Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 181

Search results for: nanomaterials

181 Effects of Asphalt Modification with Nanomaterials on Fresh and Stored Bitumen

Authors: Ahmed W. Oda, Ahmed El-Desouky, Hassan Mahdy, Osama M. Moussa

Abstract:

Nanomaterials have many applications in the field of asphalt paving. Two locally produced nanomaterials were used in the asphalt binder modification. The nanomaterials used are Nanosilica (NS), and Nanoclay (NC). The virgin asphalt binder was characterized by the conventional tests. The bitumen was modified by 3%, 5% and 7% of NS and NC. The penetration index(PI), and the retaining penetration (RP) was calculated based on the results of the penetration and the softening point tests. The results show that the RP becomes 95.35% at 5%NS modified bitumen and reaches 97.56% when bitumen is modified with 3% NC. The results show significant improvement in the bitumen stiffness when modified by the two types of nanomaterials, either fresh or aged (stored).

Keywords: bitumen, modified bitumen, aged, stored, nanomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
180 Evaluation of the Efficiency of Nanomaterials in the Consolidation of Limestone

Authors: Mohamed Saad Gad Elzoghby

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Nanomaterials are widely used nowadays for the consolidation of degraded archaeological limestone. It’s one of the most predominant stones in monumental buildings and statuary works. It is exposed to different weathering processes that cause degradation and the presence of deterioration pattern as cracks, fissures, and granular disintegration. Nanomaterials have been applied to limestone consolidation. Among these nanomaterials are nanolimes, i.e., dispersions of lime nanoparticles in alcohols, and nano-silica, i.e., dispersions of silica nanoparticles in water, promising consolidating products for limestone. It was investigated and applied to overcome the disadvantages of traditional consolidation materials such as lime water, water glass, and paraliod. So, researchers investigated and tested the effectiveness of nanomaterials as consolidation materials for limestone. The present study includes an evaluation of some nanomaterials in consolidation limestone stone in comparison with traditional consolidants. These consolidation materials are nano calcium hydroxide nanolime, and nanosilica. The latter is known commercially as Nano Estel and the former Known as Nanorestore compared to traditional consolidants Wacker OH (ethyl silicate) and Paraloid B72 (a copolymer of ethyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate). The study evaluated the consolidation effectiveness of nanomaterials and traditional consolidants by using followed methods, characterization of physical properties of stone, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, and mechanical properties. The study confirmed that nanomaterials were better in the distribution and encapsulation of calcite grains in limestone, and traditional materials were better in improving the physical properties of limestone. It demonstrated that good results could be achieved through mixtures of nanomaterials and traditional consolidants.

Keywords: nanomaterials, limestone, consolidation, evaluation, weathering, nanolime, nanosilica, scanning electron microscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
179 New Technique of Estimation of Charge Carrier Density of Nanomaterials from Thermionic Emission Data

Authors: Dilip K. De, Olukunle C. Olawole, Emmanuel S. Joel, Moses Emetere

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A good number of electronic properties such as electrical and thermal conductivities depend on charge carrier densities of nanomaterials. By controlling the charge carrier densities during the fabrication (or growth) processes, the physical properties can be tuned. In this paper, we discuss a new technique of estimating the charge carrier densities of nanomaterials from the thermionic emission data using the newly modified Richardson-Dushman equation. We find that the technique yields excellent results for graphene and carbon nanotube.

Keywords: charge carrier density, nano materials, new technique, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
178 Catalytic Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion and Storage

Authors: Yijin Kang

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Chemical-electrical energy conversion and storage are greatly attractive for the development of sustainable energy. Catalytic processes are heavily involved in such energy conversion and storage. Development of high-performance catalyst nanomaterials relies on tuning material structures at nanoscale. This is in particular manifested in the design of catalysts demanding both high activity and durability. Here, a research system will be presented that connects fundamental investigation on well-defined extended surfaces (e.g. single crystal surfaces), extrapolation onto nanocrystals with highly controlled shape and size, exploration of interfacial interaction using novel nanocrystal superlattices as platform, and finally design of high performance catalysts in which all the possible beneficial properties from complex functional structures are implemented. Using recently published results, it will be demonstrated that optimal and fine balanced activity and durability, as well as tunable functionality, can be achieved by carefully tailoring the nanostructure of catalytic nanomaterials.

