Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8365

Search results for: energy density

8365 Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory of an Oscillating Electron Density around a Nanoparticle

Authors: Nilay K. Doshi


A theoretical probe describing the excited energy states of the electron density surrounding a nanoparticle (NP) is presented. An electromagnetic (EM) wave interacts with a NP much smaller than the incident wavelength. The plasmon that oscillates locally around the NP comprises of excited conduction electrons. The system is based on the Jellium model of a cluster of metal atoms. Hohenberg-Kohn (HK) equations and the variational Kohn-Sham (SK) scheme have been used to obtain the NP electron density in the ground state. Furthermore, a time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) theory is used to treat the excited states in a density functional theory (DFT) framework. The non-interacting fermionic kinetic energy is shown to be a functional of the electron density. The time dependent potential is written as the sum of the nucleic potential and the incoming EM field. This view of the quantum oscillation of the electron density is a part of the localized surface plasmon resonance.

Keywords: electron density, energy, electromagnetic, DFT, TDDFT, plasmon, resonance

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8364 Material Mechanical Property for Improving the Energy Density of Lithium-Ion Battery

Authors: Collins Chike Kwasi-Effah, Timon Rabczuk, Osarobo O. Ighodaro


The energy density of various battery technologies used in the electric vehicle industry still ranges between 250 Wh/kg to 650 Wh/kg, thus limiting their distance range compared to the conventional internal combustion engine vehicle. In order to overcome this limitation, a new material technology is necessary to overcome this limitation. The proposed sole lithium-air battery seems to be far behind in terms of practical implementation. In this paper, experimental analysis using COMSOL multiphysics has been conducted to predict the performance of lithium ion battery with variation in the elastic property of five different cathode materials including; LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, LiCoO2, LiV6O13, and LiTiS2. Combining LiCoO2, and aqueous lithium showed great improvement in the energy density. Thus, the material combination of LiCoO2/aqueous lithium-air could give a practical solution in achieving high energy density for application in the electric vehicle industry.

Keywords: battery energy, energy density, lithium-ion, mechanical property

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8363 Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposite Prepared by Microwave Method and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Jae-Jin Shim


Supercapacitors are energy storage devices capable of storing more energy than conventional capacitors and have higher power density than batteries. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further use of a post-heat treatment unlike the conventional processes, in which calcination is generally employed after obtaining the initial product. Furthermore, it also offers a shorter reaction time at low temperatures and low power requirements, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an electrode material. The as-prepared electrode exhibited a high capacitance of 953 F•g^−1 at 1 A•g^−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte solution. Moreover, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg^−1 at a power density of 720 W•kg^−1, and a high power density of 7200 W•kg^−1 at an energy density of 38 Wh•kg^−1. The successful methodology was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, thereby providing an active electrode material with very promising electrochemical performance.

Keywords: cobalt-manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

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8362 High-Performance Li Doped CuO/Reduced Graphene Oxide Flexible Supercapacitor Electrode

Authors: Ruey-Chi Wang, Po-Hsiang Huang, Ping-Chang Chuang, Shu-Jen Chen


High-performance Li: CuO/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible electrodes for supercapacitors were fabricated via a low-temperature and low-cost route. To increase energy density while maintaining high power density and long-term cyclability, Li was doped to increase the electrical conductivity of CuO particles between RGO flakes. Electrochemical measurements show that the electrical conductivity, specific capacitance, energy density, and rate capability were all enhanced by Li incorporation. The optimized Li:CuO/RGO electrodes show a high energy density of 179.9 Wh/kg and a power density of 900.0 W/kg at a current density of 1 A/g. Cyclic life tests show excellent stability over 10,000 cycles with a capacitance retention of 93.2%. Li doping improves the electrochemical performance of CuO, making CuO a promising pseudocapacitive material for fabricating low-cost excellent supercapacitors.

Keywords: supercapacitor, CuO, RGO, lithium

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8361 A Comparative Case Study on the Relationship between Solar Energy Potential and Block Typology and Density in Shanghai Context

Authors: Dan Zhu, Jie Shi


This study explores the relationship between solar potential and block typology and density by analyzing sixteen existing typical street blocks with different topologies and densities in Shanghai, a representative high-density urban in China. Several indicators are proposed to quantify, and a methodology is conducted to evaluate and compare the solar potential both on façade and roof across various selected urban forms. 1) The importance of appropriate solar energy indicators and geometric parameters to be used in comparative studies, and 2) the relationship between urban typology, density, and solar performance are discussed. In this way, the results reveal the key design attributes contributing to increasing solar potential.

