damage was simulated through iterative reduction of the tissue’s mechanical properties in the presence of excessive maximum principal stresses. The findings of this investigation revealed how damage initiates from the medial and lateral sides of the tissue and propagates through the hoof dorsal area.

Keywords: horse hoof, laminitis, finite element model, continuous damage

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7 In vivo Mechanical Characterization of Facial Skin Combining Digital Image Correlation and Finite Element

Authors: Huixin Wei, Shibin Wang, Linan Li, Lei Zhou, Xinhao Tu


Facial skin is a biomedical material with complex mechanical properties of anisotropy, viscoelasticity, and hyperelasticity. The mechanical properties of facial skin are crucial for a number of applications including facial plastic surgery, animation, dermatology, cosmetic industry, and impact biomechanics. Skin is a complex multi-layered material which can be broadly divided into three main layers, the epidermis, the dermis, and the hypodermis. Collagen fibers account for 75% of the dry weight of dermal tissue, and it is these fibers which are responsible for the mechanical properties of skin. Many research on the anisotropic mechanical properties are mainly concentrated on in vitro, but there is a great difference between in vivo and in vitro for mechanical properties of the skin. In this study, we presented a method to measure the mechanical properties of facial skin in vivo. Digital image correlation (DIC) and indentation tests were used to obtain the experiment data, including the deformation of facial surface and indentation force-displacement curve. Then, the experiment was simulated using a finite element (FE) model. Application of Computed Tomography (CT) and reconstruction techniques obtained the real tissue geometry. A three-dimensional FE model of facial skin, including a bi-layer system, was obtained. As the epidermis is relatively thin, the epidermis and dermis were regarded as one layer and below it was hypodermis in this study. The upper layer was modeled as a Gasser-Ogden-Holzapfel (GOH) model to describe hyperelastic and anisotropic behaviors of the dermis. The under layer was modeled as a linear elastic model. In conclusion, the material properties of two-layer were determined by minimizing the error between the FE data and experimental data.

Keywords: facial skin, indentation test, finite element, digital image correlation, computed tomography

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6 Biomechanical Prediction of Veins and Soft Tissues beneath Compression Stockings Using Fluid-Solid Interaction Model

Authors: Chongyang Ye, Rong Liu


Elastic compression stockings (ECSs) have been widely applied in prophylaxis and treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of lower extremities. The medical function of ECS is to improve venous return and increase muscular pumping action to facilitate blood circulation, which is largely determined by the complex interaction between the ECS and lower limb tissues. Understanding the mechanical transmission of ECS along the skin surface, deeper tissues, and vascular system is essential to assess the effectiveness of the ECSs. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of the leg-ECS system integrated with a 3D fluid-solid interaction (FSI) model of the leg-vein system was constructed to analyze the biomechanical properties of veins and soft tissues under different ECS compression. The Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the human leg was divided into three regions, including soft tissues, bones (tibia and fibula) and veins (peroneal vein, great saphenous vein, and small saphenous vein). The ECSs with pressure ranges from 15 to 26 mmHg (Classes I and II) were adopted in the developed FE-FSI model. The soft tissue was assumed as a Neo-Hookean hyperelastic model with the fixed bones, and the ECSs were regarded as an orthotropic elastic shell. The interfacial pressure and stress transmission were simulated by the FE model, and venous hemodynamics properties were simulated by the FSI model. The experimental validation indicated that the simulated interfacial pressure distributions were in accordance with the pressure measurement results. The developed model can be used to predict interfacial pressure, stress transmission, and venous hemodynamics exerted by ECSs and optimize the structure and materials properties of ECSs design, thus improving the efficiency of compression therapy.