Keywords: energy, nanomaterials, catalysis, electrocatalysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
177 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes Functionalization with Nitrogen Groups on Pollutant Emissions in an Internal Combustion Engine

Authors: David Gamboa, Bernardo Herrera, Karen Cacua

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Nanomaterials have been explored as alternatives to reduce particulate matter from diesel engines, which is one of the most common pollutants of the air in urban centers. However, the use of nanomaterials as additives for diesel has to overcome the instability of the dispersions to be considered viable for commercial use. In this work, functionalization of carbon nanotubes with amide groups was performed to improve the stability of these nanomaterials in a mix of 90% petroleum diesel and 10% palm oil biodiesel (B10) in concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm. The resulting nano fuel was used as the fuel for a stationary internal combustion engine, where the particulate matter, NOx, and CO were measured. The results showed that the use of amide groups significantly enhances the time for the carbon nanotubes to remain suspended in the fuel, and at the same time, these nanomaterials helped to reduce the particulate matter and NOx emissions. However, the CO emissions with nano fuel were higher than those ones with the combustion of B10. These results suggest that carbon nanotubes have thermal and catalytic effects on the combustion of B10.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, diesel, internal combustion engine, particulate matter

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
176 Designing and Analyzing Sensor and Actuator of a Nano/Micro-System for Fatigue and Fracture Characterization of Nanomaterials

Authors: Mohammad Reza Zamani Kouhpanji

Abstract:

This paper presents a MEMS/NEMS device for fatigue and fracture characterization of nanomaterials. This device can apply static loads, cyclic loads, and their combinations in nanomechanical experiments. It is based on the electromagnetic force induced between paired parallel wires carrying electrical currents. Using this concept, the actuator and sensor parts of the device were designed and analyzed while considering the practical limitations. Since the PWCC device only uses two wires for actuation part and sensing part, its fabrication process is extremely easier than the available MEMS/NEMS devices. The total gain and phase shift of the MEMS/NEMS device were calculated and investigated. Furthermore, the maximum gain and sensitivity of the MEMS/NEMS device were studied to demonstrate the capability and usability of the device for wide range of nanomaterials samples. This device can be readily integrated into SEM/TEM instruments to provide real time study of the mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials as well as their fatigue and fracture properties, softening or hardening behaviors, and initiation and propagation of nanocracks.

Keywords: sensors and actuators, MEMS/NEMS devices, fatigue and fracture nanomechanical testing device, static and cyclic nanomechanical testing device

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
175 Graphene-Based Nanobiosensors and Lab on Chip for Sensitive Pesticide Detection

Authors: Martin Pumera

Abstract:

Graphene materials are being widely used in electrochemistry due to their versatility and excellent properties as platforms for biosensing. Here we present current trends in the electrochemical biosensing of pesticides and other toxic compounds. We explore two fundamentally different designs, (i) using graphene and other 2-D nanomaterials as an electrochemical platform and (ii) using these nanomaterials in the laboratory on chip design, together with paramagnetic beads. More specifically: (i) We explore graphene as transducer platform with very good conductivity, large surface area, and fast heterogeneous electron transfer for the biosensing. We will present the comparison of these materials and of the immobilization techniques. (ii) We present use of the graphene in the laboratory on chip systems. Laboratory on the chip had a huge advantage due to small footprint, fast analysis times and sample handling. We will show the application of these systems for pesticide detection and detection of other toxic compounds.

Keywords: graphene, 2D nanomaterials, biosensing, chip design

Procedia PDF Downloads 485
174 Atomic Clusters: A Unique Building Motif for Future Smart Nanomaterials

Authors: Debesh R. Roy

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The fundamental issue in understanding the origin and growth mechanism of nanomaterials, from a fundamental unit is a big challenging problem to the scientists. Recently, an immense attention is generated to the researchers for prediction of exceptionally stable atomic cluster units as the building units for future smart materials. The present study is a systematic investigation on the stability and electronic properties of a series of bimetallic (semiconductor-alkaline earth) clusters, viz., BxMg3 (x=1-5) is performed, in search for exceptional and/ or unusual stable motifs. A very popular hybrid exchange-correlation functional, B3LYP as proposed by A. D. Becke along with a higher basis set, viz., 6-31+G[d,p] is employed for this purpose under the density functional formalism. The magic stability among the concerned clusters is explained using the jellium model. It is evident from the present study that the magic stability of B4Mg3 cluster arises due to the jellium shell closure.

Keywords: atomic clusters, density functional theory, jellium model, magic clusters, smart nanomaterials

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173 Electrical Properties of Cement-Based Piezoelectric Nanoparticles

Authors: Moustafa Shawkey, Ahmed G. El-Deen, H. M. Mahmoud, M. M. Rashad

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Piezoelectric based cement nanocomposite is a promising technology for generating an electric charge upon mechanical stress of concrete structure. Moreover, piezoelectric nanomaterials play a vital role for providing accurate system of structural health monitoring (SHM) of the concrete structure. In light of increasing awareness of environmental protection and energy crises, generating renewable and green energy form cement based on piezoelectric nanomaterials attracts the attention of the researchers. Herein, we introduce a facial synthesis for bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BiFeO3 NPs) as piezoelectric nanomaterial via sol gel strategy. The fabricated piezoelectric nanoparticles are uniformly distributed to cement-based nanomaterials with different ratios. The morphological shape was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) as well as the crystal structure has been confirmed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The ferroelectric and magnetic behaviours of BiFeO3 NPs have been investigated. Then, dielectric constant for the prepared cement samples nanocomposites (εr) is calculated. Intercalating BiFeO3 NPs into cement materials achieved remarkable results as piezoelectric cement materials, distinct enhancement in ferroelectric and magnetic properties. Overall, this present study introduces an effective approach to improve the electrical properties based cement applications.