Keywords: block typology, geometric parameters, high-density urban, solar potential

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8360 Electronic Structure Calculation of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe Nanostructures Using Density Functional Theory

Authors: Ankit Kargeti, Ravikant Shrivastav, Tabish Rasheed


The electronic structure calculation for the nanoclusters of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe quaternary semiconductor alloy belonging to the III-V Group elements was performed. Motivation for this research work was to look for accurate electronic and geometric data of small nanoclusters of AsSiTeB/SiAsBTe in the gaseous form. The two clusters, one in the linear form and the other in the bent form, were studied under the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) using the B3LYP functional and LANL2DZ basis set with the software packaged Gaussian 16. We have discussed the Optimized Energy, Frontier Orbital Energy Gap in terms of HOMO-LUMO, Dipole Moment, Ionization Potential, Electron Affinity, Binding Energy, Embedding Energy, Density of States (DoS) spectrum for both structures. The important findings of the predicted nanostructures are that these structures have wide band gap energy, where linear structure has band gap energy (Eg) value is 2.375 eV and bent structure (Eg) value is 2.778 eV. Therefore, these structures can be utilized as wide band gap semiconductors. These structures have high electron affinity value of 4.259 eV for the linear structure and electron affinity value of 3.387 eV for the bent structure form. It shows that electron acceptor capability is high for both forms. The widely known application of these compounds is in the light emitting diodes due to their wide band gap nature.

Keywords: density functional theory, DFT, density functional theory, nanostructures, HOMO-LUMO, density of states

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8359 High Electrochemical Performance of Electrode Material Based On Mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 Nanocomposites

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Deivasigamani Ranjith Kumar, Jae-Jin Shim


The quest for alternative sources of energy storage had led to the exploration on supercapacitors. Hybrid supercapacitors, a combination of carbon-based material and transition metals, had yielded long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, microwave irradiation was used for the facile and rapid synthesis of mesoporous [email protected](Co,Mn)3O4 nanosheets as an active electrode material. The advantages of this method include the non-use of reducing agents and acidic medium, and no further post-heat treatment. Additionally, it offers shorter reaction time at low temperature and low power requirement, which allows low fabrication and energy cost. The as-prepared electrode material demonstrated a high capacitance of 953 F•g−1 at 1 A•g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. Furthermore, the electrode exhibited a high energy density of 76.2 Wh•kg−1 (power density of 720 W•kg−1) and a high power density of 7200 W•kg−1 (energy density of 38 Wh•kg−1). The successful synthesis was considered to be efficient and cost-effective, with very promising electrochemical performance that can be used as an active material in supercapacitors.

Keywords: cobalt manganese oxide, electrochemical, graphene, microwave synthesis, supercapacitor

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8358 Briquetting of Metal Chips by Controlled Impact: Experimental Study

Authors: Todor Penchev, Dimitar Karastojanov, Ivan Altaparmakov


For briquetting of metal chips are used hydraulic and mechanical presses. The density of the briquettes in this case is about 60% - 70 % on the density of solid metal. In this work are presented the results of experimental studies for briquetting of metal chips, by using a new technology for impact briquetting. The used chips are by Armco iron, steel, cast iron, copper, aluminum and brass. It has been found that: (i) in a controlled impact the density of the briquettes can be increases up to 30%; (ii) at the same specific impact energy Es (J/sm3) the density of the briquettes increases with increasing of the impact velocity; (iii), realization of the repeated impact leads to decrease of chips density, which can be explained by distribution of elastic waves in the briquette.

