Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 560

Search results for: cyclic voltammetry

560 Influence of Sodium Acetate on Electroless Ni-P Deposits and Effect of Heat Treatment on Corrosion Behavior

Authors: Y. El Kaissi, M. Allam, A. Koulou, M. Galai, M. Ebn Touhami

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to develop an industrial bath of nickel alloy deposit on mild steel. The optimization of the operating parameters made it possible to obtain a stable Ni-P alloy deposition formulation. To understand the reaction mechanism of the deposition process, a kinetic study was performed by cyclic voltammetry and by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The coatings obtained have a very high corrosion resistance in a very aggressive acid medium which increases with the heat treatment.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, EIS, electroless Ni–P coating, heat treatment, potentiodynamic polarization

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559 Micropower Composite Nanomaterials Based on Porous Silicon for Renewable Energy Sources

Authors: Alexey P. Antropov, Alexander V. Ragutkin, Nicolay A. Yashtulov

Abstract:

The original controlled technology for power active nanocomposite membrane-electrode assembly engineering on the basis of porous silicon is presented. The functional nanocomposites were studied by electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The application possibility of the obtained nanocomposites as high performance renewable energy sources for micro-power electronic devices is demonstrated.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, electron microscopy, nanotechnology, platinum-palladium nanocomposites, porous silicon, power activity, renewable energy sources

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558 Electrochemical Study of Interaction of Thiol Containing Proteins with As (III)

Authors: Sunil Mittal, Sukhpreet Singh, Hardeep Kaur

Abstract:

The affinity of thiol group with heavy metals is a well-established phenomenon. The present investigation has been focused on electrochemical response of cysteine and thioredoxin against arsenite (As III) on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. It was observed that both the compounds produce distinct response in free and immobilised form at the electrode. The SEM, FTIR, and impedance studies of the modified electrode were conducted for characterization. Various parameters were optimized to achieve As (III) effect on the reduction potential of the compounds. Cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry were employed as the analysis techniques. The optimum response was observed at neutral pH in both the cases, at optimum concentration of 2 mM and 4.27 µM for cysteine and thioredoxin respectively. It was observed that presence of As (III) increases the reduction current of both the moieties. The linear range of detection for As (III) with cysteine was from 1 to 10 mg L⁻¹ with detection limit of 0.8 mg L⁻¹. The thioredoxin was found more sensitive to As (III) and displayed a linear range from 0.1 to 1 mg L⁻¹ with detection limit of 10 µg L⁻¹.

Keywords: arsenite, cyclic voltammetry, cysteine, thioredoxin

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557 Cyclic Voltammetric Investigations on Nickel Electrodeposition from Industrial Sulfate Electrolyte in Presence of Ca(II), Mg(II), Na(I) Ions

Authors: Udit Mohanty, Mari Lundstrom

Abstract:

Electrochemical investigation by cyclic voltammetry was conducted to explore the polarization behavior of reactions occurring in nickel electrowinning in presence of cationic impurities such as Ca2+ (0-100 mg/L), Na+ (1-10 g/L) and Mg2+ (10-100 mg/L). A comparative study was devised between industrial and synthetic electrolytes to observe the shift in the nucleation overpotentials of nickel deposition, dissolution and hydrogen evolution reactions at the cathode and anode respectively. Significant polarization of cathodic reactions were observed with concentrations of Na ≥ 8g /L and Ca ≤ 40 mg /L in the synthetic electrolytes. Nevertheless, a progressive increase in the concentration of Ca, Mg and Na in the industrial electrolyte demonstrated a depolarization behavior in the cathodic reactions related to nickel deposition and/or hydrogen evolution. Synergistic effect of Ca with Mg and Na in both the industrial and synthetic electrolytes induced a notable depolarization effect, also reflected in the peak currents.