Keywords: piezoelectric nanomaterials, cement technology, bismuth ferrite nanoparticles, dielectric

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
172 Production of Energetic Nanomaterials by Spray Flash Evaporation

Authors: Martin Klaumünzer, Jakob Hübner, Denis Spitzer

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Within this paper, latest results on processing of energetic nanomaterials by means of the Spray Flash Evaporation technique are presented. This technology constitutes a highly effective and continuous way to prepare fascinating materials on the nano- and micro-scale. Within the process, a solution is set under high pressure and sprayed into an evacuated atomization chamber. Subsequent ultrafast evaporation of the solvent leads to an aerosol stream, which is separated by cyclones or filters. No drying gas is required, so the present technique should not be confused with spray dying. Resulting nanothermites, insensitive explosives or propellants and compositions are foreseen to replace toxic (according to REACH) and very sensitive matter in military and civil applications. Diverse examples are given in detail: nano-RDX (n-Cyclotrimethylentrinitramin) and nano-aluminum based systems, mixtures (n-RDX/n-TNT - trinitrotoluene) or even cocrystalline matter like n-CL-20/HMX (Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane/ Cyclotetra-methylentetranitramin). These nanomaterials show reduced sensitivity by trend without losing effectiveness and performance. An analytical study for material characterization was performed by using Atomic Force Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and combined techniques as well as spectroscopic methods. As a matter of course, sensitivity tests regarding electrostatic discharge, impact, and friction are provided.

Keywords: continuous synthesis, energetic material, nanoscale, nanoexplosive, nanothermite

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
171 The Ability of Consortium Wastewater Protozoan and Bacterial Species to Remove Chemical Oxygen Demand in the Presence of Nanomaterials under Varying pH Conditions

Authors: Anza-Vhudziki Mboyi, Ilunga Kamika, Maggy Momba

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The aim of this study was to ascertain the survival limit and capability of commonly found wastewater protozoan (Aspidisca sp, Trachelophyllum sp, and Peranema sp) and bacterial (Bacillus licheniformis, Brevibacillus laterosporus, and Pseudomonas putida) species to remove COD while exposed to commercial nanomaterials under varying pH conditions. The experimental study was carried out in modified mixed liquor media adjusted to various pH levels (pH 2, 7 and 10), and a comparative study was performed to determine the difference between the cytotoxicity effects of commercial zinc oxide (nZnO) and silver (nAg) nanomaterials (NMs) on the target wastewater microbial communities using standard methods. The selected microbial communities were exposed to lethal concentrations ranging from 0.015 g/L to 40 g/L for nZnO and from 0.015 g/L to 2 g/L for nAg for a period of 5 days of incubation at 30°C (100 r/min). Compared with the absence of NMs in wastewater mixed liquor, the relevant environmental concentration ranging between 10 µg/L and 100 µg/L, for both nZnO and nAg caused no adverse effects, but the presence of 20 g of nZnO/L and 0.65 g of nAg/L significantly inhibited microbial growth. Statistical evidence showed that nAg was significantly more toxic compared to nZnO, but there was an insignificant difference in toxicity between microbial communities and pH variations. A significant decrease in the removal of COD by microbial populations was observed in the presence of NMs with a moderate correlation of r = 0.3 to r = 0.7 at all pH levels. It was evident that there was a physical interaction between commercial NMs and target wastewater microbial communities; although not quantitatively assessed, cell morphology and cell death were observed. Such phenomena suggest the high resilience of the microbial community, but it is the accumulation of NMs that will have adverse effects on the performance in terms of COD removal.

Keywords: bacteria, biological treatment, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nanomaterials, consortium, pH, protozoan

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170 Chitosan Modified Halloysite Nanomaterials for Efficient and Effective Vaccine Delivery in Farmed Fish

Authors: Saji George, Eng Khuan Seng, Christof Luda

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Nanotechnology has been recognized as an important tool for modern agriculture and has the potential to overcome some of the pressing challenges faced by aquaculture industry. A strategy for optimizing nanotechnology-based therapeutic delivery platform for immunizing farmed fish was developed. Accordingly, a compositional library of nanomaterials of natural chemistry (Halloysite (clay), Chitosan, Hydroxyapatite, Mesoporous Silica and a composite material of clay-chitosan) was screened for their toxicity and efficiency in delivering models antigens in cellular and zebrafish embryo models using high throughput screening platforms. Through multi-parametric optimization, chitosan modified halloysite (clay) nanomaterial was identified as an optimal vaccine delivery platform. Further, studies conducted in juvenile seabass showed the potential of clay-chitosan in delivering outer membrane protein of Tenacibaculum maritimum- TIMA (pathogenic bacteria) to and its efficiency in eliciting immune responses in fish. In short, as exemplified by this work, the strategy of using compositional nanomaterial libraries and their biological profiling using high-throughput screening platform could fasten the discovery process of nanomaterials with potential applications in food and agriculture.

