Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 900

Search results for: ANOVA

900 Robust ANOVA: An Illustrative Study in Horticultural Crop Research

Authors: Dinesh Inamadar, R. Venugopalan, K. Padmini


An attempt has been made in the present communication to elucidate the efficacy of robust ANOVA methods to analyze horticultural field experimental data in the presence of outliers. Results obtained fortify the use of robust ANOVA methods as there was substantiate reduction in error mean square, and hence the probability of committing Type I error, as compared to the regular approach.

Keywords: outliers, robust ANOVA, horticulture, cook distance, type I error

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
899 Analysis of a CO₂ Two-Phase Ejector Performances with Taguchi and Anova Optimization

Authors: Karima Megdouli


The ejector, a central element within the CO₂ transcritical ejection refrigeration system, holds significant importance in enhancing refrigeration capacity and minimizing compressor power usage. This study's objective is to introduce a technique for enhancing the effectiveness of the CO₂ transcritical two-phase ejector, utilizing Taguchi and ANOVA analysis. The investigation delves into the impact of geometric parameters, secondary flow temperature, and primary flow pressure on the efficiency of the ejector. Results indicate that employing a combination of Taguchi and ANOVA offers increased reliability and superior performance when optimizing the design of the CO₂ two-phase ejector.

Keywords: ejector, supersonic, Taguchi, ANOVA, optimization

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898 An ANOVA Approach for the Process Parameters Optimization of Al-Si Alloy Sand Casting

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Manish Nagpal


This research paper aims to propose a novel approach using ANOVA technique for the strategic investigation of process parameters and their effects on the mechanical properties of Aluminium alloy cast. The two process parameters considered here were permeability of sand and pouring temperature of aluminium alloy. ANOVA has been employed for the first time to determine the effects of these selected parameters on the impact strength of alloy. The experimental results show that this proposed technique has great potential for analyzing sand casting process. Using this approach we have determined the treatment mean square, response mean square and mean square of error as 8.54, 8.255 and 0.435 respectively. The research concluded that at the 5% level of significance, permeability of sand is the more significant parameter influencing the impact strength of cast alloy.

Keywords: aluminium alloy, pouring temperature, permeability of sand, impact strength, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
897 Analysis of CO₂ Two-Phase Ejector with Taguchi and ANOVA Optimization and Refrigerant Selection with Enviro Economic Concerns by TOPSIS Analysis

Authors: Karima Megdouli, Bourhan tachtouch


Ejector refrigeration cycles offer an alternative to conventional systems for producing cold from low-temperature heat. In this article, a thermodynamic model is presented. This model has the advantage of simplifying the calculation algorithm and describes the complex double-throttling mechanism that occurs in the ejector. The model assumption and calculation algorithm are presented first. The impact of each efficiency is evaluated. Validation is performed on several data sets. The ejector model is then used to simulate a RES (refrigeration ejector system), to validate its robustness and suitability for use in predicting thermodynamic cycle performance. A Taguchi and ANOVA optimization is carried out on a RES. TOPSIS analysis was applied to decide the optimum refrigerants with cost, safety, environmental and enviro economic concerns along with thermophysical properties.

Keywords: ejector, velocity distribution, shock circle, Taguchi and ANOVA optimization, TOPSIS analysis

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896 An Exploratory Sequential Design: A Mixed Methods Model for the Statistics Learning Assessment with a Bayesian Network Representation