Keywords: cationic impurities, cyclic voltammetry, electrowinning, nickel, polarization

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556 Electrochemical Radiofrequency Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Measurements for Fingerprinting Single Electron Transfer Processes

Authors: Abhishek Kumar, Mohamed Awadein, Georg Gramse, Luyang Song, He Sun, Wolfgang Schofberger, Stefan Müllegger

Abstract:

Electron transfer is a crucial part of chemical reactions which drive everyday processes. With the help of an electro-chemical radio frequency scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-RF-STM) setup, we are observing single electron mediated oxidation-reduction processes in molecules like ferrocene and transition metal corroles. Combining the techniques of scanning microwave microscopy and cyclic voltammetry allows us to monitor such processes with attoampere sensitivity. A systematic study of such phenomena would be critical to understanding the nano-scale behavior of catalysts, molecular sensors, and batteries relevant to the development of novel material and energy applications.

Keywords: radiofrequency, STM, cyclic voltammetry, ferrocene

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555 Peptide Aptasensor for Electrochemical Detection of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Authors: Shah Abbas

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic, inflammatory autoimmune disease, affecting an overall 1% of the global population. Despite being tremendous efforts by scientists, early diagnosis of RA still has not been achieved. In the current study, a Graphene oxide (GO) based electrochemical sensor has been developed for early diagnosis of RA through Cyclic voltammetry. Chitosan (CHI), a CPnatural polymer has also been incorporated along with GO in order to enhance the biocompatibility and functionalization potential of the biosensor. CCPs are known antigens for Anti Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies (ACPAs) which can be detected in serum even 14 years before the appearance of symptoms, thus they are believed to be an ideal target for the early diagnosis of RA. This study has yielded some promising results regarding the binding and detection of ACPAs through changes in the electrochemical properties of biosensing material. The cyclic voltammogram of this biosensor reflects the binding of ACPAs to the biosensor surface, due to its shifts observed in the current flow (cathodic current) as compared to the when no ACPAs bind as it is absent in RA negative patients.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, peptide sensor, graphene oxide, anti citrullinated peptide antibodies, cyclic voltammetry

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554 Solution Growth of Titanium Nitride Nanowires for Implantation Application

Authors: Roaa Sait, Richard Cross

Abstract:

The synthesis and characterization of one dimensional nanostructure such as nanowires has received considerable attention. Much effort has concentrated on TiN material especially in the biological field due to its useful and unique properties in this field. Therefore, for the purpose of this project, synthesis of Titanium Nitride (TiN) nanowires (NWs) will be presented. They will be synthesised by growing titanium dioxide (Ti) NWs in an aqueous solution at low temperatures under atmospheric pressure. Then the grown nanowires will undergo a 'Nitrodation process' in which results in the formation of TiN NWs. The structure, morphology and composition of the grown nanowires will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Obtaining TiN NWs is a challenging task since it has not been formulated before, as far as we acknowledge. This might be due to the fact that nitriding Ti NWs can be difficult in terms of optimizing experimental parameters.

Keywords: nanowires, dissolution-growth, nucleation, PECVD, deposition, spin coating, scanning electron microscopic analysis, cyclic voltammetry analysis

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553 Electro-oxidation of Catechol in the Presence of Nicotinamide at Different pH

Authors: M. A. Motin, M. A. Aziz, M. Hafiz Mia, M. A. Hasem

Abstract:

The redox behavior of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide as nucleophiles has been studied in aqueous solution with various pH values and different concentration of nicotinamide using cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Cyclic voltammetry of catechol in buffer solution (3.00 < pH < 9.00) shows one anodic and corresponding cathodic peak which relates to the transformation of catechol to corresponding o-benzoquinone and vice versa within a quasi reversible two electron transfer process. Cyclic voltammogram of catechol in the presence of nicotinamide in buffer solution of pH 7, show one anodic peak in the first cycle of potential and on the reverse scan the corresponding cathodic peak slowly decreases and new peak is observed at less positive potential. In the second cycle of potential a new anodic peak is observed at less positive potential. This indicates that nicotinamide attached with catechol and formed adduct after first cycle of oxidation. The effect of pH of catechol in presence of nicotinamide was studied by varying pH from 3 to 11. The substitution reaction of catechol with nicotimamide is facilitated at pH 7. In buffer solution of higher pH (>9), the CV shows different pattern. The effect of concentration of nicotinamide was studied by 2mM to 100 mM. The maximum substitution reaction has been found for 50 mM of nicotinamide and of pH 7. The proportionality of the first scan anodic and cathodic peak currents with square root of scan rate suggests that the peak current of the species at each redox reaction is controlled by diffusion process. The current functions (1/v-1/2) of the anodic peak decreased with the increasing of scan rate demonstrated that the behavior of the substitution reaction is of ECE type.