Keywords: nanotechnology, fish-vaccine, drug-delivery, halloysite-chitosan

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169 Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future

Authors: Ayşin Sev, Meltem Ezel

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Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forces for the sustainability of construction industry are explained. Then, the term NT is defined, and significance of innovations in NT for a sustainable construction industry is revealed. After presenting the application areas of NT and nanomaterials for buildings with a number of cases, challenges in the adoption of this technology are put forward, and finally the impacts of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on human health and environment are discussed.

Keywords: nanomaterial, self-healing concrete, self cleaning sensor, nanosensor, steel, wood, aerogel, flexible solar panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
168 Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Lanthanide Nanoparticles for NIR Luminescence Imaging and Photodynamic Therapy

Authors: Syue-Liang Lin, C. Allen Chang

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Luminescence imaging is an important technique used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostic applications in recent years. Concurrently, the development of NIR luminescence probes / imaging contrast agents has helped the understanding of the structural and functional properties of cells and animals. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is used clinically to treat a wide range of medical conditions, but the therapeutic efficacy of general PDT for deeper tumor was limited by the penetration of excitation source. The tumor targeting biomedical nanomaterials [email protected] (upconversion nanoparticle conjugated with photosensitizer) for photodynamic therapy and near-infrared imaging of cancer will be developed in our study. Synthesis and characterization of biomedical nanomaterials were completed in this studies. The spectrum of UCNP was characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy and the morphology was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). TEM and XRD analyses indicated that these nanoparticles are about 20~50 nm with hexagonal phase. NaYF₄:Ln³⁺ (Ln= Yb, Nd, Er) upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with core / shell structure, synthesized by thermal decomposition method in 300°C, have the ability to emit visible light (upconversion: 540 nm, 660 nm) and near-infrared with longer wavelength (downconversion: NIR: 980 nm, 1525 nm) by absorbing 800 nm NIR laser. The information obtained from these studies would be very useful for applications of these nanomaterials for bio-luminescence imaging and photodynamic therapy of deep tumor tissue in the future.

Keywords: Near Infrared (NIR), lanthanide, core-shell structure, upconversion, theranostics

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
167 Drug Residues Disposal from Wastewater Using Carbon Nanomaterials

Authors: Stefan Nicolae, Cristina Cirtoaje, Emil Petrescu, Florin-Razvan Duca

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In the context of the accelerated expansion of urban agglomerations and the exponential development of industry, a huge amount of water is used, and a crisis of drinking water may occur any time. Classic wastewater treatment removes most pollutants but, for some chemical residues, special methods are needed. Carbon nanotubes and other carbon materials might be used in many cases [1-2], especially for heavy metals removal but also on pharmaceutical products such as paracetamol [3]. Our research has confirmed the better efficiency of nanotubes compared to graphene on paracetamol removal from water, but even better results were obtained on single-walled nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets. This can be due to their better dispersion in water which leads to an increased contact surface, so we propose a filtration system of membranes and carbon materials that can be used for paracetamol removal from wastewater but also for other drugs that affect the aquatic life as well as terrestrial animals and people who use this contaminated water.

Keywords: applied physics, wastewater, nanomaterials, enviromental science

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166 Development of Bioactive Medical Textiles by Immobilizing Nanoparticles at Cotton Fabric

Authors: Munir Ashraf, Shagufta Riaz

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Personal protective equipment (PPE) and bioactive textiles are highly important for the health care of front line hospital workers, patients, and the general population to be safe from highly infectious diseases. This was even more critical in the wake of COVID-19 outbreak. Most of the medical textiles are inactive against various viruses and bacteria, hence there is a need to wash them frequently to avoid the spread of microorganisms. According to survey conducted by the world health organization, more than 500 million people get infected from hospitals, and more than 13 million died due to these hospitals’ acquired deadly diseases. The market available PPE are though effective against the penetration of pathogens and to kill bacteria but, they are not breathable and active against different viruses. Therefore, there was a great need to develop textiles that are not only effective against bacteria, fungi, and viruses but also are comfortable to the medical personnel and patients. In the present study, waterproof breathable, and biologically active textiles were developed using antiviral and antibacterial nanomaterials. These nanomaterials like TiO₂, ZnO, Cu, and Ag were immobilized at the surface of cotton fabric by using different silane coupling agents and electroless deposition that they retained their functionality even after 30 industrial laundering cycles. Afterwards, the treated fabrics were coated with a waterproof breathable film to prevent the permeation of liquid droplets, any particle or microorganisms greater than 80 nm. The developed cotton fabric was highly active against bacteria and viruses. The good durability of nanomaterials at the cotton surface after several industrial washing cycles makes this fabric an ideal candidate for bioactive textiles used in the medical field.

