Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6931

Search results for: turbulent kinetic energy

6931 CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: A. Khaleel, S. Gao

Abstract:

Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k- models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k- model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown a good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.

Keywords: mixed convection, lid-driven cavity, turbulent flow, RANS model, large Eddy simulation

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6930 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), localization, turbulence, turbulent spectrum

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6929 Simulation Study on Vehicle Drag Reduction by Surface Dimples

Authors: S. F. Wong, S. S. Dol

Abstract:

Automotive designers have been trying to use dimples to reduce drag in vehicles. In this work, a car model has been applied with dimple surface with a parameter called dimple ratio DR, the ratio between the depths of the half dimple over the print diameter of the dimple, has been introduced and numerically simulated via k-ε turbulence model to study the aerodynamics performance with the increasing depth of the dimples The Ahmed body car model with 25 degree slant angle is simulated with the DR of 0.05, 0.2, 0.3 0.4 and 0.5 at Reynolds number of 176387 based on the frontal area of the car model. The geometry of dimple changes the kinematics and dynamics of flow. Complex interaction between the turbulent fluctuating flow and the mean flow escalates the turbulence quantities. The maximum level of turbulent kinetic energy occurs at DR = 0.4. It can be concluded that the dimples have generated extra turbulence energy at the surface and as a result, the application of dimples manages to reduce the drag coefficient of the car model compared to the model with smooth surface.

Keywords: aerodynamics, boundary layer, dimple, drag, kinetic energy, turbulence

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6928 Behaviours of Energy Spectrum at Low Reynolds Numbers in Grid Turbulence

Authors: Md Kamruzzaman, Lyazid Djenidi, R. A. Antonia

Abstract:

This paper reports an experimental investigation of the energy spectrum of turbulent velocity fields at low Reynolds numbers ( Rλ ) in grid turbulence. Hot wire measurements are carried out in grid turbulence with subjected to a 1.36:1 contraction of the wind tunnel. Three different grids are used: (i) large square perforated grid (mesh size 43.75 mm), (ii) small square perforated grid (mesh size 14 and (iii) woven mesh grid (mesh size 5mm). The results indicate that the energy spectrum at small Rλ does not follow Kolmogorov’s universal scaling. It is further found that the critical Reynolds number,Rλ,ϲ below which the scaling breaks down is around 25.

Keywords: energy spectrum, Taylor microscale, Reynolds number, turbulent kinetic energy, decay exponent

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
6927 Flow Control around Bluff Bodies by Attached Permeable Plates

Authors: Gokturk Memduh Ozkan, Huseyin Akilli

Abstract:

The aim of present study is to control the unsteady flow structure downstream of a circular cylinder by use of attached permeable plates. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique and dye visualization experiments were performed in deep water and the flow characteristics were evaluated by means of time-averaged streamlines, Reynolds Shear Stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy concentrations. The permeable plate was made of a chrome-nickel screen having a porosity value of β=0.6 and it was attached on the cylinder surface along its midspan. Five different angles were given to the plate (θ=0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°) with respect to the centerline of the cylinder in order to examine its effect on the flow control. It was shown that the permeable plate is effective on elongating the vortex formation length and reducing the fluctuations in the wake region. Compared to the plain cylinder, the reductions in the values of maximum Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy were evaluated as 72.5% and 66%, respectively for the plate angles of θ=45° and 60° which were also found to be suggested for applications concerning the vortex shedding and consequent Vortex-Induced Vibrations.

Keywords: bluff body, flow control, permeable plate, PIV, VIV, vortex shedding

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
6926 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.

Keywords: erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
6925 Numerical Investigation of Tsunami Flow Characteristics and Energy Reduction through Flexible Vegetation

Authors: Abhishek Mukherjee, Juan C. Cajas, Jenny Suckale, Guillaume Houzeaux, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Simone Marras

Abstract:

The investigation of tsunami flow characteristics and the quantification of tsunami energy reduction through the coastal vegetation is important to understand the protective benefits of nature-based mitigation parks. In the present study, a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic incompressible Computational Fluid Dynamics model with a two-way coupling enabled fluid-structure interaction approach (FSI) is used. After validating the numerical model against experimental data, tsunami flow characteristics have been investigated by varying vegetation density, modulus of elasticity, the gap between stems, and arrangement or distribution of vegetation patches. Streamwise depth average velocity profiles, turbulent kinetic energy, energy flux reflection, and dissipation extracted by the numerical study will be presented in this study. These diagnostics are essential to assess the importance of different parameters to design the proper coastal defense systems. When a tsunami wave reaches the shore, it transforms into undular bores, which induce scour around offshore structures and sediment transport. The bed shear stress, instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy, and the vorticity near-bed will be presented to estimate the importance of vegetation to prevent tsunami-induced scour and sediment transport.