Keywords: redox interaction, catechol, nicotinamide, substituion reaction, pH effect

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552 Fe-BTC Based Electrochemical Sensor for Anti-Psychotic and Anti-Migraine Drugs: Aripiprazole and Rizatriptan

Authors: Sachin Saxena, Manju Srivastava

Abstract:

The present study describes a stable, highly sensitive and selective analytical sensor. Fe-BTC was synthesized at room temperature using the noble Iron-trimesate system. The high surface area of as synthesized Fe-BTC proved MOFs as ideal modifiers for glassy carbon electrode. The characterization techniques such as TGA, XRD, FT-IR, BET (BET surface area= 1125 m2/gm) analysis explained the electrocatalytic behaviour of Fe-BTC towards these two drugs. The material formed is cost effective and exhibit higher catalytic behaviour towards analyte systems. The synergism between synthesized Fe-BTC and electroanalytical techniques helped in developing a highly sensitive analytical method for studying the redox fate of ARP and RZ, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry of ferricyanide system proved Fe-BTC/GCE with an increase in 132% enhancement in peak current value as compared to that of GCE. The response characteristics of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) revealed that the ARP and RZ could be effectively accumulated at Fe-BTC/GCE. On the basis of the electrochemical measurements, electrode dynamics parameters have been evaluated. Present study opens up new field of applications of MOFs modified GCE for drug sensing.

Keywords: MOFs, anti-psychotic, electrochemical sensor, anti-migraine drugs

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551 Electrocoagulation of Ni(OH)2/NiOOH for the Removal of Boron Using Nickel Foam as Sacrificial Anode

Authors: Yu-Jen Shih, Yao-Hui Hunag

Abstract:

Electrocoagulation (EC) using metallic nickel foam as anode and cathode for the removal of boron from solution was studied. The electrolytic parameters included pH, current density, and initial boron concentration for optimizing the EC process. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency was increased by elevating pH from 4.0 to 8.0, and then decreased at higher pH. The electrolytic efficacy was not affected by current density. In respect of energy consumption, 1.25 mA/cm2 of current density was acceptable for an effective EC of boron, while increasing boric acid from 10 to 100 ppm-B did not impair removal efficiency too much. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that the oxide film, Ni(OH)2 and NiOOH, at specific overpotentials would result in less weight loss of anode than that predicted by the Faraday’s law. The optimal conditions under which 99.2% of boron was removed and less than 1 ppm-B remained in the electrolyte would be pH 8, four pairs of electrodes, and 1.25 mA/cm2 in 120 min as treating wastewaters containing 10 ppm-B. XRD and SEM characterization suggested that the granular crystallites of hydroxide precipitates was composed of theophrastite.

Keywords: borohydrides, hydrogen generation, NiOOH, electrocoagulation, cyclic voltammetry, boron removal

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550 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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549 Electrochemical Performance of Carbon Nanotube Based Supercapacitor

Authors: Jafar Khan Kasi, Ajab Khan Kasi, Muzamil Bokhari

Abstract:

Carbon nanotube is one of the most attractive materials for the potential applications of nanotechnology due to its excellent mechanical, thermal, electrical and optical properties. In this paper we report a supercapacitor made of nickel foil electrodes, coated with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) thin film using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. Chemical vapor deposition method was used for the growth of MWCNTs and ethanol was used as a hydrocarbon source. High graphitic multiwall carbon nanotube was found at 750 C analyzing by Raman spectroscopy. We observed the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor by cyclic voltammetry. The electrodes of supercapacitor fabricated from MWCNTs exhibit considerably small equivalent series resistance (ESR), and a high specific power density. Electrophoretic deposition is an easy method in fabricating MWCNT electrodes for high performance supercapacitor.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, chemical vapor deposition, catalyst, charge, cyclic voltammetry

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548 Skew Cyclic Codes over Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq

Authors: Jing Li, Xiuli Li

Abstract:

This paper studies a special class of linear codes, called skew cyclic codes, over the ring R= Fq+uFq+…+uk-1Fq, where q is a prime power. A Gray map ɸ from R to Fq and a Gray map ɸ' from Rn to Fnq are defined, as well as an automorphism Θ over R. It is proved that the images of skew cyclic codes over R under map ɸ' and Θ are cyclic codes over Fq, and they still keep the dual relation.