Keywords: antibacterial, antiviral, cotton, durable

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
165 Synthesis of Montmorillonite/CuxCd1-xS Nanocomposites and Their Application to the Photodegradation of Methylene Blue

Authors: H. Boukhatem, L. Djouadi, H. Khalaf, R. M. Navarro, F. V. Ganzalez

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Synthetic organic dyes are used in various industries, such as textile industry, leather tanning industry, paper production, hair dye production, etc. Wastewaters containing these dyes may be harmful to the environment and living organisms. Therefore, it is very important to remove or degrade these dyes before discharging them into the environment. In addition to standard technologies for the degradation and/or removal of dyes, several new specific technologies, the so-called advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have been developed to eliminate dangerous compounds from polluted waters. AOPs are all characterized by the same chemical feature: production of radicals (•OH) through a multistep process, although different reaction systems are used. These radicals show little selectivity of attack and are able to oxidize various organic pollutants due to their high oxidative capacity (reduction potential of HO• Eo = 2.8 V). Heterogeneous photocatalysis, as one of the AOPs, could be effective in the oxidation/degradation of organic dyes. A major advantage of using heterogeneous photocatalysis for this purpose is the total mineralization of organic dyes, which results in CO2, H2O and corresponding mineral acids. In this study, nanomaterials based on montmorillonite and CuxCd1-xS with different Cu concentration (0.3 < x < 0.7) were utilized for the degradation of the commercial cationic textile dye Methylene blue (MB), used as a model pollutant. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA). Test results of photocatalysis of methylene blue under UV-Visible irradiation show that the photoactivity of nanomaterials montmorillonite/ CuxCd1-xS increases with the increasing of Cu concentration. The kinetics of the degradation of the MB dye was described with the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model.

Keywords: heterogeneous photocatalysis, methylene blue, montmorillonite, nanomaterial

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164 Characterization Techniques for Studying Properties of Nanomaterials

Authors: Nandini Sharma

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Monitoring the characteristics of a nanostructured material comprises measurements of structural, morphological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties of the synthesized nanopowder and different layers and coatings of nanomaterials coated on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) substrates like fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) or Indium doped tin oxide (ITO). This article focuses on structural and optical characterization with emphasis on measurements of the photocatalytic efficiency as a photocatalyst and their interpretation to extract relevant information about various TCOs and materials, their emitter regions, and surface passivation. It also covers a brief description of techniques based on photoluminescence that can portray high resolution pictorial graphs for application as solar energy devices. With the advancement in the scientific techniques, detailed information about the structural, morphological, and optical properties can be investigated, which is further useful for engineering and designing of an efficient device. The common principles involved in the prevalent characterization techniques aid to illustrate the range of options that can be broadened in near future for acurate device characterization and diagnosis.

Keywords: characterization, structural, optical, nanomaterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
163 Anticandidal and Antibacterial Silver and Silver(Core)-Gold(Shell) Bimetallic Nanoparticles by Fusarium graminearum

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai

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Nanotechnology has experienced significant developments in engineered nanomaterials in the core-shell arrangement. Nanomaterials having nanolayers of silver and gold are of primary interest due to their wide applications in catalytical and biomedical fields. Further, mycosynthesis of nanoparticles has been proved as a sustainable synthetic approach of nanobiotechnology. In this context, we have synthesized silver and silver (core)-gold (shell) bimetallic nanoparticles using a fungal extract of Fusarium graminearum by sequential reduction. The core-shell deposition of nanoparticles was confirmed by the red shift in the surface plasmon resonance from 434 nm to 530 nm with the aid of the UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The mean particle size of Ag and Ag-Au nanoparticles was confirmed by nanoparticle tracking analysis as 37 nm and 50 nm respectively. Quite polydispersed and spherical nanoparticles are evident by TEM analysis. These mycosynthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were tested against some pathogenic bacteria and Candida sp. The antimicrobial analysis confirmed enhanced anticandidal and antibacterial potential of bimetallic nanoparticles over their monometallic counterparts.

Keywords: bimetallic nanoparticles, core-shell arrangement, mycosynthesis, sequential reduction

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162 A Review on Applications of Nanotechnology in Automotive Industry

Authors: Akshata S. Malani, Anagha D. Chaudhari, Rajeshkumar U. Sambhe

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Nanotechnology in pristine sense refers to building of structures at atomic and molecular scale. Meticulously nanotechnology encompasses the nanomaterials with atleast one dimension size ranging from 1 to 100 nanometres.Unlike the literal meaning of its name, nanotechnology is a massive concept beyond imagination. This paper predominantly deals with relevance of nanotechnology in automotive industries. New generation of automotives looks at nanotechnology as an emerging trend of manufacturing revolution. Intricate shapes can be made out of fairly inexpensive raw materials instead of conventional fabrication process. Though the current era have enough technology to face competition, nanotechnology can give futuristic implications to pick up the modern pace. Nanotechnology intends to bridge the gap between automotives with superior technical performance and their cost fluctuation. Preliminarily, it is an area of great scientific interest and a major shaper of many new technologies. Nanotechnology can be an ideal building block for automotive industries, under constant evolution offering a very wide scope of activity. It possesses huge potential and is still in the embryonic form of research and development.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanomaterials, manufacturing, automotive industry

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161 Influence of Nanomaterials on the Properties of Shape Memory Polymeric Materials

Authors: Katielly Vianna Polkowski, Rodrigo Denizarte de Oliveira Polkowski, Cristiano Grings Herbert