Keywords: briquetting, chips briquetting, impact briquetting, controlled impact

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8357 Hydrothermal Synthesis of Carbon Sphere/Nickel Cobalt Sulfide Core/Shell Microstructure and Its Electrochemical Performance

Authors: Charmaine Lamiel, Van Hoa Nguyen, Marjorie Baynosa, Jae-Jin Shim


Electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention because of their high potential as an efficient energy storage system. The combination of carbon-based material and transition metal oxides/sulfides are studied because they have long and improved cycle life as well as high energy and power densities. In this study, a hierarchical mesoporous carbon sphere/nickel cobalt sulfide (CS/Ni-Co-S) core/shell structure was synthesized using a facile hydrothermal method without any further sulfurization or post-heat treatment. The CS/Ni-Co-S core/shell microstructures exhibited a high capacitance of 724 F g−1 at 2 A g−1 in a 6 M KOH electrolyte. After 2000 charge-discharge cycles, it retained 86.1% of its original capacitance, with high Coulombic efficiency of 97.9%. The electrode exhibited a high energy density of 58.0 Wh kg−1 at an energy density of 1440 W kg−1, and high power density of 7200 W kg−1 at an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg−1. The successful synthesis was considered to be simple and cost-effective which supports the viability of this composite as an alternative activated material for high performance supercapacitors.

Keywords: carbon sphere, electrochemical, hydrothermal, nickel cobalt sulfide, supercapacitor

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8356 Energy Balance Routing to Enhance Network Performance in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: G. Baraneedaran, Deepak Singh, Kollipara Tejesh


The wireless sensors network has been an active research area over the y-ear passed. Due to the limited energy and communication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially important to design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively, an energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. A spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for Local topology is designed additionally. In this experiment, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EECU, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EECU, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high Qos of WSN.

Keywords: energy balance, forward-aware factor (FAF), forward energy density, link weight, network performance

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8355 Food Waste Utilization: A Contemporary Prospect of Meeting Energy Crisis Using Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Bahareh Asefi, Fereidoun Farzaneh, Ghazaleh Asefi, Chang-Ping Yu


Increased production of food waste (FW) is a global issue that is receiving more attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. The generation of electricity from food waste, known as energy recovery, is one of the effective solutions in food waste management. Food waste has high energy content which seems ideal to achieve dual benefits in terms of energy recovery and waste stabilization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for treating food waste and generate electricity. In this work, we will review energy utilization from different kind of food waste using MFC and factors which affected the process. We have studied the key technology of energy generated from food waste using MFC to enhance the food waste management. The power density and electricity production by each kind of food waste and challenges were identified. This work explored the conversion of FW into energy from different type of food waste, which aim to provide a theoretical analysis for energy utilization of food waste.

Keywords: energy generation, food waste, microbial fuel cell, power density

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8354 Modeling Thermionic Emission from Carbon Nanotubes with Modified Richardson-Dushman Equation

Authors: Olukunle C. Olawole, Dilip Kumar De


We have modified Richardson-Dushman equation considering thermal expansion of lattice and change of chemical potential with temperature in material. The corresponding modified Richardson-Dushman (MRDE) equation fits quite well the experimental data of thermoelectronic current density (J) vs T from carbon nanotubes. It provides a unique technique for accurate determination of W0 Fermi energy, EF0 at 0 K and linear thermal expansion coefficient of carbon nano-tube in good agreement with experiment. From the value of EF0 we obtain the charge carrier density in excellent agreement with experiment. We describe application of the equations for the evaluation of performance of concentrated solar thermionic energy converter (STEC) with emitter made of carbon nanotube for future applications.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, modified Richardson-Dushman equation, fermi energy at 0 K, charge carrier density

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8353 Constructing the Density of States from the Parallel Wang Landau Algorithm Overlapping Data

Authors: Arman S. Kussainov, Altynbek K. Beisekov


This work focuses on building an efficient universal procedure to construct a single density of states from the multiple pieces of data provided by the parallel implementation of the Wang Landau Monte Carlo based algorithm. The Ising and Pott models were used as the examples of the two-dimensional spin lattices to construct their densities of states. Sampled energy space was distributed between the individual walkers with certain overlaps. This was made to include the latest development of the algorithm as the density of states replica exchange technique. Several factors of immediate importance for the seamless stitching process have being considered. These include but not limited to the speed and universality of the initial parallel algorithm implementation as well as the data post-processing to produce the expected smooth density of states.