Keywords: skew cyclic code, gray map, automorphism, cyclic code

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547 Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Zn-Ni-Al2O3 Nano Composite Coatings

Authors: Soroor Ghaziof, Wei Gao

Abstract:

Zn alloy and composite coatings are widely used in buildings and structures, automobile and fasteners industries to protect steel component from corrosion. In this paper, Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings were electrodeposited on mild steel using a novel sol enhanced electroplating method. In this method, transparent Al2O3 sol was added into the acidic Zn-Ni bath to produced Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano-composite coatings. The effect of alumina sol on the electrodeposition process, and coating properties was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, XRD, ESEM and Tafel test. Results from XRD tests showed that the structure of all coatings was single γ-Ni5Zn21 phase. Cyclic voltammetry results showed that the electrodeposition overpotential was lower in the presence of alumina sol in the bath, and caused the reduction potential of Zn-Ni to shift to more positive values. Zn-Ni-Al2O3 nano composite coatings produced more uniform and compact deposits, with fine grained microstructure when compared to Zn-Ni coatings. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Ni coatings was improved significantly by incorporation of alumina nano particles into the coatings.

Keywords: Zn-Ni-Al2O3 composite coatings, steel, sol-enhanced electroplating, corrosion resistance

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546 Rapid Detection of Melamine in Milk Products Based on Modified Gold Electrode

Authors: Rovina Kobun, Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee

Abstract:

A novel and simple electrochemical sensor for the determination of melamine was developed based on modified gold electrode (AuE) with chitosan (CHIT) nanocomposite membrane, zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and ionic liquids ([EMIM][Otf]) to enhance the potential current response of melamine. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical behaviour between melamine and modified AuE in the presence of methylene blue as a redox indicator. The experimental results indicated that the interaction of melamine with CHIT/ZnONPs/([EMIM][Otf])/AuE were based on the strong interaction of hydrogen bonds. The morphological characterization of modified AuE was observed under scanning electron microscope. Under optimal conditions, the current signal was directly proportional to the melamine concentration ranging from 9.6 x 10-5 to 9.6 x 10-11 M, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9656. The detection limit was 9.6 x 10-12 M. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied and displayed an excellent sensitivity in the determination of melamine in milk samples.

Keywords: melamine, gold electrode, zinc oxide nanoparticles, cyclic voltammetries, differential pulse voltammetries

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545 A Characterization of Skew Cyclic Code with Complementary Dual

Authors: Eusebio Jr. Lina, Ederlina Nocon

Abstract:

Cyclic codes are a fundamental subclass of linear codes that enjoy a very interesting algebraic structure. The class of skew cyclic codes (or θ-cyclic codes) is a generalization of the notion of cyclic codes. This a very large class of linear codes which can be used to systematically search for codes with good properties. A linear code with complementary dual (LCD code) is a linear code C satisfying C ∩ C^⊥ = {0}. This subclass of linear codes provides an optimum linear coding solution for a two-user binary adder channel and plays an important role in countermeasures to passive and active side-channel analyses on embedded cryptosystems. This paper aims to identify LCD codes from the class of skew cyclic codes. Let F_q be a finite field of order q, and θ be an automorphism of F_q. Some conditions for a skew cyclic code to be LCD were given. To this end, the properties of a noncommutative skew polynomial ring F_q[x, θ] of automorphism type were revisited, and the algebraic structure of skew cyclic code using its skew polynomial representation was examined. Using the result that skew cyclic codes are left ideals of the ring F_q[x, θ]/〈x^n-1〉, a characterization of a skew cyclic LCD code of length n was derived. A necessary condition for a skew cyclic code to be LCD was also given.