Keywords: coastal defense, energy flux, fluid-structure interaction, natural hazards, sediment transport, tsunami mitigation

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6924 Numerical Analysis on the Effect of Abrasive Parameters on Wall Shear Stress and Jet Exit Kinetic Energy

Authors: D. Deepak, N. Yagnesh Sharma

Abstract:

Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) machining is a relatively new nontraditional machine tool used in machining of fiber reinforced composite. The quality of machined surface depends on jet exit kinetic energy which depends on various operating and material parameters. In the present work the effect abrasive parameters such as its size, concentration and type on jet kinetic energy is investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In addition, the effect of these parameters on wall shear stress developed inside the nozzle is also investigated. It is found that for the same operating parameters, increase in the abrasive volume fraction (concentration) results in significant decrease in the wall shear stress as well as the jet exit kinetic energy. Increase in the abrasive particle size results in marginal decrease in the jet exit kinetic energy. Numerical simulation also indicates that garnet abrasives produce better jet exit kinetic energy than aluminium oxide and silicon carbide.

Keywords: abrasive water jet machining, jet kinetic energy, operating pressure, wall shear stress, Garnet abrasive

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6923 Analysis of Two Phase Hydrodynamics in a Column Flotation by Particle Image Velocimetry

Authors: Balraju Vadlakonda, Narasimha Mangadoddy

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic behavior in a laboratory column flotation was analyzed using particle image velocimetry. For complete characterization of column flotation, it is necessary to determine the flow velocity induced by bubbles in the liquid phase, the bubble velocity and bubble characteristics:diameter,shape and bubble size distribution. An experimental procedure for analyzing simultaneous, phase-separated velocity measurements in two-phase flows was introduced. The non-invasive PIV technique has used to quantify the instantaneous flow field, as well as the time averaged flow patterns in selected planes of the column. Using the novel particle velocimetry (PIV) technique by the combination of fluorescent tracer particles, shadowgraphy and digital phase separation with masking technique measured the bubble velocity as well as the Reynolds stresses in the column. Axial and radial mean velocities as well as fluctuating components were determined for both phases by averaging the sufficient number of double images. Bubble size distribution was cross validated with high speed video camera. Average turbulent kinetic energy of bubble were analyzed. Different air flow rates were considered in the experiments.

Keywords: particle image velocimetry (PIV), bubble velocity, bubble diameter, turbulent kinetic energy

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6922 The Potential of Braking Energy Recuperation in a City Bus Diesel Engine in the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Grzegorz Baranski, Piotr Kacejko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Mariusz Duk

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of a bus-driving scheme. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the mechanical energy recuperation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass. The research results show that fuel economy is impacted by kinetic energy recuperation.

Keywords: heavy duty vehicle, city bus, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy, simulations

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6921 Performance of Slot-Entry Hybrid Worn Journal Bearing under Turbulent Lubrication

Authors: Nathi Ram, Saurabh K. Yadav

Abstract:

In turbomachinery, the turbulent flow occurs due to the use of high velocity of low kinematic viscosity lubricants and used in many industrial applications. In the present work, the performance of symmetric slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under laminar and turbulent lubrication has been investigated. For turbulent lubrication, the Reynolds equation has been modified using Constantinescu turbulent model. This modified equation has been solved using the finite element method. The effect of turbulent lubrication on bearing’s performance has been presented for symmetric hybrid journal bearing. The slot-entry hybrid worn journal bearing under turbulent/laminar regimes have been investigated. It has been observed that the stiffness and damping coefficients are more for the bearing having slot width ratio (SWR) of 0.25 than the bearing with SWR of 0.5 and 0.75 under the turbulent regime. Further, it is also observed that for constant wear depth parameter, stability threshold speed gets increased for bearing operates at slot width ratio 0.25 under turbulent lubrication.