Keywords: density of states, Monte Carlo, parallel algorithm, Wang Landau algorithm

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8352 Lithium and Sodium Ion Capacitors with High Energy and Power Densities based on Carbons from Recycled Olive Pits

Authors: Jon Ajuria, Edurne Redondo, Roman Mysyk, Eider Goikolea


Hybrid capacitor configurations are now of increasing interest to overcome the current energy limitations of supercapacitors entirely based on non-Faradaic charge storage. Among them, Li-ion capacitors including a negative battery-type lithium intercalation electrode and a positive capacitor-type electrode have achieved tremendous progress and have gone up to commercialization. Inexpensive electrode materials from renewable sources have recently received increased attention since cost is a persistently major criterion to make supercapacitors a more viable energy solution, with electrode materials being a major contributor to supercapacitor cost. Additionally, Na-ion battery chemistries are currently under development as less expensive and accessible alternative to Li-ion based battery electrodes. In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitor (LIC & NIC) entirely based on electrodes prepared from carbon materials derived from recycled olive pits. Yearly, around 1 million ton of olive pit waste is generated worldwide, of which a third originates in the Spanish olive oil industry. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized at different temperatures to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the Li/Na ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. The best hard carbon delivers a total capacity of 270mAh/g vs Na/Na+ in 1M NaPF6 and 350mAh/g vs Li/Li+ in 1M LiPF6. On the other hand, the same hard carbon is chemically activated with KOH to obtain high specific surface area -about 2000 m2g-1- activated carbon that is further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. In a voltage window of 1.5-4.2V, activated carbon delivers a specific capacity of 80 mAh/g vs. Na/Na+ and 95 mAh/g vs. Li/Li+ at 0.1A /g. Both electrodes were assembled in the same hybrid cell to build a LIC/NIC. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5M Et4NBF4 electrolyte was also built. Both LIC & NIC demonstrates considerable improvements in the energy density over its EDLC counterpart, delivering a maximum energy density of 110Wh/Kg at a power density of 30W/kg AM and a maximum power density of 6200W/Kg at an energy density of 27 Wh/Kg in the case of NIC and a maximum energy density of 110Wh/Kg at a power density of 30W/kg and a maximum power density of 18000W/Kg at an energy density of 22 Wh/Kg in the case of LIC. In conclusion, our work demonstrates that the same biomass waste can be adapted to offer a hybrid capacitor/battery storage device overcoming the limited energy density of corresponding double layer capacitors.

Keywords: hybrid supercapacitor, Na-Ion capacitor, supercapacitor, Li-Ion capacitor, EDLC

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8351 A Flexible High Energy Density Zn-Air Battery by Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom


This work investigates the development of a high energy density zinc-air battery. Printed and flexible thin film zinc-air battery with an overall thickness of about 350 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder, ZnO, and Bi2O3 was used to prepare the anode electrode. The suitable concentration of Bi2O3 and types of binders (styrene-butadiene and sodium silicate) were investigated. Results showed that battery using 20% Bi2O3 and sodium silicate binder provided the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.59 V and 690 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 20 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.3 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, printed battery, screen printing, Zn-air

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8350 Wear Map for Cu-Based Friction Materials with Different Contents of Fe Reinforcement

Authors: Haibin Zhou, Pingping Yao, Kunyang Fan


Copper-based sintered friction materials are widely used in the brake system of different applications such as engineering machinery or high-speed train, due to the excellent mechanical, thermal and tribological performance. Considering the diversity of the working conditions of brake system, it is necessary to identify well and understand the tribological performance and wear mechanisms of friction materials for different conditions. Fe has been a preferred reinforcement for copper-based friction materials, due to its ability to improve the wear resistance and mechanical properties of material. Wear map is well accepted as a useful research method for evaluation of wear performances and wear mechanisms over a wider range of working conditions. Therefore, it is significantly important to construct a wear map which can give out the effects of work condition and Fe reinforcement on tribological performance of Cu-based friction materials. In this study, the copper-based sintered friction materials with the different addition of Fe reinforcement (0-20 vol. %) were studied. The tribological tests were performed against stainless steel in a ring-on-ring braking tester with varying braking energy density (0-5000 J/cm2). The linear wear and friction coefficient were measured. The worn surface, cross section and debris were analyzed to determine the dominant wear mechanisms for different testing conditions. On the basis of experimental results, the wear map and wear mechanism map were established, in terms of braking energy density and the addition of Fe. It was found that with low contents of Fe and low braking energy density, adhesive wear was the dominant wear mechanism of friction materials. Oxidative wear and abrasive wear mainly occurred under moderate braking energy density. In the condition of high braking energy density, with both high and low addition of Fe, delamination appeared as the main wear mechanism.