Keywords: LCD cyclic codes, skew cyclic LCD codes, skew cyclic complementary dual codes, theta-cyclic codes with complementary duals

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544 The Effects of pH on the Electrochromism in Nickel Oxide Films

Authors: T. Taşköprü, M. Zor, E. Turan

Abstract:

The advantages of nickel oxide as an electrochromic material are its good contrast of transmittance and its suitable use as a secondary electrochromic film with WO3 for electrochromic devices. Electrochromic nickel oxide film was prepared by using a simple and inexpensive chemical deposition bath (CBD) technique onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass substrates from nickel nitrate solution. The films were ace centered cubic NiO with preferred orientation in the (2 0 0) direction. The electrochromic (EC) properties of the films were studied as a function of pH (8, 9, 10 and 11) in an aqueous alkaline electrolyte (0.3 M KOH) using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The EC cell was formed with the following configuration; FTO/nickel oxide film/0.3 M KOH/Pt The potential was cycled from 0.1 to 0.6V at diffferent potential sweep rates in the range 10- 50 mV/s. The films exhibit anodic electrochromism, changing colour from transparent to black.CV results of a nickel oxide film showed well-resolved anodic current peak at potential; 45 mV and cathodic peak at potential 28 mV. The structural, morphological, and optical changes in NiO film following the CV were investigated by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and UV-Vis- NIR spectrophotometry. No change was observed in XRD, besides surface morphology undergoes change due to the electrical discharge. The change in tansmittance between the bleached and colored state is 68% for the film deposited with pH=11 precursor.

Keywords: nickel oxide, XRD, SEM, cyclic voltammetry

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543 Characterization of Self-Assembly Behavior of 1-Dodecylamine Molecules on Au (111) Surface

Authors: Wan-Tzu Yen, Yu-Chen Luo, I-Ping Liu, Po-Hsuan Yeh, Sheng-Hsun Fu, Yuh-Lang Lee

Abstract:

Self-assembled characteristics and adsorption performance of 1-dodecylamine molecules on gold (Au) (111) surfaces were characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The present study focused on the formation of 1-dodecylamine (DDA) on a gold surface with respect to the ex-situ arrangement of an adlayer on the Au(111) surface, and phase transition at potential dynamics carried out by EC-STM. This study reveals that alkyl amine molecules were formed an adsorption pattern with highly regular “lie down shape” on Au(111) surface, even in an extreme acid system (pH = 1). Acidic electrolyte (HClO₄) could protonate the surface of alkyl amine of a monolayer of the gold surface when potential shifts to negative. The quite stability of 1-dodecylamine on the gold surface maintained the monolayer across the potential window (0.1-0.8V). This transform model was confirmed by EC-STM. In addition, amine-modified Au(111) electrode adlayer used to examine how to affect an electron transfer across an interface using [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/[Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻ redox pair containing 0.1 M HClO₄ solution.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, dodecylamine, gold (Au)(111), scanning tunneling microscopy, self-assembled monolayer, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

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542 Electrochemical Behavior of Cocaine on Carbon Paste Electrode Chemically Modified with Cu(II) Trans 3-MeO Salcn Complex

Authors: Alex Soares Castro, Matheus Manoel Teles de Menezes, Larissa Silva de Azevedo, Ana Carolina Caleffi Patelli, Osmair Vital de Oliveira, Aline Thais Bruni, Marcelo Firmino de Oliveira

Abstract:

Considering the problem of the seizure of illicit drugs, as well as the development of electrochemical sensors using chemically modified electrodes, this work shows the study of the electrochemical activity of cocaine in carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO salcn complex. In this context, cyclic voltammetry was performed on 0.1 mol.L⁻¹ KCl supporting electrolyte at a scan speed of 100 mV s⁻¹, using an electrochemical cell composed of three electrodes: Ag /AgCl electrode (filled KCl 3 mol.L⁻¹) from Metrohm® (reference electrode); a platinum spiral electrode, as an auxiliary electrode, and a carbon paste electrode chemically modified with Cu (II) trans 3-MeO complex (as working electrode). Two forms of cocaine were analyzed: cocaine hydrochloride (pH 3) and cocaine free base form (pH 8). The PM7 computational method predicted that the hydrochloride form is more stable than the free base form of cocaine, so with cyclic voltammetry, we found electrochemical signal only for cocaine in the form of hydrochloride, with an anodic peak at 1.10 V, with a linearity range between 2 and 20 μmol L⁻¹ had LD and LQ of 2.39 and 7.26x10-5 mol L⁻¹, respectively. The study also proved that cocaine is adsorbed on the surface of the working electrode, where through an irreversible process, where only anode peaks are observed, we have the oxidation of cocaine, which occurs in the hydrophilic region due to the loss of two electrons. The mechanism of this reaction was confirmed by the ab-inito quantum method.