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The use of nanomaterials in the formulation of polymeric materials modifies their molecular structure, offering an infinite range of possibilities for the development of smart products, being of great importance for science and contemporary industry. Shape memory polymers are generally lightweight, have high shape recovery capabilities, they are easy to process and have properties that can be adapted for a variety of applications. Shape memory materials are active materials that have attracted attention due to their superior damping properties when compared to conventional structural materials. The development of methodologies capable of preparing new materials, which use graphene in their structure, represents technological innovation that transforms low-cost products into advanced materials with high added value. To obtain an improvement in the shape memory effect (SME) of polymeric materials, it is possible to use graphene in its composition containing low concentration by mass of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP), graphene oxide (GO) or other functionalized graphene, via different mixture process. As a result, there was an improvement in the SME, regarding the increase in the values of maximum strain. In addition, the use of graphene contributes to obtaining nanocomposites with superior electrical properties, greater crystallinity, as well as resistance to material degradation. The methodology used in the research is Systematic Review, scientific investigation, gathering relevant studies on influence of nanomaterials on the properties of shape memory polymeric, using the literature database as a source and study methods. In the present study, a systematic reviewwas performed of all papers published from 2014 to 2022 regarding graphene and shape memory polymeric througha search of three databases. This study allows for easy identification of themost relevant fields of study with respect to graphene and shape memory polymeric, as well as the main gaps to beexplored in the literature. The addition of graphene showed improvements in obtaining higher values of maximum deformation of the material, attributed to a possible slip between stacked or agglomerated nanostructures, as well as an increase in stiffness due to the increase in the degree of phase separation that results in a greater amount physical cross-links, referring to the formation of shortrange rigid domains.

Keywords: graphene, shape memory, smart materials, polymers, nanomaterials

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160 Synthesis, Characterization, and Physico–Chemical Properties of Nano Zinc Oxide and PVA Composites

Authors: S. H. Rashmi, G. M. Madhu, A. A. Kittur, R. Suresh

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Polymer nanocomposites represent a new class of materials in which nanomaterials act as the reinforcing material in composites, wherein small additions of nanomaterials lead to large enhancements in thermal, optical, and mechanical properties. A boost in these properties is due to the large interfacial area per unit volume or weight of the nanoparticles and the interactions between the particle and the polymer. Micro-sized particles used as reinforcing agents scatter light, thus, reducing light transmittance and optical clarity. Efficient nanoparticle dispersion combined with good polymer–particle interfacial adhesion eliminates scattering and allows the exciting possibility of developing strong yet transparent films, coatings and membranes. This paper aims at synthesizing zinc oxide nanoparticles which are reinforced in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer. The mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength of the PVA nanocomposites increases with the increase in the amount of nanoparticles.

Keywords: glutaraldehyde, polymer nanocomposites, poly vinyl alcohol, zinc oxide

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159 Impact of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles on Terrestrial Flora and Microorganisms

Authors: L. Steponavičiūtė, L. Steponavičienė

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Despite the rapid nanotechnology progress and recognition, its potential impact in ecosystems and health of humans is still not fully known. In this paper, the study of ecotoxicological dangers of nanomaterials is presented. By chemical reduction method, silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs) nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and used in experiments to examine their impact on microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans) and terrestrial flora (Phaseolus vulgaris and Lepidium sativum). The results collected during experiments with terrestrial flora show tendentious growth stimulations caused by gold nanoparticles. In contrast to these results, silver nanoparticle solutions inhibited growth of beans and garden cress, compared to control samples. The results obtained from experiments with microorganisms show similarities with ones collected from experiments with terrestrial plants. Samples treated with AuNPs of size 13 nm showed stimulation in the growth of the colonies compared with 3,5 nm size nanoparticles.

Keywords: nanomaterials, ecotoxicology, nanoparticles, ecosystems

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
158 Crystalline Structure of Starch Based Nano Composites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli, Afshin Babazadeh, Farnaz Amidi Fazli

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In contrast with literal meaning of nano, researchers have been achieving mega adventures in this area and every day more nanomaterials are being introduced to the market. After long time application of fossil-based plastics, nowadays accumulation of their waste seems to be a big problem to the environment. On the other hand, mankind has more attention to safety and living environment. Replacing common plastic packaging materials with degradable ones that degrade faster and convert to non-dangerous components like water and carbon dioxide have more attractions; these new materials are based on renewable and inexpensive sources of starch and cellulose. However, the functional properties of them do not suitable for packaging. At this point, nanotechnology has an important role. Utilizing of nanomaterials in polymer structure will improve mechanical and physical properties of them; nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) has this ability. This work has employed a chemical method to produce NCC and starch bio nanocomposite containing NCC. X-Ray Diffraction technique has characterized the obtained materials. Results showed that applied method is a suitable one as well as applicable one to NCC production.