Authors: Zhidong Zhang


This study established a mixed method model in assessing statistics learning with Bayesian network models. There are three variants in exploratory sequential designs. There are three linked steps in one of the designs: qualitative data collection and analysis, quantitative measure, instrument, intervention, and quantitative data collection analysis. The study used a scoring model of analysis of variance (ANOVA) as a content domain. The research study is to examine students’ learning in both semantic and performance aspects at fine grain level. The ANOVA score model, y = α+ βx1 + γx1+ ε, as a cognitive task to collect data during the student learning process. When the learning processes were decomposed into multiple steps in both semantic and performance aspects, a hierarchical Bayesian network was established. This is a theory-driven process. The hierarchical structure was gained based on qualitative cognitive analysis. The data from students’ ANOVA score model learning was used to give evidence to the hierarchical Bayesian network model from the evidential variables. Finally, the assessment results of students’ ANOVA score model learning were reported. Briefly, this was a mixed method research design applied to statistics learning assessment. The mixed methods designs expanded more possibilities for researchers to establish advanced quantitative models initially with a theory-driven qualitative mode.

Keywords: exploratory sequential design, ANOVA score model, Bayesian network model, mixed methods research design, cognitive analysis

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895 Pedestrian Behavior at Signalized Intersections in Izmir, Turkey

Authors: Pelin Onelcin, Yalcin Alver


This paper investigates the walking speed and delays of pedestrians at two signalized intersections where the vehicle speed limits are different. Data was collected during afternoon and evening peak hours on November 15, 2013 and on December 6, 2013. Observational surveys were conducted by video recording technique. Pedestrians were categorized according to their gender, group size, stuff carrying condition and age. Results showed that individuals walked fastest when the group size is taken into consideration. The smallest 15th percentile walking speed was seen in the oldest age group (over 60 years old). Pedestrians experienced high delays both at roadsides and at medians. Factors affecting the pedestrian walking speed were analyzed by ANOVA.

Keywords: pedestrian delay, pedestrian walking speed, signalized crosswalk, ANOVA

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894 Modeling of Austenitic Stainless Steel during Face Milling Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: A. A. Selaimia, H. Bensouilah, M. A. Yallese, I. Meddour, S. Belhadi, T. Mabrouki


The objective of this work is to model the output responses namely; surface roughness (Ra), cutting force (Fc), during the face milling of the austenitic stainless steel X2CrNi18-9 with coated carbide tools (GC4040). For raison, response surface methodology (RMS) is used to determine the influence of each technological parameter. A full factorial design (L27) is chosen for the experiments, and the ANOVA is used in order to evaluate the influence of the technological cutting parameters namely; cutting speed (Vc), feed per tooth, and depth of cut (ap) on the out-put responses. The results reveal that (Ra) is mostly influenced by (fz) and (Fc) is found considerably affected by (ap).

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, ANOVA, coated carbide, response surface methodology (RSM)

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893 English Title Adaptive Comparison of Outdoor and Indoor Social Security in Damaged Area and New Residential Complex with Two-Way Anova Case Study: Qasr-Al-Dasht and Moalem District in Shiraz

Authors: Homa Parmoon, Narges Hamzeh


Since today's urban spaces are disposed towards behavioral disorders and lack of security, both qualitative and quantitative aspects of security especially social and physical security are considered as basic necessities in urban planning. This research focused on the variable of place of living, examined social security in the old and new textures, and investigated the amount of residents’ social security in Shiraz including safety, financial, emotional and moral security. To this end, two neighborhoods in region 1 of Shiraz- Qasr-Al-Dasht (old texture) and Moalem (new texture)- were examined through a comparative study of 60 samples lived in two neighborhoods. Data were gathered through two-way ANOVA between the variables of residential context and internal and external security. This analysis represents the significance or insignificance of the model as well as the individual effects of each independent variable on the dependent variable. It was tested by ANCOVA and F-test. Research findings indicated place of living has a significant effect on families’ social security. The safety, financial, emotional, and moral security also represented a great impact on social security. As a result, it can be concluded that social security changes with the changing in place of living.