Keywords: ab-initio computational method, analytical method, cocaine, Schiff base complex, voltammetry

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541 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide – 3 (4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashima

Abstract:

A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl)propionate nanocomposite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1x10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury(II).

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, mercury(II), modified carbon paste electrode, nanocomposite

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540 Determination of Nanomolar Mercury (II) by Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Carbon Zinc/Aluminum Layered Double Hydroxide-3(4-Methoxyphenyl) Propionate Nanocomposite Paste Electrode

Authors: Illyas Md Isa, Sharifah Norain Mohd Sharif, Norhayati Hashim

Abstract:

A mercury(II) sensor was developed by using multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) paste electrode modified with Zn/Al layered double hydroxide-3(4-methoxyphenyl) propionate nano composite (Zn/Al-HMPP). The optimum conditions by cyclic voltammetry were observed at electrode composition 2.5% (w/w) of Zn/Al-HMPP/MWCNTs, 0.4 M potassium chloride, pH 4.0, and scan rate of 100 mVs-1. The sensor exhibited wide linear range from 1x10-3 M to 1x10-7 M Hg2+ and 1x10-7 M to 1x10-9 M Hg2+, with a detection limit of 1 x 10-10 M Hg2+. The high sensitivity of the proposed electrode towards Hg(II) was confirmed by double potential-step chronocoulometry which indicated these values; diffusion coefficient 1.5445 x 10-9 cm2 s-1, surface charge 524.5 µC s-½ and surface coverage 4.41 x 10-2 mol cm-2. The presence of 25-fold concentration of most metal ions had no influence on the anodic peak current. With characteristics such as high sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability the electrode was then proposed as the appropriate alternative for the determination of mercury.

Keywords: Cyclic voltammetry, Mercury(II), Modified carbon paste electrode, Nanocomposite

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539 E-Tongue Based on Metallo-Porphyrins for Histamine Evaluation

Authors: A. M. Iordache, S. M. Iordache, V. Barna, M. Elisa, I. C. Vasiliu, C. R. Stefan, I. Chilibon, I. Stamatin, S. Caramizoiu, C. E. A. Grigorescu

Abstract:

The general objective of the presentation is the development of an e-tongue like sensor based on modified screen printed electrode (SPE) structures with a receptor part made of porphyrins/metalloporphyrins chemically bound to graphene (the sensitive assembly) to act as antennas and “capture” the histamine molecules. Using a single, ultra-sensitive electrochemical sensor, we measured the concentration of histamine, a compound which is strongly connected to the level of freshness in foods (the caution level of histamine is 50 ppm, whereas the maximum accepted levels range from 200 ppm to 500 ppm). Our approach for the chemical immobilization of the porphyrins onto the surface of the graphenes was via substitution reaction: a solution of graphene in SOCl2 was heated to 800C for 6 hours. Upon cooling, the metallo-porphyrins were added and ultrasonicated for 4 hours. The solution was then allowed to cool to room temperature and then centrifuged in order to separate the deposit. The sensitive assembly was drop casted onto the carbon SPE and cyclic voltammetry was performed in the presence of histamine. The reaction is quasi-reversible and the sensor showed an oxidation potential for histamine at 600 mV. The results indicate a linear dependence of concentration of histamine as function of intensity. The results are reproducible; however the chemical stability of the sensitive assembly is low.