Keywords: Cu-based friction materials, Fe reinforcement, wear map, wear mechanism

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8349 Stability Analysis of DC Microgrid with Varying Supercapacitor Operating Voltages

Authors: Annie B. V., Anu A. G., Harikumar R.


Microgrid (MG) is a self-governing miniature section of the power system. Nowadays the majority of loads and energy storage devices are inherently in DC form. This necessitates a greater scope of research in the various types of energy storage devices in DC microgrids. In a modern power system, DC microgrid is a manageable electric power system usually integrated with renewable energy sources (RESs) and DC loads with the help of power electronic converters. The stability of the DC microgrid mainly depends on the power imbalance. Power imbalance due to the presence of intermittent renewable energy resources (RERs) is supplied by energy storage devices. Battery, supercapacitor, flywheel, etc. are some of the commonly used energy storage devices. Owing to the high energy density provided by the batteries, this type of energy storage system is mainly utilized in all sorts of hybrid energy storage systems. To minimize the stability issues, a Supercapacitor (SC) is usually interfaced with the help of a bidirectional DC/DC converter. SC can exchange power during transient conditions due to its high power density. This paper analyses the stability issues of DC microgrids with hybrid energy storage systems (HESSs) arises from a reduction in SC operating voltage due to self-discharge. The stability of DC microgrid and power management is analyzed with different control strategies.

Keywords: DC microgrid, hybrid energy storage system (HESS), power management, small signal modeling, supercapacitor

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8348 Electronic Spectral Function of Double Quantum Dots–Superconductors Nanoscopic Junction

Authors: Rajendra Kumar


We study the Electronic spectral density of a double coupled quantum dots sandwich between superconducting leads, where one of the superconducting leads (QD1) are connected with left superconductor lead and (QD1) also connected right superconductor lead. (QD1) and (QD2) are coupling to each other. The electronic spectral density through a quantum dots between superconducting leads having s-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Such junction is called superconducting –quantum dot (S-QD-S) junction. For this purpose, we have considered a renormalized Anderson model that includes the double coupled of the superconducting leads with the quantum dots level and an attractive BCS-type effective interaction in superconducting leads. We employed the Green’s function technique to obtain superconducting order parameter with the BCS framework and Ambegaoker-Baratoff formalism to analyze the electronic spectral density through such (S-QD-S) junction. It has been pointed out that electronic spectral density through such a junction is dominated by the attractive the paring interaction in the leads, energy of the level on the dot with respect to Fermi energy and also on the coupling parameter of the two in an essential way. On the basis of numerical analysis we have compared the theoretical results of electronic spectral density with the recent transport existing theoretical analysis. QDs is the charging energy that may give rise to effects based on the interplay of Coulomb repulsion and superconducting correlations. It is, therefore, an interesting question to ask how the discrete level spectrum and the charging energy affect the DC and AC Josephson transport between two superconductors coupled via a QD. In the absence of a bias voltage, a finite DC current can be sustained in such an S-QD-S by the DC Josephson effect.

Keywords: quantum dots, S-QD-S junction, BCS superconductors, Anderson model

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8347 A Generalisation of Pearson's Curve System and Explicit Representation of the Associated Density Function

Authors: S. B. Provost, Hossein Zareamoghaddam


A univariate density approximation technique whereby the derivative of the logarithm of a density function is assumed to be expressible as a rational function is introduced. This approach which extends Pearson’s curve system is solely based on the moments of a distribution up to a determinable order. Upon solving a system of linear equations, the coefficients of the polynomial ratio can readily be identified. An explicit solution to the integral representation of the resulting density approximant is then obtained. It will be explained that when utilised in conjunction with sample moments, this methodology lends itself to the modelling of ‘big data’. Applications to sets of univariate and bivariate observations will be presented.

