Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: papain

8 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as an Antimicrobial Food Package

Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh


Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24 h; and 50 mg of papain. The formation of -C=N- observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7 days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicates reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.

Keywords: cheese, papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus

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7 Isolation and Characterization of Collagen from Chicken Feet

Authors: P. Hashim, M. S. Mohd Ridzwan, J. Bakar


Collagen was isolated from chicken feet by using papain and pepsin enzymes in acetic acid solution at 4°C for 24h with a yield of 18.16% and 22.94% by dry weight, respectively. Chemical composition and characteristics of chicken feet collagen such as amino acid composition, SDS-PAGE patterns, FTIR spectra and thermal properties were evaluated. The chicken feet collagen is rich in the amino acids glycine, glutamic acid, proline and hydroxyproline. Electrophoresis pattern demonstrated two distinct α-chains (α1 and α2) and β chain, indicating that type I collagen is a major component of chicken feet collagen. The thermal stability of collagen isolated by papain and pepsin revealed stable denaturation temperatures of 48.40 and 53.35°C, respectively. The FTIR spectra of both collagens were similar with amide regions in A, B, I, II, and III. The study demonstrated that chicken feet collagen using papain isolation method is possible as commercial alternative ingredient.

Keywords: chicken feet, collagen, papain, pepsin

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6 Growth Performance, Survival Rate and Feed Efficacy of Climbing Perch, Anabas testudineus, Feed Experimental Diet with Several Dosages of Papain Enzyme

Authors: Zainal A. Muchlisin, Muhammad Iqbal, Abdullah A. Muhammadar


The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dose of papain enzyme in the diet for growing, survival rate and feed efficacy of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Aquatic of Faculty of Veterinary, Syiah Kuala University from January to March 2016. The completely randomized design was used in this study. Six dosages level of papain enzyme were tested with 4 replications i.e. 0 g kg-1 of feed, 20.0 g kg-1 feed, 22.5 g kg-1 of feed, 25.0 g kg-1 of feed, 27.5 g kg-1 of feed, and 30.0 g kg-1 of feed. The experimental fish fed twice a day at feeding level of 5% for 60 days. The results showed that weight gain ranged from 2.41g to 7.37g, total length gain ranged from 0.67cm to 3.17cm, specific growth rate ranged from 1.46 % day to 3.41% day, daily growth rate ranged from 0.04 g day to 0.13 g day, feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.94 to 3.59, feed efficiency ranged from 27.99% to 51.37%, protein retention ranged from 3.38% to 28.28%, protein digestibility ranged from 50.63% to 90.38%, and survival rate ranged from 88.89% to 100%. The highest rate for all parameters was found in the dosage of 3.00% papain enzyme kg feed. The ANOVA test showed that enzyme papain gave a significant effect on the weight gain, total length gain, daily growth rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency, protein retention, protein digestibility, and survival rate of the climbing perch (Anabas testudieus). The best enzyme papain dosage was 3.0%.

Keywords: betok, feed conversion ratio, freshwater fish, nutrition, feeding

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5 Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Papain Hydrolysed Camel Milk Whey and Its Fractions

Authors: M. Abdel-Hamid, P. Saporito, R. V. Mateiu, A. Osman, E. Romeih, H. Jenssen


Camel milk whey (CMW) was hydrolyzed with papain from Carica papaya and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of the CMW, Camel milk whey hydrolysate (CMWH) and the obtained SEC-fractions was assessed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). SEC-F2 (fraction 2) exhibited antibacterial effectiveness against MRSA and P. aeruginosa with the minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 and 0.156 mg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, SEC-F2 significantly decreased biofilm biomass by 71% and 83 % for MRSA and P. aeruginosa in a crystal violet microplate assay. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the SEC-F2 caused changes in the treated bacterial cells. Additionally, LC/MS analysis was used to characterize the peptides of SEC-F2. Two major peptides were detected in SEC-F2 having masses of 414.05 Da and 456.06 Da. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated that hydrolysis of CMW with papain generates small and extremely potent antibacterial and anti-biofilm peptides against both MRSA and P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: camel milk, whey proteins, antibacterial peptide, anti-biofilm