Keywords: social security, damaged area, two-way ANOVA, Shiraz

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892 Experimental Investigation on Over-Cut in Ultrasonic Machining of WC-Co Composite

Authors: Ravinder Kataria, Jatinder Kumar, B. S. Pabla


Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard, and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. Present article has been targeted at investigating the impact of different experimental conditions (power rating, cobalt content, tool material, thickness of work piece, tool geometry, and abrasive grit size) on over cut in ultrasonic drilling of WC-Co composite material. Taguchi’s L-36 orthogonal array has been employed for conducting the experiments. Significant factors have been identified using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The experimental results revealed that abrasive grit size and tool material are most significant factors for over cut.

Keywords: ANOVA, abrasive grit size, Taguchi, WC-Co, ultrasonic machining

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891 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Denis Kučević, Strahinja Kovačević, Milica Karadžić, Lidija Jevrić


The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.

Keywords: hemometrics, milk, organic farming, quality control

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
890 The Effects and Interactions of Synthesis Parameters on Properties of Mg Substituted Hydroxyapatite

Authors: S. Sharma, U. Batra, S. Kapoor, A. Dua


In this study, the effects and interactions of reaction time and capping agent assistance during sol-gel synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowder (MgHA) on hydroxyapatite (HA) to β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ratio, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite size was examined experimentally as well as through statistical analysis. MgHA nanopowders were synthesized by sol-gel technique at room temperature using aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, magnesium nitrate hexahydrate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate as starting materials. The reaction time for sol-gel synthesis was varied between 15 to 60 minutes. Two process routes were followed with and without addition of triethanolamine (TEA) in the solutions. The elemental compositions of as-synthesized powders were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The functional groups present in the as-synthesized MgHA nanopowders were established through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The amounts of phases present, Ca/P ratio and mean crystallite sizes of MgHA nanopowders were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The HA content in biphasic mixture of HA and β-TCP and Ca/P ratio in as-synthesized MgHA nanopowders increased effectively with reaction time of sols (p < 0.0001, two way Anova), however, these were independent of TEA addition (p > 0.15, two way Anova). The MgHA nanopowders synthesized with TEA assistance exhibited 14 nm lower crystallite size (p < 0.018, 2 sample t-test) compared to the powder synthesized without TEA assistance.

Keywords: capping agent, hydroxyapatite, regression analysis, sol-gel, 2- sample t-test, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA)

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889 Understanding the Association between Altruism, Personality, and Birth Order among Indian Young Adults

Authors: Shruti Soudi, Anushka Nayak


Altruism is a voluntary helping behavior that is not motivated by rewards. The empathy-altruism hypothesis states that altruistic behavior results from empathy, a constant emotional response between the helper and the individual in need. Individual variances in familiar ways of thinking, feeling, and acting are called personalities. The personality of an individual determines their behavior. More importantly, Adler was among the first psychologists to document the importance of birth order on personality. The present study aims to understand the influence of personality and birth order on altruism. A questionnaire consisting of standardized tools to measure altruism (Hindi Self Report Altruism Scale) and personality (Big Five Personality Inventory) will aid in studying the relationship between these variables among young adults in India. A statistical analysis of the data will be completed using ANOVA and T-Test in the SPSS Software.

Keywords: altruism, personality, birth order, ANOVA, young adults

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888 Mathematical Modeling and Optimization of Burnishing Parameters for 15NiCr6 Steel

Authors: Tarek Litim, Ouahiba Taamallah


The present paper is an investigation of the effect of burnishing on the surface integrity of a component made of 15NiCr6 steel. This work shows a statistical study based on regression, and Taguchi's design has allowed the development of mathematical models to predict the output responses as a function of the technological parameters studied. The response surface methodology (RSM) showed a simultaneous influence of the burnishing parameters and observe the optimal processing parameters. ANOVA analysis of the results resulted in the validation of the prediction model with a determination coefficient R=90.60% and 92.41% for roughness and hardness, respectively. Furthermore, a multi-objective optimization allowed to identify a regime characterized by P=10kgf, i=3passes, and f=0.074mm/rev, which favours minimum roughness and maximum hardness. The result was validated by the desirability of D= (0.99 and 0.95) for roughness and hardness, respectively.