Keywords: density estimation, log-density, moments, Pearson's curve system

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8346 The Effect of Different Composition of Dairy Cattle Feces Briquette on Moisture and Briquette Density

Authors: Dita Aviana Dewi, Heri Muji, Dian Nur Amalia, Nanung Agus Fitriyanto


Utilization of cow feces as a source of alternative energy can be done with turn it as briquettes. Cow feces generate heat around 4000 Cal/g and the methane gas (CH4) are quite high. Methane gas is one of the essential elements in briquettes which serve as the ignition, so that is resulting briquettes combustible. This study aims to know the difference of the composition of the constituents of briquette moisture content and density. Dairy cattle feces used as the main ingredient with additional material from the waste of the agricultural industry in the form of husk. This study was conducted with three treatments, namely T0= feces 1: husk 1, T1= feces 2: husk 1, and T2= feces 3: husk 1. Each treatment was replicated three times. The experimental design used was Complete Random Design Pattern in line with testing of Dunnet. The observed variables are moisture content and density of the briquettes. Results of this study showed an average moisture content of T0 is 31,17%, T1 is 28,14%, and T2 is 49.95%. The average density of briquettes at T0 is 1,0787 g/cm3, T1 is 1,1448 g/cm3, and T2 is 1,1133 g/cm3. Summary of the study is to take the difference of the composition of the feces and the husk do not have significant effects on moisture content and density of briquettes (p < 0.05).

Keywords: dairy cattle feces, briquette, moisture, density

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8345 Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya

Authors: Farag Ahwide, Souhel Bousheha


A technical assessment has been made of electricity generation, considering wind turbines ranging between Vestas (V80-2.0 MW and V112-3.0 MW) and the air density is equal to 1.225 Kg/m3, at different towns in Libya. Wind speed might have been measured each 3 hours during 10 m stature at a time for 10 quite sometime between 2000 Furthermore 2009, these towns which are spotted on the bank from claiming Mediterranean ocean also how in the desert, which need aid Derna 1, Derna 2, Shahat, Benghazi, Ajdabya, Sirte, Misurata, Tripoli-Airport, Al-Zawya, Al-Kofra, Sabha, Nalut. The work presented long term "wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations at these sites. Wind power density with different heights has been studied. Excel sheet program was used to calculate the values of wind power density and the values of wind speed frequency for the stations; their seasonally values have been estimated. Limit variable with rated wind pace to 10 different wind turbines need to be been estimated, which is used to focus those required yearly vitality yield of a wind vitality change framework (WECS), acknowledging wind turbines extending between 600 kW and 3000 kW).

Keywords: energy yield, wind turbines, wind speed, wind power density

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8344 Extended Strain Energy Density Criterion for Fracture Investigation of Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Hannaneh Manafi Farid


In order to predict the fracture behavior of cracked orthotropic materials under mixed-mode loading, well-known minimum strain energy density (SED) criterion is extended. The crack is subjected along the fibers at plane strain conditions. Despite the complicities to solve the nonlinear equations which are requirements of SED criterion, SED criterion for anisotropic materials is derived. In the present research, fracture limit curve of SED criterion is depicted by a numerical solution, hence the direction of crack growth is figured out by derived criterion, MSED. The validated MSED demonstrates the improvement in prediction of fracture behavior of the materials. Also, damaged factor that plays a crucial role in the fracture behavior of quasi-brittle materials is derived from this criterion and proved its dependency on mechanical properties and direction of crack growth.

Keywords: mixed-mode fracture, minimum strain energy density criterion, orthotropic materials, fracture limit curve, mode II critical stress intensity factor

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8343 A Molecular-Level Study of Combining the Waste Polymer and High-Concentration Waste Cooking Oil as an Additive on Reclamation of Aged Asphalt Pavement

Authors: Qiuhao Chang, Liangliang Huang, Xingru Wu


In the United States, over 90% of the roads are paved with asphalt. The aging of asphalt is the most serious problem that causes the deterioration of asphalt pavement. Waste cooking oils (WCOs) have been found they can restore the properties of aged asphalt and promote the reuse of aged asphalt pavement. In our previous study, it was found the optimal WCO concentration to restore the aged asphalt sample should be in the range of 10~15 wt% of the aged asphalt sample. After the WCO concentration exceeds 15 wt%, as the WCO concentration increases, some important properties of the asphalt sample can be weakened by the addition of WCO, such as cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, etc. However, maximizing the utilization of WCO can create environmental and economic benefits. Therefore, in this study, a new idea about using the waste polymer is another additive to restore the WCO modified asphalt that contains a high concentration of WCO (15-25 wt%) is proposed, which has never been reported before. In this way, both waste polymer and WCO can be utilized. The molecular dynamics simulation is used to study the effect of waste polymer on properties of WCO modified asphalt and understand the corresponding mechanism at the molecular level. The radial distribution function, self-diffusion, cohesion energy density, surface free energy density, bulk modulus, shear modulus, adhesion energy between asphalt and aggregate are analyzed to validate the feasibility of combining the waste polymer and WCO to restore the aged asphalt. Finally, the optimal concentration of waste polymer and WCO are determined.