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4 Degree of Hydrolysis of Proteinaceous Components of Porang Flour Using Papain

Authors: Fadilah Fadilah, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Siti Syamsiah, Djagal W. Marseno


Glucomannan can be found in the tuber of porang together with starch and proteinaceous components which were regarded as impurities. An enzymatic process for obtaining higher glucomannan content from Porang flour have been conducted. Papain was used for hydrolysing proteinaceous components in Porang flour which was conducted after a simultaneous extraction of glucomannan and enzymatic starch hydrolysis. Three variables affecting the rate were studied, i.e. temperature, the amount of enzyme and the stirring speed. The ninhydrin method was used to determine degree of protein hydrolysis. Results showed that the rising of degree of hydrolysis were fast in the first ten minutes of the reaction and then proceeded slowly afterward. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis was 60 oC. Increasing the amount of enzyme showed a remarkable effect to degree of hydrolysis, but the stirring speed had no significant effect. This indicated that the reaction controlled the rate of hydrolysis.

Keywords: degree of hydrolysis, ninhydrin, papain, porang flour, proteinaceous components

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3 Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Catfish Myofibrillar and Sarcoplasmic Protein Hydrolysates and Characterization of Their Bioactive Peptides

Authors: Leila Najafian


Sarcoplasmic protein hydrolysates (SPHs) and myofibrillar protein hydrolysates (MPHs) from patin (Pangasius sutchi) were produced using two types of proteases: Papain and Alcalase. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activities and metal chelating activity assays for antioxidant activities were carried out on the SPHs and MPHs. The hydrolysates were isolated and purified by ultrafiltration, gel filtration and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) was used in identifying peptide sequences. The results showed that when the DH of MPHs increased, the protein solubility increased, while the highest amount of the protein solubility of SPHs was after 60 min incubation. The effect of DH on antioxidant activities of SPHs and MPHs was investigated. Among the hydrolysates, papain-MPH and Alcalase-SPH, which had the highest antioxidant activities, were purified. The potent fractions obtained from RP-HPLC of sarcoplasmic (SI 3 fraction) and myofibrillar (MI 4 fraction) hydrolysates showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity. The FVNQPYLLYSVHMK peptide for MPH and the LVVDIPAALQHA peptide for SPH exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. The presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids, namely leucine (L), valine (V), phenylalanine (F), histidine (H) and proline (P), in the peptide sequences of SPH and MPH are believed to contribute to high antioxidant activity. Hence, SPH and MPH from patin have the potential as a natural functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: patin (Pangasius sutchi), protein hydrolysates, antioxidative peptides, mass spectrometry

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2 Identification and Molecular Profiling of A Family I Cystatin Homologue from Sebastes schlegeli Deciphering Its Putative Role in Host Immunity

Authors: Don Anushka Sandaruwan Elvitigala, P. D. S. U. Wickramasinghe, Jehee Lee


