Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 821

Search results for: seismic retrofit

821 Story-Wise Distribution of Slit Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of RC Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Minjung Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim


In this study, a seismic retrofit scheme for a reinforced concrete shear wall structure using steel slit dampers was presented. The stiffness and the strength of the slit damper used in the retrofit were verified by cyclic loading test. A genetic algorithm was applied to find out the optimum location of the slit dampers. The effects of the slit dampers on the seismic retrofit of the model were compared with those of jacketing shear walls. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned slit dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. Based on the analysis results, the simple procedure for determining required damping ratio using capacity spectrum method along with the damper distribution pattern proportional to the inter-story drifts was validated. The analysis results showed that the seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was more economical than the jacketing of the shear walls and that the capacity spectrum method combined with the simple damper distribution pattern led to satisfactory damper distribution pattern compatible with the solution obtained from the genetic algorithm.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, slit dampers, genetic algorithm, jacketing, capacity spectrum method

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820 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures with Hysteretic Dampers

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Hyungoo Kang, Hyungjun Shin


In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time.

Keywords: slit dampers, friction dampers, seismic retrofit, life cycle cost, FEMA P-58, PACT

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819 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Structures with Hybrid Dampers Based on FEMA P-58 Methodology

Authors: Minsung Kim, Hyunkoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim


In this study, a hybrid energy dissipation device is developed by combining a steel slit plate and friction pads to be used for seismic retrofit of structures, and its effectiveness is investigated by comparing the life cycle costs of the structure before and after the retrofit. The seismic energy dissipation capability of the dampers is confirmed by cyclic loading tests. The probabilities of reaching various damage states are obtained by fragility analysis, and the life cycle costs of the model structures are computed using the PACT (Performance Assessment Calculation Tool) program based on FEMA P-58 methodology. The fragility analysis shows that the probabilities of reaching limit states are minimized by the seismic retrofit with hybrid dampers and increasing column size. The seismic retrofit with increasing column size and hybrid dampers results in the lowest repair cost and shortest repair time. This research was supported by a grant (13AUDP-B066083-01) from Architecture & Urban Development Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: FEMA P-58, friction dampers, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit

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818 Cost Effectiveness of Slit-Viscoelastic Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of Structures

Authors: Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim


In order to reduce or eliminate seismic damage in structures, many researchers have investigated various energy dissipation devices. In this study, the seismic capacity and cost of a slit-viscoelastic seismic retrofit system composed of a steel slit plate and viscoelastic dampers connected in parallel are evaluated. The combination of the two different damping mechanisms is expected to produce enhanced seismic performance of the building. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in the nonlinear dynamic analysis software Perform 3D, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the displacement of the structure equipped with the hybrid dampers is smaller than that of the structure with slit dampers due to the enhanced self-centering capability of the system. It is also observed that the initial cost of hybrid system required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscoelastic dampers. Acknowledgement: This research was financially supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy(MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the International Cooperative R&D program(N043100016_Development of low-cost high-performance seismic energy dissipation devices using viscoelastic material).

Keywords: damped cable systems, seismic retrofit, viscous dampers, self-centering

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817 Optimal Retrofit Design of Reinforced Concrete Frame with Infill Wall Using Fiber Reinforced Plastic Materials

Authors: Sang Wook Park, Se Woon Choi, Yousok Kim, Byung Kwan Oh, Hyo Seon Park


Various retrofit techniques for reinforced concrete frame with infill wall have been steadily developed. Among those techniques, strengthening methodology based on diagonal FRP strips (FRP bracings) has numerous advantages such as feasibility of implementing without interrupting the building under operation, reduction of cost and time, and easy application. Considering the safety of structure and retrofit cost, the most appropriate retrofit solution is needed. Thus, the objective of this study is to suggest pareto-optimal solution for existing building using FRP bracings. To find pareto-optimal solution analysis, NSGA-II is applied. Moreover, the seismic performance of retrofit building is evaluated. The example building is 5-storey, 3-bay RC frames with infill wall. Nonlinear static pushover analyses are performed with FEMA 356. The criterion of performance evaluation is inter-story drift ratio at the performance level IO, LS, CP. Optimal retrofit solutions is obtained for 32 individuals and 200 generations. Through the proposed optimal solutions, we confirm the improvement of seismic performance of the example building.