Keywords: reclaim aged asphalt pavement, waste cooking oil, waste polymer, molecular dynamics simulation

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8342 Phosphorus Recovery Optimization in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Abdullah Almatouq


Understanding the impact of key operational variables on concurrent energy generation and phosphorus recovery in microbial fuel cell is required to improve the process and reduce the operational cost. In this study, full factorial design (FFD) and central composite designs (CCD) were employed to identify the effect of influent COD concentration and cathode aeration flow rate on energy generation and phosphorus (P) recovery and to optimise MFC power density and P recovery. Results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and cathode aeration flow rate had a significant effect on power density, coulombic efficiency, phosphorus precipitation efficiency and phosphorus precipitation rate at the cathode. P precipitation was negatively affected by the generated current during the batch duration. The generated energy was reduced due to struvite being precipitated on the cathode surface, which might obstruct the mass transfer of ions and oxygen. Response surface mathematical model was used to predict the optimum operating conditions that resulted in a maximum power density and phosphorus precipitation efficiency of 184 mW/m² and 84%, and this corresponds to COD= 1700 mg/L and aeration flow rate=210 mL/min. The findings highlight the importance of the operational conditions of energy generation and phosphorus recovery.

Keywords: energy, microbial fuel cell, phosphorus, struvite

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8341 Correlation of Building Density toward Land Surface Temperature 2018 in Medan City

Authors: Andi Syahputra, R. H. Jatmiko, D. R. Hizbaron


Land surface temperature (LST) in an area is influenced by conditions of vegetation density, building density, and the number of inhabitants who live in the area. Medan City is one of the largest cities in Indonesia, with a high rate of change from vegetation to developed land. This study aims to identify the relationship between the percentage of building density and land surface temperature in Medan City. Pixel image analysis method is carried out to obtain the value of building density in pixel images of Landsat 8 images with the help of WorldView-2 satellite imagery. The results showed the highest land surface temperature in 2018 of 35, 4°C was found in Medan Perjuangan District, and the lowest was 22.5°C in Medan Belawan District. Building density samples with a density level of 889.17 m were also found in Medan Perjuangan District, while the lowest building density sample was found in Medan Timur District. Linear regression analysis of the effect of building density with land surface temperature obtained a correlation (R) was 0.64, and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.411 and modeling of building density based on the LST has a correlation (R), and a coefficient of determination (R²) was 0.72 with The RMSE obtained 0.853.

Keywords: land surface temperature, Landsat, imagery, building density, vegetation, density

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8340 Calculation of Lattice Constants and Band Gaps for Generalized Quasicrystals of InGaN Alloy: A First Principle Study

Authors: Rohin Sharma, Sumantu Chaulagain


This paper presents calculations of total energy of InGaN alloy carried out in a disordered quasirandom structure for a triclinic super cell. This structure replicates the disorder and composition effect in the alloy. First principle calculations within the density functional theory with the local density approximation approach is employed to accurately determine total energy of the system. Lattice constants and band gaps associated with the ground states are then estimated for different concentration ratios of the alloy. We provide precise results of quasirandom structures of the alloy and their lattice constants with the total energy and band gap energy of the system for the range of seven different composition ratios and their respective lattice parameters.