Keywords: hydrostatic bearings, journal bearings, restrictors, turbulent flow models, finite element technique

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6920 The Minimum Patch Size Scale for Seagrass Canopy Restoration

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Teresa Serra

Abstract:

The loss of seagrass meadows worldwide is being tackled by formulating coastal restoration strategies. Seagrass loss results in a network of vegetated patches which are barely interconnected, and consequently, the ecological services they provide may be highly compromised. Hence, there is a need to optimize coastal management efforts in order to implement successful restoration strategies, not only through modifying the architecture of the canopies but also by gathering together information on the hydrodynamic conditions of the seabeds. To obtain information on the hydrodynamics within the patches of vegetation, this study deals with the scale analysis of the minimum lengths of patch management strategies that can be effectively used on. To this aim, a set of laboratory experiments were conducted in a laboratory flume where the plant densities, patch lengths, and hydrodynamic conditions were varied to discern the vegetated patch lengths that can provide optimal ecosystem services for canopy development. Two possible patch behaviours based on the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production were determined: one where plants do not interact with the flow and the other where plants interact with waves and produce TKE. Furthermore, this study determines the minimum patch lengths that can provide successful management restoration. A canopy will produce TKE, depending on its density, the length of the vegetated patch, and the wave velocities. Therefore, a vegetated patch will produce plant-wave interaction under high wave velocities when it presents large lengths and high canopy densities.

Keywords: seagrass, minimum patch size, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

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6919 Numerical Investigation of the Bio-fouling Roughness Effect on Tidal Turbine

Authors: O. Afshar

Abstract:

Unlike other renewable energy sources, tidal current energy is an extremely reliable, predictable and continuous energy source as the current pattern and speed can be predicted throughout the year. A key concern associated with tidal turbines is their long-term reliability when operating in the hostile marine environment. Bio-fouling changes the physical shape and roughness of turbine components, hence altering the overall turbine performance. This paper seeks to employ Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to quantify the effects of this problem based on the obtained flow field information. The simulation is carried out on a NACA 63-618 aerofoil. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulent model are used to simulate the flow around the model. Different levels of fouling are studied on 2D aerofoil surface with quantified fouling height and density. In terms of lift and drag coefficient results, numerical results show good agreement with the experiment which was carried out in wind tunnel. Numerical results of research indicate that an increase in fouling thickness causes an increase in drag coefficient and a reduction in lift coefficient. Moreover, pressure gradient gradually becomes adverse as height of fouling increases. In addition, result by turbulent kinetic energy contour reveals it increases with fouling height and it extends into wake due to flow separation.

Keywords: tidal energy, lift coefficient, drag coefficient, roughness

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6918 The Gasoil Hydrofining Kinetics Constants Identification

Authors: C. Patrascioiu, V. Matei, N. Nicolae

Abstract:

The paper describes the experiments and the kinetic parameters calculus of the gasoil hydrofining. They are presented experimental results of gasoil hidrofining using Mo and promoted with Ni on aluminum support catalyst. The authors have adapted a kinetic model gasoil hydrofining. Using this proposed kinetic model and the experimental data they have calculated the parameters of the model. The numerical calculus is based on minimizing the difference between the experimental sulf concentration and kinetic model estimation.

Keywords: hydrofining, kinetic, modeling, optimization

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6917 Study of the Microstructural Evolution and Precipitation Kinetic in AZ91 Alloys

Authors: A. Azizi, M. Toubane, L. Chetibi

Abstract:

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a widely used technique for the study of phase transformations, particularly in the study of precipitation. The kinetic of the precipitation and dissolution is always related to the concept of activation energy Ea. The determination of the activation energy gives important information about the kinetic of the precipitation reaction. In this work, we were interested in the study of the isothermal and non-isothermal treatments on the decomposition of the supersaturated solid solution in the alloy AZ91 (Mg-9 Al-Zn 1-0.2 Mn. mass fraction %), using Differential Calorimetric method. Through this method, the samples were heat treated up to 425° C, using different rates. To calculate the apparent activation energies associated with the formation of precipitated phases, we used different isoconversional methods. This study was supported by other analysis: X-ray diffraction and microhardness measurements.