Keywords: elastic compression stockings, fluid-solid interaction, tissue and vein properties, prediction

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5 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta


Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing, piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys

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4 A Hierarchical Bayesian Calibration of Data-Driven Models for Composite Laminate Consolidation

Authors: Nikolaos Papadimas, Joanna Bennett, Amir Sakhaei, Timothy Dodwell


Composite modeling of consolidation processes is playing an important role in the process and part design by indicating the formation of possible unwanted prior to expensive experimental iterative trial and development programs. Composite materials in their uncured state display complex constitutive behavior, which has received much academic interest, and this with different models proposed. Errors from modeling and statistical which arise from this fitting will propagate through any simulation in which the material model is used. A general hyperelastic polynomial representation was proposed, which can be readily implemented in various nonlinear finite element packages. In our case, FEniCS was chosen. The coefficients are assumed uncertain, and therefore the distribution of parameters learned using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. In engineering, the approach often followed is to select a single set of model parameters, which on average, best fits a set of experiments. There are good statistical reasons why this is not a rigorous approach to take. To overcome these challenges, A hierarchical Bayesian framework was proposed in which population distribution of model parameters is inferred from an ensemble of experiments tests. The resulting sampled distribution of hyperparameters is approximated using Maximum Entropy methods so that the distribution of samples can be readily sampled when embedded within a stochastic finite element simulation. The methodology is validated and demonstrated on a set of consolidation experiments of AS4/8852 with various stacking sequences. The resulting distributions are then applied to stochastic finite element simulations of the consolidation of curved parts, leading to a distribution of possible model outputs. With this, the paper, as far as the authors are aware, represents the first stochastic finite element implementation in composite process modelling.

Keywords: data-driven , material consolidation, stochastic finite elements, surrogate models

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3 Numerical Model of Low Cost Rubber Isolators for Masonry Housing in High Seismic Regions

Authors: Ahmad B. Habieb, Gabriele Milani, Tavio Tavio, Federico Milani


Housings in developing countries have often inadequate seismic protection, particularly for masonry. People choose this type of structure since the cost and application are relatively cheap. Seismic protection of masonry remains an interesting issue among researchers. In this study, we develop a low-cost seismic isolation system for masonry using fiber reinforced elastomeric isolators. The elastomer proposed consists of few layers of rubber pads and fiber lamina, making it lower in cost comparing to the conventional isolators. We present a finite element (FE) analysis to predict the behavior of the low cost rubber isolators undergoing moderate deformations. The FE model of the elastomer involves a hyperelastic material property for the rubber pad. We adopt a Yeoh hyperelasticity model and estimate its coefficients through the available experimental data. Having the shear behavior of the elastomers, we apply that isolation system onto small masonry housing. To attach the isolators on the building, we model the shear behavior of the isolation system by means of a damped nonlinear spring model. By this attempt, the FE analysis becomes computationally inexpensive. Several ground motion data are applied to observe its sensitivity. Roof acceleration and tensile damage of walls become the parameters to evaluate the performance of the isolators. In this study, a concrete damage plasticity model is used to model masonry in the nonlinear range. This tool is available in the standard package of Abaqus FE software. Finally, the results show that the low-cost isolators proposed are capable of reducing roof acceleration and damage level of masonry housing. Through this study, we are also capable of monitoring the shear deformation of isolators during seismic motion. It is useful to determine whether the isolator is applicable. According to the results, the deformations of isolators on the benchmark one story building are relatively small.

Keywords: masonry, low cost elastomeric isolator, finite element analysis, hyperelasticity, damped non-linear spring, concrete damage plasticity

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2 The Effect of Stent Coating on the Stent Flexibility: Comparison of Covered Stent and Bare Metal Stent

Authors: Keping Zuo, Foad Kabinejadian, Gideon Praveen Kumar Vijayakumar, Fangsen Cui, Pei Ho, Hwa Liang Leo


Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is the standard procedure for patients with severe carotid stenosis at high risk for carotid endarterectomy (CAE). A major drawback of CAS is the higher incidence of procedure-related stroke compared with traditional open surgical treatment for carotid stenosis - CEA, even with the use of the embolic protection devices (EPD). As the currently available bare metal stents cannot address this problem, our research group developed a novel preferential covered-stent for carotid artery aims to prevent friable fragments of atherosclerotic plaques from flowing into the cerebral circulation, and yet maintaining the flow of the external carotid artery. The preliminary animal studies have demonstrated the potential of this novel covered-stent design for the treatment of carotid atherosclerotic stenosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of membrane coating on the stent flexibility in order to improve the clinical performance of our novel covered stents. A total of 21 stents were evaluated in this study: 15 self expanding bare nitinol stents and 6 PTFE-covered stents. 10 of the bare stents were coated with 11%, 16% and 22% Polyurethane(PU), 4%, 6.25% and 11% EE, as well as 22% PU plus 5 μm Parylene. Different laser cutting designs were performed on 4 of the PTFE covert stents. All the stents, with or without the covered membrane, were subjected to a three-point flexural test. The stents were placed on two supports that are 30 mm apart, and the actuator is applying a force in the exact middle of the two supports with a loading pin with radius 2.5 mm. The loading pin displacement change, the force and the variation in stent shape were recorded for analysis. The flexibility of the stents was evaluated by the lumen area preservation at three displacement bending levels: 5mm, 7mm, and 10mm. All the lumen areas in all stents decreased with the increase of the displacement from 0 to 10 mm. The bare stents were able to maintain 0.864 ± 0.015, 0.740 ± 0.025 and 0.597 ± 0.031of original lumen area at 5 mm, 7 mm and 10mm displacement respectively. For covered stents, the stents with EE coating membrane showed the best lumen area preservation (0.839 ± 0.005, 0.7334 ± 0.043 and 0.559 ± 0.014), whereas, the stents with PU and Parylene coating were only 0.662, 0.439 and 0.305. Bending stiffness was also calculated and compared. These results provided optimal material information and it was crucial for enhancing clinical performance of our novel covered stents.

Keywords: carotid artery, covered stent, nonlinear, hyperelastic, stress, strain

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1 Microscale observations of a gas cell wall rupture in bread dough during baking and confrontation to 2/3D Finite Element simulations of stress concentration

Authors: Kossigan Bernard Dedey, David Grenier, Tiphaine Lucas


Bread dough is often described as a dispersion of gas cells in a continuous gluten/starch matrix. The final bread crumb structure is strongly related to gas cell walls (GCWs) rupture during baking. At the end of proofing and during baking, part of the thinnest GCWs between expanding gas cells is reduced to a gluten film of about the size of a starch granule. When such size is reached gluten and starch granules must be considered as interacting phases in order to account for heterogeneities and appropriately describe GCW rupture. Among experimental investigations carried out to assess GCW rupture, no experimental work was performed to observe the GCW rupture in the baking conditions at GCW scale. In addition, attempts to numerically understand GCW rupture are usually not performed at the GCW scale and often considered GCWs as continuous. The most relevant paper that accounted for heterogeneities dealt with the gluten/starch interactions and their impact on the mechanical behavior of dough film. However, stress concentration in GCW was not discussed. In this study, both experimental and numerical approaches were used to better understand GCW rupture in bread dough during baking. Experimentally, a macro-scope placed in front of a two-chamber device was used to observe the rupture of a real GCW of 200 micrometers in thickness. Special attention was paid in order to mimic baking conditions as far as possible (temperature, gas pressure and moisture). Various differences in pressure between both sides of GCW were applied and different modes of fracture initiation and propagation in GCWs were observed. Numerically, the impact of gluten/starch interactions (cohesion or non-cohesion) and rheological moduli ratio on the mechanical behavior of GCW under unidirectional extension was assessed in 2D/3D. A non-linear viscoelastic and hyperelastic approach was performed to match the finite strain involved in GCW during baking. Stress concentration within GCW was identified. Simulated stresses concentration was discussed at the light of GCW failure observed in the device. The gluten/starch granule interactions and rheological modulus ratio were found to have a great effect on the amount of stress possibly reached in the GCW.

Keywords: dough, experimental, numerical, rupture

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