Cystatins are a large superfamily of proteins which act as reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Papain proteases and cysteine cathepsins are predominant substrates of cystatins. Cystatin superfamily can be further clustered into three groups as Stefins, Cystatins, and Kininogens. Among them, stefines are also known as family 1 cystatins which harbors cystatin Bs and cystatin As. In this study, a homologue of family one cystatins more close to cystatin Bs was identified from Korean black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) using a prior constructed cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) database and designated as RfCyt1. The full-length cDNA of RfCyt1 consisted of 573 bp, with a coding region of 294 bp. It comprised a 5´-untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp, and 3´-UTR of 263 bp. The coding sequence encodes a polypeptide consisting of 97 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 11kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. The RfCyt1 shared homology with other teleosts and vertebrate species and consisted conserved features of cystatin family signature including single cystatin-like domain, cysteine protease inhibitory signature of pentapeptide (QXVXG) consensus sequence and N-terminal two conserved neighboring glycine (⁸GG⁹) residues. As expected, phylogenetic reconstruction developed using the neighbor-joining method showed that RfCyt1 is clustered with the cystatin family 1 members, in which more closely with its teleostan orthologues. An SYBR Green qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) assay was performed to quantify the RfCytB transcripts in different tissues in healthy and immune stimulated fish. RfCyt1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissue types of healthy animals with gill and spleen being the highest. Temporal expression of RfCyt1 displayed significant up-regulation upon infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Recombinantly expressed RfCyt1 showed concentration-dependent papain inhibitory activity. Collectively these findings evidence for detectable protease inhibitory and immunity relevant roles of RfCyt1 in Sebastes schlegeli.

Keywords: Sebastes schlegeli, family 1 cystatin, immune stimulation, expressional modulation

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1 Biochemical and Antiviral Study of Peptides Isolated from Amaranthus hypochondriacus on Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Replication

Authors: José Silvestre Mendoza Figueroa, Anders Kvarnheden, Jesús Méndez Lozano, Edgar Antonio Rodríguez Negrete, Manuel Soriano García


Agroindustrial plants such as cereals and pseudo cereals offer a substantial source of biomacromolecules, as they contain large amounts per tissue-gram of proteins, polysaccharides and lipids in comparison with other plants. In particular, Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds have high levels of proteins in comparison with other cereal and pseudo cereal species, which makes the plant a good source of bioactive molecules such as peptides. Geminiviruses are one principal class of pathogens that causes important economic losses in crops, affecting directly the development and production of the plant. One such virus is the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), which affects mainly Solanacea family plants such as tomato species. The symptoms of the disease are curling of leaves, chlorosis, dwarfing and floral abortion. The aim of this work was to get peptides derived from enzymatic hydrolysis of globulins and albumins from amaranth seeds with specific recognition of the replication origin in the TYLCV genome, and to test the antiviral activity on host plants with the idea to generate a direct control of this viral infection. Globulins and albumins from amaranth were extracted, the fraction was enzymatically digested with papain, and the aromatic peptides fraction was selected for further purification. Six peptides were tested against the replication origin (OR) using affinity assays, surface resonance plasmon and fluorescent titration, and two of these peptides showed high affinity values to the replication origin of the virus, dissociation constant values were calculated and showed specific interaction between the peptide Ampep1 and the OR. An in vitro replication test of the total TYLCV DNA was performed, in which the peptide AmPep1 was added in different concentrations to the system reaction, which resulted in a decrease of viral DNA synthesis when the peptide concentration increased. Also, we showed that the peptide can decrease the complementary DNA chain of the virus in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, confirming that the peptide binds to the OR and that its expected mechanism of action is to decrease the replication rate of the viral genome. In an infection assay, N. benthamiana plants were agroinfected with TYLCV-Israel and TYLCV-Guasave. After confirming systemic infection, the peptide was infiltrated in new infected leaves, and the plants treated with the peptide showed a decrease of virus symptoms and viral titer. In order to confirm the antiviral activity in a commercial crop, tomato plants were infected with TYLCV. After confirming systemic infection, plants were infiltrated with peptide solution as above, and the symptom development was monitored 21 days after treatment, showing that tomato plants treated with peptides had lower symptom rates and viral titer. The peptide was also tested against other begomovirus such as Pepper huasteco yellow vein virus (PHYVV-Guasave), showing a decrease of symptoms in N. benthamiana infected plants. The model of direct biochemical control of TYLCV infection shown in this work can be extrapolated to other begomovirus infections, and the methods reported here can be used for design of antiviral agrochemicals for other plant virus infections.

Keywords: agrochemical screening, antiviral, begomovirus, geminivirus, peptides, plasmon, TYLCV

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