Keywords: calorimetric, activation energy, AZ91 alloys, microstructural evolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
6916 Numerical Study of a Ventilation Principle Based on Flow Pulsations

Authors: Amir Sattari, Mac Panah, Naeim Rashidfarokhi

Abstract:

To enhance the mixing of fluid in a rectangular enclosure with a circular inlet and outlet, an energy-efficient approach is further investigated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements help confirm that the pulsation of the inflow velocity improves the mixing performance inside the enclosure considerably without increasing energy consumption. In this study, multiple CFD simulations with different turbulent models were performed. The results obtained were compared with experimental PIV results. This study investigates small-scale representations of flow patterns in a ventilated rectangular room. The objective is to validate the concept of an energy-efficient ventilation strategy with improved thermal comfort and reduction of stagnant air inside the room. Experimental and simulated results confirm that through pulsation of the inflow velocity, strong secondary vortices are generated downstream of the entrance wall-jet. The pulsatile inflow profile promotes a periodic generation of vortices with stronger eddies despite a relatively low inlet velocity, which leads to a larger boundary layer with increased kinetic energy in the occupied zone. A real-scale study was not conducted; however, it can be concluded that a constant velocity inflow profile can be replaced with a lower pulsated flow rate profile while preserving the mixing efficiency. Among the turbulent CFD models demonstrated in this study, SST-kω is most advantageous, exhibiting a similar global airflow pattern as in the experiments. The detailed near-wall velocity profile is utilized to identify the wall-jet instabilities that consist of mixing and boundary layers. The SAS method was later applied to predict the turbulent parameters in the center of the domain. In both cases, the predictions are in good agreement with the measured results.

Keywords: CFD, PIV, pulsatile inflow, ventilation, wall-jet

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6915 Non-Linear Velocity Fields in Turbulent Wave Boundary Layer

Authors: Shamsul Chowdhury

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present the detailed analysis of the turbulent wave boundary layer produced by progressive finite-amplitude waves theory. Most of the works have done for the mass transport in the turbulent boundary layer assuming the eddy viscosity is not time varying, where the sediment movement is induced by the mean velocity. Near the ocean bottom, the waves produce a thin turbulent boundary layer, where the flow is highly rotational, and shear stress associated with the fluid motion cannot be neglected. The magnitude and the predominant direction of the sediment transport near the bottom are known to be closely related to the flow in the wave induced boundary layer. The magnitude of water particle velocity at the Crest phase differs from the one of the Trough phases due to the non-linearity of the waves, which plays an important role to determine the sediment movement. The non-linearity of the waves become predominant in the surf zone area, where the sediment movement occurs vigorously. Therefore, in order to describe the flow near the bottom and relationship between the flow and the movement of the sediment, the analysis was done using the non-linear boundary layer equation and the finite amplitude wave theory was applied to represent the velocity fields in the turbulent wave boundary layer. At first, the calculation was done for turbulent wave boundary layer by two-dimensional model where throughout the calculation is non-linear. But Stokes second order wave profile is adopted at the upper boundary. The calculated profile was compared with the experimental data. Finally, the calculation is done based on various modes of the velocity and turbulent energy. The mean velocity is found to differ from condition of the relative depth and the roughness. It is also found that due to non-linearity, the absolute value for velocity and turbulent energy as well as Reynolds stress are asymmetric. The mean velocity of the laminar boundary layer is always positive but in the turbulent boundary layer plays a very complicated role.

Keywords: wave boundary, mass transport, mean velocity, shear stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
6914 Energy Conservation in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Nadia Allouache

Abstract:

Energy conservation is one of the major concerns in the modern high tech era due to the limited amount of energy resources and the increasing cost of energy. Predicting an efficient use of energy in thermal systems like heat exchangers can only be achieved if the second law of thermodynamics is accounted for. The performance of heat exchangers can be substantially improved by many passive heat transfer augmentation techniques. These letters permit to improve heat transfer rate and to increase exchange surface, but on the other side, they also increase the friction factor associated with the flow. This raises the question of how to employ these passive techniques in order to minimize the useful energy. The objective of this present study is to use a porous substrate attached to the walls as a passive enhancement technique in heat exchangers and to find the compromise between the hydrodynamic and thermal performances under turbulent flow conditions, by using a second law approach. A modified k- ε model is used to simulating the turbulent flow in the porous medium and the turbulent shear flow is accounted for in the entropy generation equation. A numerical modeling, based on the finite volume method is employed for discretizing the governing equations. Effects of several parameters are investigated such as the porous substrate properties and the flow conditions. Results show that under certain conditions of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and its effective thermal conductivity the minimum rate of entropy production is obtained.