Keywords: biofilm, cellulose, nanocomposite, starch

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157 Creation of GaxCo1-xZnSe0.4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) Nanoparticles Using Pulse Laser Ablation Method

Authors: Yong Pan, Li Wang, Xue Qiong Su, Dong Wen Gao

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To date, nanomaterials have received extensive attention over the years because of their wide application. Various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowire, nanoring, nanostars and other nanostructures have begun to be systematically studied. The preparation of these materials by chemical methods is not only costly, but also has a long cycle and high toxicity. At the same time, preparation of nanoparticles of multi-doped composites has been limited due to the special structure of the materials. In order to prepare multi-doped composites with the same structure as macro-materials and simplify the preparation method, the GaxCo1-xZnSe0.4 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) nanoparticles are prepared by Pulse Laser Ablation (PLA) method. The particle component and structure are systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra, which show that the success of our preparation and the same concentration between nanoparticles (NPs) and target. Morphology of the NPs characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) indicates the circular-shaped particles in preparation. Fluorescence properties are reflected by PL spectra, which demonstrate the best performance in concentration of Ga0.3Co0.3ZnSe0.4. Therefore, all the results suggest that PLA is promising to prepare the multi-NPs since it can modulate performance of NPs.

Keywords: PLA, physics, nanoparticles, multi-doped

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156 Nanomaterial Based Electrochemical Sensors for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

Authors: Gaurav Bhanjana, Ganga Ram Chaudhary, Sandeep Kumar, Neeraj Dilbaghi

Abstract:

Main sources of endocrine disrupting compounds in the ecosystem are hormones, pesticides, phthalates, flame retardants, dioxins, personal-care products, coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bisphenol A, and parabens. These endocrine disrupting compounds are responsible for learning disabilities, brain development problems, deformations of the body, cancer, reproductive abnormalities in females and decreased sperm count in human males. Although discharge of these chemical compounds into the environment cannot be stopped, yet their amount can be retarded through proper evaluation and detection techniques. The available techniques for determination of these endocrine disrupting compounds mainly include high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectroscopy (MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). These techniques are accurate and reliable but have certain limitations like need of skilled personnel, time consuming, interference and requirement of pretreatment steps. Moreover, these techniques are laboratory bound and sample is required in large amount for analysis. In view of above facts, new methods for detection of endocrine disrupting compounds should be devised that promise high specificity, ultra sensitivity, cost effective, efficient and easy-to-operate procedure. Nowadays, electrochemical sensors/biosensors modified with nanomaterials are gaining high attention among researchers. Bioelement present in this system makes the developed sensors selective towards analyte of interest. Nanomaterials provide large surface area, high electron communication feature, enhanced catalytic activity and possibilities of chemical modifications. In most of the cases, nanomaterials also serve as an electron mediator or electrocatalyst for some analytes.

Keywords: electrochemical, endocrine disruptors, microscopy, nanoparticles, sensors

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155 Nanomaterials-Assisted Drilling Fluids for Application in Oil Fields - Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Husam Mohammed Saleh Alziyadi

Abstract:

The drilling fluid has a significant impact on drilling efficiency. Drilling fluids have several functions which make them most important within the drilling process, such as lubricating and cooling the drill bit, removing cuttings from down of hole, preventing formation damage, suspending drill bit cuttings, , and also removing permeable formation as a result, the flow of fluid into the formation process is delayed. In the oil and gas sector, unconventional shale reserves have been a central player in meeting world energy demands. Oil-based drilling fluids (OBM) are generally favored for drilling shale plays due to negligible chemical interactions. Nevertheless, the industry has been inspired by strict environmental regulations to design water-based drilling fluids (WBM) capable of regulating shale-water interactions to boost their efficiency. However, traditional additives are too large to plug the micro-fractures and nanopores of the shale. Recently, nanotechnology in the oil and gas industries has shown a lot of promise, especially with drilling fluids based on nanoparticles. Nanotechnology has already made a huge contribution to technical developments in the energy sector. In the drilling industry, nanotechnology can make revolutionary changes. Nanotechnology creates nanomaterials with many attractive properties that can play an important role in improving the consistency of mud cake, reducing friction, preventing differential pipe sticking, preserving the stability of the borehole, protecting reservoirs, and improving the recovery of oil and gas. The selection of suitable nanomaterials should be based on the shale formation characteristics intended for drilling. The size, concentration, and stability of the NPs are three more important considerations. The effects of the environment are highly sensitive to these materials, such as changes in ionic strength, temperature, or pH, all of which occur under downhole conditions. This review paper focused on the previous research and recent development of environmentally friendly drilling fluids according to the regulatory environment and cost challenges.