Keywords: histamine, cyclic voltammetry, metallo-porphyrin, food freshness

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538 Fabrication of Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon-Nanotubes Paper Electrode for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Tze-Sian Pui, Aung Than, Song-Wei Loo, Yuan-Li Hoe

Abstract:

A paper-based electrode devised from an array of carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) has been successfully developed for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The PDDA/MWNTs electrodes were fabricated by allowing PDDA to absorb onto the surface of carboxylated MWNTs, followed by drop-casting the resulting mixture onto a paper. Cyclic voltammetry performed using 5 mM [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/⁴⁻ as the redox marker showed that the PDDA/MWNTs electrode has higher redox activity compared to non-functionalized carboxylated MWNT electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry was conducted with DA concentration ranging from 2 µM to 500 µM in the presence of 1 mM AA. The distinctive potential of 0.156 and -0.068 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) measured on the surface of the PDDA/MWNTs electrode revealed that both DA and AA were oxidized. The detection limit of DA was estimated to be 0.8 µM. This nanocomposite paper-based electrode has great potential for future applications in bioanalysis and biomedicine.

Keywords: dopamine, differential pulse voltammetry, paper sensor, carbon nanotube

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537 Thermal Reduction of Perfect Well Identified Hexagonal Graphene Oxide Nano-Sheets for Super-Capacitor Applications

Authors: A. N. Fouda

Abstract:

A novel well identified hexagonal graphene oxide (GO) nano-sheets were synthesized using modified Hummer method. Low temperature thermal reduction at 350°C in air ambient was performed. After thermal reduction, typical few layers of thermal reduced GO (TRGO) with dimension of few hundreds nanometers were observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). GO has a lot of structure models due to variation of the preparation process. Determining the atomic structure of GO is essential for a better understanding of its fundamental properties and for realization of the future technological applications. Structural characterization was identified by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. A comparison between exper- imental and theoretical IR spectrum were done to confirm the match between experimentally and theoretically proposed GO structure. Partial overlap of the experimental IR spectrum with the theoretical IR was confirmed. The electrochemical properties of TRGO nano-sheets as electrode materials for supercapacitors were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. An enhancement in supercapacitance after reduction was confirmed and the area of the CV curve for the TRGO electrode is larger than those for the GO electrode indicating higher specific capacitance which is promising in super-capacitor applications

Keywords: hexagonal graphene oxide, thermal reduction, cyclic voltammetry

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536 Anthraquinone Labelled DNA for Direct Detection and Discrimination of Closely Related DNA Targets

Authors: Sarah A. Goodchild, Rachel Gao, Philip N. Bartlett

Abstract:

A novel detection approach using immobilized DNA probes labeled with Anthraquinone (AQ) as an electrochemically active reporter moiety has been successfully developed as a new, simple, reliable method for the detection of DNA. This method represents a step forward in DNA detection as it can discriminate between multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within target DNA strands without the need for any additional reagents, reporters or processes such as melting of DNA strands. The detection approach utilizes single-stranded DNA probes immobilized on gold surfaces labeled at the distal terminus with AQ. The effective immobilization has been monitored using techniques such as AC impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Simple voltammetry techniques (Differential Pulse Voltammetry, Cyclic Voltammetry) are then used to monitor the reduction potential of the AQ before and after the addition of complementary strand of target DNA. A reliable relationship between the shift in reduction potential and the number of base pair mismatch has been established and can be used to discriminate between DNA from highly related pathogenic organisms of clinical importance. This indicates that this approach may have great potential to be exploited within biosensor kits for detection and diagnosis of pathogenic organisms in Point of Care devices.

Keywords: Anthraquinone, discrimination, DNA detection, electrochemical biosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
535 Simple Fabrication of Au (111)-Like Electrode and Its Applications to Electrochemical Determination of Dopamine and Ascorbic Acid

Authors: Zahrah Thamer Althagafi, Mohamed I. Awad

Abstract:

A simple method for the fabrication of Au (111)-like electrode via controlled reductive desorption of a pre-adsorbed cysteine monolayer onto polycrystalline gold (poly-Au) electrode is introduced. Then, the voltammetric behaviour of dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) on the thus modified electrode is investigated. Electrochemical characterization of the modified electrode is achieved using cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. For the binary mixture of DA and AA, the results showed that Au (111)-like electrode exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of DA and AA. This allows highly selective and simultaneous determination of DA and AA. The effect of various experimental parameters on the voltammetric responses of DA and AA was investigated. The enrichment of the Au (111) facet of the poly-Au electrode is thought to be behind the electrocatalytic activity.