Keywords: second law approach, annular heat exchanger, turbulent flow, porous medium, modified model, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
6913 Numerical Simulation of Laser ‎Propagation through Turbulent ‎Atmosphere Using Zernike ‎Polynomials

Authors: Mohammad Moradi ‎

Abstract:

In this article, propagation of a laser beam through turbulent ‎atmosphere is evaluated. At first the laser beam is simulated and then ‎turbulent atmosphere will be simulated by using Zernike polynomials. ‎Some parameter like intensity, PSF will be measured for four ‎wavelengths in different Cn2.

Keywords: laser beam propagation, phase screen, turbulent atmosphere, Zernike ‎polynomials

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6912 A Study on Kinetic of Nitrous Oxide Catalytic Decomposition over CuO/HZSM-5

Authors: Y. J. Song, Q. S. Xu, X. C. Wang, H. Wang, C. Q. Li

Abstract:

The catalyst of copper oxide loaded on HZSM-5 was developed for nitrous oxide (N₂O) direct decomposition. The kinetic of nitrous oxide decomposition was studied for CuO/HZSM-5 catalyst prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. The external and internal diffusion of catalytic reaction were considered in the investigation. Experiment results indicated that the external diffusion was basically eliminated when the reaction gas mixture gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was higher than 9000h⁻¹ and the influence of the internal diffusion was negligible when the particle size of the catalyst CuO/HZSM-5 was small than 40-60 mesh. The experiment results showed that the kinetic of catalytic decomposition of N₂O was a first-order reaction and the activation energy and the pre-factor of the kinetic equation were 115.15kJ/mol and of 1.6×109, respectively.

Keywords: catalytic decomposition, CuO/HZSM-5, kinetic, nitrous oxide

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6911 Defining the Turbulent Coefficients with the Effect of Atmospheric Stability in Wake of a Wind Turbine Wake

Authors: Mohammad A. Sazzad, Md M. Alam

Abstract:

Wind energy is one of the cleanest form of renewable energy. Despite wind industry is growing faster than ever there are some roadblocks towards the improvement. One of the difficulties the industry facing is insufficient knowledge about wake within the wind farms. As we know energy is generated in the lowest layer of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This interaction between the wind turbine (WT) blades and wind introduces a low speed wind region which is defined as wake. This wake region shows different characteristics under each stability condition of the ABL. So, it is fundamental to know this wake region well which is defined mainly by turbulence transport and wake shear. Defining the wake recovery length and width are very crucial for wind farm to optimize the generation and reduce the waste of power to the grid. Therefore, in order to obtain the turbulent coefficients of velocity and length, this research focused on the large eddy simulation (LES) data for neutral ABL (NABL). According to turbulent theory, if we can present velocity defect and Reynolds stress in the form of local length and velocity scales, they become invariant. In our study velocity and length coefficients are 0.4867 and 0.4794 respectively which is close to the theoretical value of 0.5 for NABL. There are some invariant profiles because of the presence of thermal and wind shear power coefficients varied a little from the ideal condition.

Keywords: atmospheric boundary layer, renewable energy, turbulent coefficient, wind turbine, wake

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6910 Data-Driven Analysis of Velocity Gradient Dynamics Using Neural Network

Authors: Nishant Parashar, Sawan S. Sinha, Balaji Srinivasan

Abstract:

We perform an investigation of the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the velocity gradient tensor (VGT) in compressible decaying turbulent flow. Velocity gradients in a compressible turbulent flow field influence several important nonlinear turbulent processes like cascading and intermittency. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of the velocity gradients various researchers have tried to model the unclosed terms in the evolution equation of the VGT. The existing models proposed for these unclosed terms have limited applicability. This is mainly attributable to the complex structure of the higher order gradient terms appearing in the evolution equation of VGT. We investigate these higher order gradients using the data from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of compressible decaying isotropic turbulent flow. The gas kinetic method aided with weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme (WENO) based flow- reconstruction is employed to generate DNS data. By applying neural-network to the DNS data, we map the structure of the unclosed higher order gradient terms in the evolution of the equation of the VGT with VGT itself. We validate our findings by performing alignment based study of the unclosed higher order gradient terms obtained using the neural network with the strain rate eigenvectors.