Keywords: DFT, ground state, LDA, quasicrystal, triclinic super cell

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8339 Application of a Generalized Additive Model to Reveal the Relations between the Density of Zooplankton with Other Variables in the West Daya Bay, China

Authors: Weiwen Li, Hao Huang, Chengmao You, Jianji Liao, Lei Wang, Lina An


Zooplankton are a central issue in the ecology which makes a great contribution to maintaining the balance of an ecosystem. It is critical in promoting the material cycle and energy flow within the ecosystems. A generalized additive model (GAM) was applied to analyze the relationships between the density (individuals per m³) of zooplankton and other variables in West Daya Bay. All data used in this analysis (the survey month, survey station (longitude and latitude), the depth of the water column, the superficial concentration of chlorophyll a, the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, the number of zooplankton species and the number of zooplankton species) were collected through monthly scientific surveys during January to December 2016. GLM model (generalized linear model) was used to choose the significant variables’ impact on the density of zooplankton, and the GAM was employed to analyze the relationship between the density of zooplankton and the significant variables. The results showed that the density of zooplankton increased with an increase of the benthonic concentration of chlorophyll a, but decreased with a decrease in the depth of the water column. Both high numbers of zooplankton species and the overall total number of zooplankton individuals led to a higher density of zooplankton.

Keywords: density, generalized linear model, generalized additive model, the West Daya Bay, zooplankton

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8338 Effects of Structure on Density-Induced Flow in Coastal and Estuarine Navigation Channel

Authors: Shuo Huang, Huomiao Guo, Wenrui Huang


In navigation channels located in coasts and estuaries as the waterways connecting coastal water to ports or harbors, density-induced flow often exist due to the density-gradient or gravity gradient as the results of mixing between fresh water from coastal rivers and saline water in the coasts. The density-induced flow often carries sediment transport into navigation channels and causes sediment depositions in the channels. As a result, expensive dredging may need to maintain the water depth required for navigation. In our study, we conduct a series of experiments to investigate the characteristics of density-induced flow in the estuarine navigation channels under different density gradients. Empirical equations between density flow and salinity gradient were derived. Effects of coastal structures for regulating navigation channel on density-induced flow have also been investigated. Results will be very helpful for improving the understanding of the characteristics of density-induced flow in estuarine navigation channels. The results will also provide technical support for cost-effective waterway regulation and management to maintain coastal and estuarine navigation channels.

Keywords: density flow, estuarine, navigation channel, structure

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8337 A Computational Diagnostics for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

Authors: Zainab D. Abd Ali, Thamir H. Khalaf


In this paper, the characteristics of electric discharge in gap between two (parallel-plate) dielectric plates are studies, the gap filled with Argon gas in atm pressure at ambient temperature, the thickness of gap typically less than 1 mm and dielectric may be up 10 cm in diameter. One of dielectric plates a sinusoidal voltage is applied with Rf frequency, the other plates is electrically grounded. The simulation in this work depending on Boltzmann equation solver in first few moments, fluid model and plasma chemistry, in one dimensional modeling. This modeling have insight into characteristics of Dielectric Barrier Discharge through studying properties of breakdown of gas, electric field, electric potential, and calculating electron density, mean electron energy, electron current density ,ion current density, total plasma current density. The investigation also include: 1. The influence of change in thickness of gap between two plates if we doubled or reduced gap to half. 2. The effect of thickness of dielectric plates. 3. The influence of change in type and properties of dielectric material (gass, silicon, Teflon).

Keywords: computational diagnostics, Boltzmann equation, electric discharge, electron density

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8336 Applying the Crystal Model Approach on Light Nuclei for Calculating Radii and Density Distribution

Authors: A. Amar


A new model, namely the crystal model, has been modified to calculate the radius and density distribution of light nuclei up to ⁸Be. The crystal model has been modified according to solid-state physics, which uses the analogy between nucleon distribution and atoms distribution in the crystal. The model has analytical analysis to calculate the radius where the density distribution of light nuclei has obtained from analogy of crystal lattice. The distribution of nucleons over crystal has been discussed in a general form. The equation that has been used to calculate binding energy was taken from the solid-state model of repulsive and attractive force. The numbers of the protons were taken to control repulsive force, where the atomic number was responsible for the attractive force. The parameter has been calculated from the crystal model was found to be proportional to the radius of the nucleus. The density distribution of light nuclei was taken as a summation of two clusters distribution as in ⁶Li=alpha+deuteron configuration. A test has been done on the data obtained for radius and density distribution using double folding for d+⁶,⁷Li with M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction. Good agreement has been obtained for both the radius and density distribution of light nuclei. The model failed to calculate the radius of ⁹Be, so modifications should be done to overcome discrepancy.

Keywords: nuclear physics, nuclear lattice, study nucleus as crystal, light nuclei till to ⁸Be

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