Keywords: 15NiCr6 steel, burnishing, surface integrity, Taguchi, RSM, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
887 Investigation of Regional Differences in Strong Ground Motions for the Iranian Plateau

Authors: Farhad Sedaghati, Shahram Pezeshk


Regional variations in strong ground motions for the Iranian Plateau have been investigated by using a simple statistical method called Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). In this respect, a large database consisting of 1157 records occurring within the Iranian Plateau with moment magnitudes of greater than or equal to 5 and Joyner-Boore distances up to 200 km has been considered. Geometric averages of horizontal peak ground accelerations (PGA) as well as 5% damped linear elastic response spectral accelerations (SA) at periods of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 sec are used as strong motion parameters. The initial database is divided into two different datasets, for Northern Iran (NI) and Central and Southern Iran (CSI). The comparison between strong ground motions of these two regions reveals that there is no evidence for significant differences; therefore, data from these two regions may be combined to estimate the unknown coefficients of attenuation relationships.

Keywords: ANOVA, attenuation relationships, Iranian Plateau, PGA, regional variation, SA, strong ground motion

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886 Factors Affecting Weld Line Movement in Tailor Welded Blank

Authors: Sanjay Patil, Shakil A. Kagzi, Harit K. Raval


Tailor Welded Blanks (TWB) are utilized in automotive industries widely because of their advantage of weight and cost reduction and maintaining required strength and structural integrity. TWB consist of two or more sheet having dissimilar or similar material and thickness; welded together to form a single sheet before forming it to desired shape. Forming of the tailor welded blank is affected by ratio of thickness of blanks, ratio of their strength, etc. mainly due to in-homogeneity of material. In the present work the relative effect of these parameters on weld line movement is studied during deep drawing of TWB using FE simulation using HYPERWORKS. The simulation is validated with results from the literature. Simulations were than performed based on Taguchi orthogonal array followed by the ANOVA analysis to determine the significance of these parameters on forming of TWB.

Keywords: ANOVA, deep drawing, Tailor Welded Blank (TWB), weld line movement

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885 The Influence of Environmental Factors on Honey Bee Activities: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Hung-Jen Lin, Chien-Hao Wang, Chien-Peng Huang, Yu-Sheng Tseng, En-Cheng Yang, Joe-Air Jiang


Bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior is a decisive index which can indicate the health condition of a colony. Traditional methods for monitoring the behavior of honey bees (Apis mellifera) take too much time and are highly labor-intensive, and the lack of automation and synchronization disables researchers and beekeepers from obtaining real-time information of beehives. To solve these problems, this study proposes to use an Internet of Things (IoT)-based system for counting honey bees’ incoming and outgoing activities using an infrared interruption technique, while environmental factors are recorded simultaneously. The accuracy of the established system is verified by comparing the counting results with the outcomes of manual counting. Moreover, this highly -accurate device is appropriate for providing quantitative information regarding honey bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. Different statistical analysis methods, including one-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA, are used to investigate the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, illumination and ambient pressure, on bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. With the real-time data, a standard model is established using the outcomes from analyzing the relationship between environmental factors and bees’ incoming and outgoing behavior. In the future, smart control systems, such as a temperature control system, can also be combined with the proposed system to create an appropriate colony environment. It is expected that the proposed system will make a considerable contribution to the apiculture and researchers.