Keywords: compressible turbulence, neural network, velocity gradient tensor, direct numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6909 Mapping the Turbulence Intensity and Excess Energy Available to Small Wind Systems over 4 Major UK Cities

Authors: Francis C. Emejeamara, Alison S. Tomlin, James Gooding

Abstract:

Due to the highly turbulent nature of urban air flows, and by virtue of the fact that turbines are likely to be located within the roughness sublayer of the urban boundary layer, proposed urban wind installations are faced with major challenges compared to rural installations. The challenge of operating within turbulent winds can however, be counteracted by the development of suitable gust tracking solutions. In order to assess the cost effectiveness of such controls, a detailed understanding of the urban wind resource, including its turbulent characteristics, is required. Estimating the ambient turbulence and total kinetic energy available at different control response times is essential in evaluating the potential performance of wind systems within the urban environment should effective control solutions be employed. However, high resolution wind measurements within the urban roughness sub-layer are uncommon, and detailed CFD modelling approaches are too computationally expensive to apply routinely on a city wide scale. This paper therefore presents an alternative semi-empirical methodology for estimating the excess energy content (EEC) present in the complex and gusty urban wind. An analytical methodology for predicting the total wind energy available at a potential turbine site is proposed by assessing the relationship between turbulence intensities and EEC, for different control response times. The semi-empirical model is then incorporated with an analytical methodology that was initially developed to predict mean wind speeds at various heights within the built environment based on detailed mapping of its aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the current methodology, additional estimates of turbulence intensities and EEC allow a more complete assessment of the available wind resource. The methodology is applied to 4 UK cities with results showing the potential of mapping turbulence intensities and the total wind energy available at different heights within each city. Considering the effect of ambient turbulence and choice of wind system, the wind resource over neighbourhood regions (of 250 m uniform resolution) and building rooftops within the 4 cities were assessed with results highlighting the promise of mapping potential turbine sites within each city.

Keywords: excess energy content, small-scale wind, turbulence intensity, urban wind energy, wind resource assessment

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6908 Evaluate the Kinetic Parameters and Characterize for Waste Prosopis juliflora Pods

Authors: Jean C. G. Silva, Kaline N. Ferreira, Rennio F. Sena, Flavio L. H. Silva

Abstract:

The Prosopis juliflora (called algaroba in Northeastern Region of Brazil) is a species of medium to large size that can reach 18 meters high, being typical of arid and semi-arid regions by to requirement less water to survive; this is a fundamental attribute from its adaptation. It's considered of multiple uses, because the trunk, the fruit, and the algaroba pods are utilized for several purposes, among them, the production of wood from lumber mill, charcoal, alcohol, animal and human consumption, being hence, a culture of economic and social value. The use of waste Prosopis juliflora can be carried out for like pyrolysis and gasification processes, in order to energy production in those regions where it is grown. Thus this study aims to characterize the residue of the algaroba pods and evaluate the kinetic parameters, activation energy (Ea) and pre-exponential factor (k0), the devolatilization process through the data obtained from TG/DTG curves with different levels of heating rates. At work was used the heating rates of 5 K.min-1, 10 K.min-1, 15 K.min-1, 20 K.min-1 and 30 K.min-1, in inert nitrogen atmosphere (99.997%) under a flow of 40 ml.min-1. The kinetic parameters were obtained using the methods of Friedman and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall.

Keywords: activation energy, devolatilization, kinetic parameters, waste

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6907 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry

Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin

Abstract:

Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.