Keywords: gold electrode, electroanalysis, electrocatalysis, monolayers, self-assembly, cysteine, dopamine, ascorbic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
534 Immobilization of Cobalt Ions on F-Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Thin Film: Preparation and Application for Paracetamol Detection

Authors: Shamima Akhter, Samira Bagheri, M. Shalauddin, Wan Jefrey Basirun

Abstract:

In the present study, a nanocomposite of f-MWCNTs-Chitosan was prepared by the immobilization of Co(II) transition metal through self-assembly method and used for the simultaneous voltammetric determination of paracetamol (PA). The composite material was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX). The electroactivity of cobalt immobilized f-MWCNTs with excellent adsorptive polymer chitosan was assessed during the electro-oxidation of paracetamol. The resulting GCE modified f-MWCNTs/CTS-Co showed electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of PA. The electrochemical performances were investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methods. Under favorable experimental conditions, differential pulse voltammetry showed a linear dynamic range for paracetamol solution in the range of 0.1 to 400µmol L⁻¹ with a detection limit of 0.01 µmol L⁻¹. The proposed sensor exhibited significant selectivity for the paracetamol detection. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of paracetamol in commercial tablets and human serum sample.

Keywords: nanomaterials, paracetamol, electrochemical technique, multi-wall carbon nanotube

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
533 Detection of Epinephrine in Chicken Serum at Iron Oxide Screen Print Modified Electrode

Authors: Oluwole Opeyemi Dina, Saheed E. Elugoke, Peter Olutope Fayemi, Omolola E. Fayemi

Abstract:

This study presents the detection of epinephrine (EP) at Fe₃O₄ modified screen printed silver electrode (SPSE). The iron oxide (Fe₃O₄) nanoparticles were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier-Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) prior to the modification of the SPSE. The EP oxidation peak current (Iap) increased with an increase in the concentration of EP as well as the scan rate (from 25 - 400 mVs⁻¹). Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), the relationship between Iap and EP concentration was linear over a range of 3.8 -118.9 µM and 118.9-175 µM with a detection limit of 41.99 µM and 83.16 µM, respectively. Selective detection of EP in the presence of ascorbic acid was also achieved at this electrode.

Keywords: screenprint electrode, iron oxide nanoparticle, epinephrine, serum, cyclic voltametry

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532 Electrochemical and Photoelectrochemical Study of Polybithiophene–MnO2 Composite Films

Authors: H. Zouaoui, D. Abdi, B. Nessark, F. Habelhames, A. Bahloul

Abstract:

Among the conjugated organic polymers, the polythiophenes constitute a particularly important class of conjugated polymers, which has been extensively studied for the relation between the geometrical structure and the optic and electronic properties, while the polythiophene is an intractable material. They are, furthermore, chemically and thermally stable materials, and are very attractive for exploitation of their physical properties. The polythiophenes are extensively studied due to the possibility of synthesizing low band gap materials by using substituted thiophenes as precursors. Low band gap polymers may convert visible light into electricity and some photoelectrochemical cells based on these materials have been prepared. Polythiophenes (PThs) are good candidates for polymer optoelectronic devices such as polymer solar cells (PSCs) polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) field-effect transistors (FETs) electrochromics and biosensors. In this work, MnO2 has been synthesized by hydrothermal method and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The polybithiophene+MnO2 composite films were electrochemically prepared by cyclic voltammetry technic on a conductor glass substrate ITO (indium–tin-oxide). The composite films are characterized by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical analyses. The results confirmed the presence of manganese dioxide nanoparticles in the polymer layer. An application has been made by using these deposits as an electrode in a photoelectrochemical cell for measuring photocurrent tests. The composite films show a significant photocurrent intensity 80 μA.cm-2.

Keywords: polybithiophene, MnO2, photoelectrochemical cells, composite films

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
531 Behaviour of Rc Column under Biaxial Cyclic Loading-State of the Art

Authors: L. Pavithra, R. Sharmila, Shivani Sridhar

Abstract:

Columns severe structural damage needs proportioning a significant portion of earthquake energy can be dissipated yielding in the beams. Presence of axial load along with cyclic loading has a significant influence on column. The objective of this paper is to present the analytical results of columns subjected to biaxial cyclic loading.

Keywords: RC column, Seismic behaviour, cyclic behaviour, biaxial testing, ductile behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 223