Keywords: ANOVA, environmental factors, honey bee, incoming and outgoing behavior

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884 Optimization of Electrical Discharge Machining Parameters in Machining AISI D3 Tool Steel by Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Othman Mohamed Altheni, Abdurrahman Abusaada


This study presents optimization of multiple performance characteristics [material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra), and overcut (OC)] of hardened AISI D3 tool steel in electrical discharge machining (EDM) using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Machining process parameters selected were pulsed current Ip, pulse-on time Ton, pulse-off time Toff and gap voltage Vg. Based on ANOVA, pulse current is found to be the most significant factor affecting EDM process. Optimized process parameters are simultaneously leading to a higher MRR, lower Ra, and lower OC are then verified through a confirmation experiment. Validation experiment shows an improved MRR, Ra and OC when Taguchi method and grey relational analysis were used

Keywords: edm parameters, grey relational analysis, Taguchi method, ANOVA

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883 Quality of Care of Medical Male Circumcisions: A Non-Negotiable for Right to Care

Authors: Nelson Igaba, C. Onaga, S. Hlongwane


Background: Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) is part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. The quality of MMC done at Right To Care (RtC) sites is maintained by Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) based on findings of assessments by internal and independent external assessors who evaluate such parameters as the quality of the surgical procedure, infection control, etc. There are 12 RtC MMC teams in Mpumalanga, two of which are headed by Medical Officers and 10 by Clinical Associates (Clin A). Objectives: To compare the quality (i) of care rendered at doctor headed sites (DHS) versus Clin A headed sites (CHS); (ii) of CQI assessments (external versus internal). Methodology: A retrospective review of data from RightMax™ (a novel RtC data management system) and CQI reports (external and internal) was done. CQI assessment scores of October 2015 and October 2016 were taken as the baseline and latest respectively. Four sites with 745-810 circumcisions per annum were purposively selected; the two DHS (group A) and two CHS (group B). Statistical analyses were conducted using R (2017 version). Results: There were no significant difference in latest CQI scores between the two groups (DHS and CHS) (Anova, F = 1.97, df = 1, P = 0.165); between internal and external CQI assessment scores (Anova, F = 2.251, df = 1, P = 0.139) or among the individual sites (Anova, F = 1.095, df = 2, P = 0.341). Of the total of 16 adverse events reported by the four sites in the 12 months reviewed (all were infections), there was no statistical evidence that the documented severity of the infection was different for DHS and CHS (Fisher’s exact test, p-value = 0.269). Conclusion: At RtC VMMC sites in Mpumalanga, internal and external/independent CQI assessments are comparable, and quality of care of VMMC is standardized with the performance of well-supervised clinical associates comparing well with those of medical officers.

Keywords: adverse events, Right to Care, male medical circumcision, continuous quality improvement

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882 Multi-Response Optimization of EDM for Ti-6Al-4V Using Taguchi-Grey Relational Analysis

Authors: Ritesh Joshi, Kishan Fuse, Gopal Zinzala, Nishit Nirmal


Ti-6Al-4V is a titanium alloy having high strength, low weight and corrosion resistant which is a required characteristic for a material to be used in aerospace industry. Titanium, being a hard alloy is difficult to the machine via conventional methods, so it is a call to use non-conventional processes. In present work, the effects on Ti-6Al-4V by drilling a hole of Ø 6 mm using copper (99%) electrode in Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) process is analyzed. Effect of various input parameters like peak current, pulse-on time and pulse-off time on output parameters viz material removal rate (MRR) and electrode wear rate (EWR) is studied. Multi-objective optimization technique Grey relational analysis is used for process optimization. Experiments are designed using an L9 orthogonal array. ANOVA is used for finding most contributing parameter followed by confirmation tests for validating the results. Improvement of 7.45% in gray relational grade is observed.

Keywords: ANOVA, electric discharge machining, grey relational analysis, Ti-6Al-4V

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881 Degumming of Eri Silk Fabric with Ionic Liquid

Authors: Shweta K. Vyas, Rakesh Musale, Sanjeev R. Shukla


Eri silk is a non mulberry silk which is obtained without killing the silkworms and hence it is also known as Ahmisa silk. In the present study, the results on degumming of eri silk with alkaline peroxide have been compared with those obtained by using ionic liquid (IL) 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride [BMIM]Cl. Experiments were designed to find out the optimum processing parameters for degumming of eri silk by response surface methodology. The statistical software, Design-Expert 6.0 was used for regression analysis and graphical analysis of the responses obtained by running the set of designed experiments. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the statistical parameters. The polynomial equation of quadratic order was employed to fit the experimental data. The quality and model terms were evaluated by F-test. Three dimensional surface plots were prepared to study the effect of variables on different responses. The optimum conditions for IL treatment were selected from predicted combinations and the experiments were repeated under these conditions to determine the reproducibility.