Keywords: flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis

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6906 A Biomimetic Approach for the Multi-Objective Optimization of Kinetic Façade Design

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim

Abstract:

A kinetic façade responds to user requirements and environmental conditions.  In designing a kinetic façade, kinetic patterns play a key role in determining its performance. This paper proposes a biomimetic method for the multi-objective optimization for kinetic façade design. The autonomous decentralized control system is combined with flocking algorithm. The flocking agents are autonomously reacting to sensor values and bring about kinetic patterns changing over time. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the potential and limitations of the flocking based decentralized control. As a result, it could show the highest performance balancing multiple objectives such as solar radiation and openness among the comparison group.

Keywords: biomimicry, flocking algorithm, autonomous decentralized control, multi-objective optimization

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6905 The Modeling of City Bus Fuel Economy during the JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Marcin Szlachetka, Mariusz Duk

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of fuel economy in a city bus driving in a dynamic urban environment. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the bench test results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The fuel consumption was calculated for three separate research stages, i.e. urban, downtown and motorway. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show fuel consumption is impacted by driving dynamics.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
6904 Harvesting of Kinetic Energy of the Raindrops

Authors: K. C. R.Perera, V. P. C Dassanayake, B. M. Hapuwatte, B. G. Smapath

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology to harvest the kinetic energy of the raindrops using piezoelectric devices. In the study 1m×1m PVDF (Polyvinylidene fluoride) piezoelectric membrane, which is fixed by the four edges, is considered for the numerical simulation on deformation of the membrane due to the impact of the raindrops. Then according to the drop size of the rain, the simulation is performed classifying the rainfall types into three categories as light stratiform rain, moderate stratiform rain and heavy thundershower. The impact force of the raindrop is dependent on the terminal velocity of the raindrop, which is a function of raindrop diameter. The results were then analyzed to calculate the harvestable energy from the deformation of the piezoelectric membrane.

Keywords: raindrop, piezoelectricity, deformation, terminal velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
6903 Prediction of Pounding between Two SDOF Systems by Using Link Element Based On Mathematic Relations and Suggestion of New Equation for Impact Damping Ratio

Authors: Seyed M. Khatami, H. Naderpour, R. Vahdani, R. C. Barros

Abstract:

Many previous studies have been carried out to calculate the impact force and the dissipated energy between two neighboring buildings during seismic excitation, when they collide with each other. Numerical studies are an important part of impact, which several researchers have tried to simulate the impact by using different formulas. Estimation of the impact force and the dissipated energy depends significantly on some parameters of impact. Mass of bodies, stiffness of spring, coefficient of restitution, damping ratio of dashpot and impact velocity are some known and unknown parameters to simulate the impact and measure dissipated energy during collision. Collision is usually shown by force-displacement hysteresis curve. The enclosed area of the hysteresis loop explains the dissipated energy during impact. In this paper, the effect of using different types of impact models is investigated in order to calculate the impact force. To increase the accuracy of impact model and to optimize the results of simulations, a new damping equation is assumed and is validated to get the best results of impact force and dissipated energy, which can show the accuracy of suggested equation of motion in comparison with other formulas. This relation is called "n-m". Based on mathematical relation, an initial value is selected for the mentioned coefficients and kinetic energy loss is calculated. After each simulation, kinetic energy loss and energy dissipation are compared with each other. If they are equal, selected parameters are true and, if not, the constant of parameters are modified and a new analysis is performed. Finally, two unknown parameters are suggested to estimate the impact force and calculate the dissipated energy.

Keywords: impact force, dissipated energy, kinetic energy loss, damping relation

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
6902 Numerical Investigation of Incompressible Turbulent Flows by Method of Characteristics

Authors: Ali Atashbar Orang, Carlo Massimo Casciola

Abstract:

A novel numerical approach for the steady incompressible turbulent flows is presented in this paper. The artificial compressibility method (ACM) is applied to the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. A new Characteristic-Based Turbulent (CBT) scheme is developed for the convective fluxes. The well-known Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model is employed to check the effectiveness of this new scheme. Comparing the proposed scheme with previous studies, it is found that the present CBT scheme demonstrates accurate results, high stability and faster convergence. In addition, the local time stepping and implicit residual smoothing are applied as the convergence acceleration techniques. The turbulent flows past a backward facing step, circular cylinder, and NACA0012 hydrofoil are studied as benchmarks. Results compare favorably with those of other available schemes.

Keywords: incompressible turbulent flow, method of characteristics, finite volume, Spalart–Allmaras turbulence model

Procedia PDF Downloads 299