Keywords: nanotechnology, WBM, Drilling Fluid, nanofluids

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154 Ecofriendly Synthesis of [email protected] Nanocomposites and Their Catalytic Activity on Multicomponent Domino Annulation-Aromatization for Quinoline Synthesis

Authors: Kanti Sapkota, Do Hyun Lee, Sung Soo Han

Abstract:

Nanocomposites have been widely used in various fields such as electronics, catalysis, and in chemical, biological, biomedical and optical fields. They display broad biomedical properties like antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibacterial activities. Moreover, nanomaterials have been used for wastewater treatment. Particularly, bimetallic hybrid nanocomposites exhibit unique features as compared to their monometallic components. Hybrid nanomaterials not only afford the multifunctionality endowed by their constituents but can also show synergistic properties. In addition, these hybrid nanomaterials have noteworthy catalytic and optical properties. Notably, Au−Ag based nanoparticles can be employed in sensor and catalysis due to their characteristic composition-tunable plasmonic properties. Due to their importance and usefulness, various efforts were developed for their preparation. Generally, chemical methods have been described to synthesize such bimetallic nanocomposites. In such chemical synthesis, harmful and hazardous chemicals cause environmental contamination and increase toxicity levels. Therefore, ecologically benevolent processes for the synthesis of nanomaterials are highly desirable to diminish such environmental and safety concerns. In this regard, here we disclose a simple, cost-effective, external additive free and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of [email protected] nanocomposites using Nephrolepis cordifolia root extract. [email protected] NCs were obtained by the simultaneous reduction of cationic Ag and Au into AgCl in the presence of plant extract. The particle size of 10 to 50 nm was observed with the average diameter of 30 nm. The synthesized nanocomposite was characterized by various modern characterization techniques. For example, UV−visible spectroscopy was used to determine the optical activity of the synthesized NCs, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to investigate the functional groups present in the biomolecules that were responsible for both reducing and capping agents during the formation of nanocomposites. Similarly, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were used to determine crystallinity, size, oxidation states, thermal stability and weight loss of the synthesized nanocomposites. As a synthetic application, the synthesized nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the multicomponent synthesis of biologically interesting quinoline molecules via domino annulation-aromatization reaction of aniline, arylaldehyde, and phenyl acetylene derivatives. Interestingly, the nanocatalyst was efficiently recycled for five times without substantial loss of catalytic properties.

Keywords: nanoparticles, catalysis, multicomponent, quinoline

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153 European Standardization in Nanotechnologies and Relation with International Work: The Standardization Can Help Industry and Regulators in Developing Safe Products

Authors: Patrice Conner

Abstract:

Nanotechnologies have enormous potential to contribute to human flourishing in responsible and sustainable ways. They are rapidly developing field of science, technology and innovation. As enabling technologies, their full scope of applications is potentially very wide. Major implications are expected in many areas, e.g. healthcare, information and communication technologies, energy production and storage, materials science/chemical engineering, manufacturing, environmental protection, consumer products, etc. However, nanotechnologies are unlikely to realize their full potential unless their associated societal and ethical issues are adequately attended. Namely nanotechnologies and nanoparticles may expose humans and the environment to new health risks, possibly involving quite different mechanisms of interference with the physiology of human and environmental species. One of the building blocks of the ‘safe, integrated and responsible’ approach is standardization. Both the Economic and Social Committee and the European Parliament have highlighted the importance to be attached to standardization as a means to accompany the introduction on the market of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, and a means to facilitate the implementation of regulation. ISO and CEN have respectively started in 2005 and 2006 to deal with selected topics related to this emerging and enabling technology. In the beginning of 2010, EC DG ‘Enterprise and Industry’ addressed the mandate M/461 to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI for standardization activities regarding nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Thus CEN/TC 352 ‘Nanotechnologies’ has been asked to take the leadership for the coordination in the execution of M/461 (46 topics to be standardized) and to contact relevant European and International Technical committees and interested stakeholders as appropriate (56 structures have been identified). Prior requests from M/461 deal with characterization and exposure of nanomaterials and any matters related to Health, Safety and Environment. Answers will be given to: - What are the structures and how they work? - Where are we right now and how work is going from now onwards? - How CEN’s work and targets deal with and interact with global matters in this field?

Keywords: characterization, environmental protection, exposure, health risks, nanotechnologies, responsible and sustainable ways, safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
152 A Theoretical Modelling and Simulation of a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor for the Detection of Glucose Concentration in Blood and Urine

Authors: Natasha Mandal, Rakesh Singh Moirangthem

Abstract:

The present work reports a theoretical model to develop a plasmonic biosensor for the detection of glucose concentrations in human blood and urine as the abnormality of glucose label is the major cause of diabetes which becomes a life-threatening disease worldwide. This study is based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor applications which is a well-established, highly sensitive, label-free, rapid optical sensing tool. Here we have introduced a sandwich assay of two dielectric spacer layers of MgF2 and BaTiO3which gives better performance compared to commonly used SiO2 and TiO2 dielectric spacers due to their low dielectric loss and higher refractive index. The sensitivity of our proposed sensor was found as 3242 nm/RIU approximately, with an excellent linear response of 0.958, which is higher than the conventional single-layer Au SPR sensor. Further, the sensitivity enhancement is also optimized by coating a few layers of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials (e.g., Graphene, h-BN, MXene, MoS2, WS2, etc.) on the sensor chip. Hence, our proposed SPR sensor has the potential for the detection of glucose concentration in blood and urine with enhanced sensitivity and high affinity and could be utilized as a reliable platform for the optical biosensing application in the field of medical diagnosis.

Keywords: biosensor, surface plasmon resonance, dielectric spacer, 2D nanomaterials

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