Keywords: silk degumming, ionic liquid, response surface methodology, ANOVA

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880 An Investigation on Material Removal Rate of EDM Process: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

Authors: Azhar Equbal, Anoop Kumar Sood, M. Asif Equbal, M. Israr Equbal


In the present work response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) is used for analyzing the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. For experimentation, mild steel is selected as work piece and copper is used as electrode. Three machining parameters namely current (I), spark on time (Ton) and spark off time (Toff) are selected as the input variables. The output or response chosen is material removal rate (MRR) which is to be maximized. To reduce the number of runs face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of parameter and interactions. The suitability of model is tested using Anderson darling (AD) plot. The results conclude that different parameters considered i.e. current, pulse on and pulse off time; all have dominant effect on the MRR. At last, the optimized parameter setting for maximizing MRR is found through main effect plot analysis.

Keywords: EDM, electrode, MRR, RSM, ANOVA

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879 Re-Analyzing Energy-Conscious Design

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky


An energy-conscious design for a classroom in a hot-humid climate is reanalyzed. The hypothesis of this study is that use of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation in building operation energy consumption will lead to re-analysis of the energy-conscious design. Therefore, the objective of this study is to reanalyze the energy-conscious design by evaluating the environmental impact of operational energy with PV electrical generation. Using the hierarchical design structure of Eco-indicator 99, the alternatives for energy-conscious variables are statistically evaluated by applying a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA. The recommendations for the preferred solutions for application of glazing types, wall insulation, roof insulation, window size, roof mass, and window shading design alternatives were changed (for example, glazing type recommendations were changed from low-emissivity glazing, green, and double- glazed windows to low-emissivity glazing only), whereas the applications for the lighting control system and infiltration are not changed. Such analysis of operational energy can be defined as environment-conscious analysis.

Keywords: ANOVA, Eco-Indicator 99, energy-conscious design, hot–humid climate, photovoltaic

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
878 Ethical and Personality Factors and Accounting Professional Judgement

Authors: Shannon Hashemi, Alireza Daneshfar


Accounting ethical awareness has been widely promoted in recent years both in academia and in practice. However, the effectiveness of ethical awareness on accountants' judgment and choice of action is still debatable. This study investigates whether Machiavellianism and gender, as significant personality factors, influence the effect of ethical awareness on accountants' decision-making. Using an experiment, the results of ANOVA tests show that although introducing ethical awareness positively influences the accountants' judgment and choice of action, such an effect is significantly moderated by the accountants' Machiavellianism score and gender. Specifically, the test results show that the effect of introducing ethical awareness was higher on males with low Machiavellian score. The results also show that when the Machiavellian scores were high, the effect of ethical awareness was lower for both males and females. Applications of the results are discussed for accounting professionals as well as accounting ethics educators and researchers.

Keywords: ethical awareness, accounting decision making, Machiavellianism, ANOVA, ethics, accounting education

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877 Adopting the Two-Stage Nested Mixed Analysis of Variance Test to the Eco Indicator 99 to Evaluate Building Technologies under LCA Uncertainties

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar


Eco-indicator 99 (EI99) considers fundamental life cycle assessment (LCA) uncertainties via egalitarian/egalitarian (e/e), hierarchist/hierarchist (h/h), individualist/individualist (i/i), individualist/average (i/a), egalitarian/average (e/a), and hierarchist/average (h/a) methodological options. The objective of this study is to provide a reliable two-stage nested mixed balanced Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test as a supplemental test to EI99 to address the problematic combination of similarly and not similarly produced materials usually found in building technologies. The robustness of the test was determined from both the “EI99 (all options)” stage (including e/e, i/i, h/h, e/a, i/a, and h/a - all methodological options) and the “EI99 (perspectives)” stage (including e/e, i/i, and h/h methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with their particular weighting set or e/a, i/a, and h/a methodological options of EI99 - the methodological options with the average weighting set) of evaluating building technologies.

Keywords: building technologies, LCA uncertainty, Eco-indicator 99, two-stage nested mixed ANOVA test

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876 Experimental Investigation on Sustainable Machining of Hastelloy C-276 Utilizing Different Cooling Strategies

Authors: Balkar Singh, Gurpreet Singh, Vivek Aggarwal, Sehijpal Singh


The present research focused to improve the machinability of Hastelloy C-276 at different machining speeds such as 31, 55, and 79 m/min. The use of CO2 gas and Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) was applied as coolant and lubrication purposes to enhance the machinability of the superalloy. The output in the form of surface roughness (S.R) and heat generation was monitored under dry, MQL, and MQL-CO2-cooled conditions. The Design of the Experiment was prepared using MINITAB software utilizing Taguchi L-27 orthogonal arrays followed by ANOVA analysis for finding the impact of input variables on output responses. At different speeds and lubrication conditions, different behavioral patterns for Surface Roughness and the temperature was observed. ANOVA analysis depicted that the cooling environment impacted the S.R. majorly (50%) followed by cutting speed (29.84%), feed rate (5.09%), and least through depth of cut (4.95%). On the other side, the temperature was greatly influenced by cutting speed (69.12%), Cryo-MQL (8.09%), feed rate (7.59%), and depth of cut (6.20%). Experimental results revealed that Cryo-MQL cooling enhanced the Surface roughness by 12% compared to MQL condition.

Keywords: Hastelloy C-276, minimum quantity lubrication, olive oil, cryogenic Cooling (CO2)

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875 Effects of Different Climate Zones, Building Types, and Primary Fuel Sources for Energy Production on Environmental Damage from Four External Wall Technologies for Residential Buildings in Israel

Authors: Svetlana Pushkar, Oleg Verbitsky


The goal of the present study is to evaluate environmental damage from four wall technologies under the following conditions: four climate zones in Israel, two building (conventional vs. low-energy) types, and two types of fuel source [natural gas vs. photovoltaic (PV)]. The hierarchical ReCiPe method with a two-stage nested (hierarchical) ANOVA test is applied. It was revealed that in a hot climate in Israel in a conventional building fueled by natural gas, OE is dominant (90 %) over the P&C stage (10 %); in a mild climate in Israel in a low-energy building with PV, the P&C stage is dominant (85 %) over the OE stage (15 %). It is concluded that if PV is used in the building sector in Israel, (i) the P&C stage becomes a significant factor that influences the environment, (ii) autoclaved aerated block is the best external wall technology, and (iii) a two-stage nested mixed ANOVA can be used to evaluate environmental damage via ReCiPe when wall technologies are compared.

Keywords: life cycle assessment (LCA), photovoltaic, ReCiPe method, residential buildings

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874 Investigation of Optimized Mechanical Properties on Friction Stir Welded Al6063 Alloy

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Narasa Raju Gosangi


Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is relatively new, environmentally friendly, versatile, and widely used joining technique for soft materials such as aluminum. FSW has got a lot of attention as a solid-state joining method which avoids many common problems of fusion welding and provides an improved way of producing aluminum joints in a faster way. FSW can be used for various aerospace, defense, automotive and transportation applications. It is necessary to understand the friction stir welded joints and its characteristics to use this new joining technique in critical applications. This study investigated the mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminum 6063 alloys. FSW is carried out based on the design of experiments using L16 mixed level array by considering tool rotational speeds, tool feed rate and tool tilt angles as process parameters. The optimization of process parameters is carried by Taguchi based regression analysis and the significance of process parameters is analyzed using ANOVA. It is observed that the considered process parameters are high influences the mechanical properties of Al6063.

Keywords: FSW, aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, optimization, Taguchi, ANOVA

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873 Influence of Age and Religion on Sexual Behaviours of Undergraduates in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: Tosin Emmanuel Akinduyo, F. O. Ojewola


This study investigated the influence of age and religion on the sexual behaviours of undergraduates in southwest Nigeria. The aim of this study is to examine the sexual behaviour of undergraduates based on moderating variables of age and religion. The research design was a descriptive research design of the survey type. The sample for the study was 1,200 undergraduates selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. A self-constructed questionnaire titled “Sexual Behaviours Questionnaire” (SBCUQ) with Pearson reliability (r) of 0.68 was used to elicit information from the respondents. Two research questions were answered using frequency count, percentage, means, and standard deviation. The two hypotheses were tested using t-test and ANOVA. Where the result of ANOVA showed a significant difference, the Scheffe Posthoc test was used to show where the significant difference (s) occurred. The findings of the study revealed that age and religion influenced undergraduates’ sexual behaviour. Based on the findings, the government at all tiers, in collaboration with the university management, should introduce sex education as a course to enlighten undergraduates and inform them of moderation needed as expected in their sexual expressions. Professional counsellors and religious organizations should always line up seminars and workshops for undergraduates on acceptable engagement in their sexual behaviours.

Keywords: age, religion, sexual behaviuors, undergraduates

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872 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting on Spring-Back in V-Bending Process for High Strength Low Alloy Steel HSLA 420 Using FEA (HyperForm) and Taguchi Technique

Authors: Navajyoti Panda, R. S. Pawar


In this study, process parameters like punch angle, die opening, grain direction, and pre-bend condition of the strip for deep draw of high strength low alloy steel HSLA 420 are investigated. The finite element method (FEM) in association with the Taguchi and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques are carried out to investigate the degree of importance of process parameters in V-bending process for HSLA 420&ST12 grade material. From results, it is observed that punch angle had a major influence on the spring-back. Die opening also showed very significant role on spring back. On the other hand, it is revealed that grain direction had the least impact on spring back; however, if strip from flat sheet is taken, then it is less prone to spring back as compared to the strip from sheet metal coil. HyperForm software is used for FEM simulation and experiments are designed using Taguchi method. Percentage contribution of the parameters is obtained through the ANOVA techniques.

Keywords: bending, spring-back, v-bending, FEM, Taguchi, HSLA 420 and St12 materials, HyperForm, profile projector

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871 Modeling Studies on the Elevated Temperatures Formability of Tube Ends Using RSM

Authors: M. J. Davidson, N. Selvaraj, L. Venugopal


The elevated temperature forming studies on the expansion of thin walled tubes have been studied in the present work. The influence of process parameters namely the die angle, the die ratio and the operating temperatures on the expansion of tube ends at elevated temperatures is carried out. The range of operating parameters have been identified by perfoming extensive simulation studies. The hot forming parameters have been evaluated for AA2014 alloy for performing the simulation studies. Experimental matrix has been developed from the feasible range got from the simulation results. The design of experiments is used for the optimization of process parameters. Response Surface Method’s (RSM) and Box-Behenken design (BBD) is used for developing the mathematical model for expansion. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to analyze the influence of process parameters on the expansion of tube ends. The effect of various process combinations of expansion are analyzed through graphical representations. The developed model is found to be appropriate as the coefficient of determination value is very high and is equal to 0.9726. The predicted values are found to coincide well with the experimental results, within acceptable error limits.

Keywords: expansion, optimization, Response Surface Method (RSM), ANOVA, bbd, residuals, regression, tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 457