Keywords: retrofit, FRP bracings, reinforced concrete frame with infill wall, seismic performance evaluation, NSGA-II

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816 Probabilistic Seismic Loss Assessment of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Frame Buildings Pre- and Post-Rehabilitation

Authors: A. Flora, A. Di Lascio, D. Cardone, G. Gesualdi, G. Perrone


This paper considers the seismic assessment and retrofit of a pilotis-type RC frame building, which was designed for gravity loads only, prior to the introduction of seismic design provisions. Pilotis-type RC frame buildings, featuring an uniform infill throughout the height and an open ground floor, were, and still are, quite popular all over the world, as they offer large open areas very suitable for retail space at the ground floor. These architectural advantages, however, are of detriment to the building seismic behavior, as they can determine a soft-storey collapse mechanism. Extensive numerical analyses are carried out to quantify and benchmark the performance of the selected building, both in terms of overall collapse capacity and expected losses. Alternative retrofit strategies are then examined, including: (i) steel jacketing of RC columns and beam-column joints, (ii) steel bracing and (iv) seismic isolation. The Expected Annual Loss (EAL) of the selected case-study building, pre- and post-rehabilitation, is evaluated, following a probabilistic approach. The breakeven time of each solution is computed, comparing the initial cost of the retrofit intervention with expected benefit in terms of EAL reduction.

Keywords: expected annual loss, reinforced concrete buildings, seismic loss assessment, seismic retrofit

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815 Seismic Retrofitting of Structures Using Steel Plate Slit Dampers Based on Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mohamed Noureldin, Jinkoo Kim


In this study, a genetic algorithm was used to find out the optimum locations of the slit dampers satisfying a target displacement. A seismic retrofit scheme for a building structure was presented using steel plate slit dampers. A cyclic loading test was used to verify the energy dissipation capacity of the slit damper. The seismic retrofit of the model structure using the slit dampers was compared with the retrofit with enlarging shear walls. The capacity spectrum method was used to propose a simple damper distribution scheme proportional to the inter-story drifts. The validity of the simple story-wise damper distribution procedure was verified by comparing the results of the genetic algorithm. It was observed that the proposed simple damper distribution pattern was in a good agreement with the optimum distribution obtained from the genetic algorithm. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2017R1D1A1B03032809).

Keywords: slit dampers, seismic retrofit, genetic algorithm, optimum design

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814 Advanced Seismic Retrofit of a School Building by a DFP Base Isolation Solution

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi


The study of a base isolation seismic retrofit solution for a reinforced concrete school building is presented in this paper. The building was assumed as a benchmark structure for a Research Project financed by the Italian Department of Civil Protection, and is representative of several similar public edifices designed with earlier Technical Standards editions, in Italy as well as in other earthquake-prone European countries. The structural characteristics of the building, and a synthesis of the investigation campaigns developed on it, are initially presented. The mechanical parameters, dimensions, locations and installation details of the base isolation system, incorporating double friction pendulum sliding bearings as protective devices, are then illustrated, along with the performance assessment analyses carried out in original and rehabilitated conditions according to a full non-linear dynamic approach. The results of the analyses show a remarkable enhancement of the seismic response capacities of the structure in base-isolated configuration. This allows reaching the high performance levels postulated in the rehabilitation design with notably lower costs and architectural intrusion as compared to traditional retrofit interventions designed for the same objectives.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, seismic assessment, r/c structures, school buildings, base isolation

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813 Life Cycle Cost Evaluation of Structures Retrofitted with Damped Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Mohamed Nour Eldin, Jinkoo Kim


In this study, the seismic performance and life cycle cost (LCC) are evaluated of the structure retrofitted with the damped cable system (DCS). The DCS is a seismic retrofit system composed of a high-strength steel cable and pressurized viscous dampers. The analysis model of the system is first derived using various link elements in SAP2000, and fragility curves of the structure retrofitted with the DCS and viscous dampers are obtained using incremental dynamic analyses. The analysis results show that the residual displacements of the structure equipped with the DCS are smaller than those of the structure with retrofitted with only conventional viscous dampers, due to the enhanced stiffness/strength and self-centering capability of the damped cable system. The fragility analysis shows that the structure retrofitted with the DCS has the least probability of reaching the specific limit states compared to the bare structure and the structure with viscous damper. It is also observed that the initial cost of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers and that the LCC of the structure equipped with the DCS is smaller than that of the structure with viscous dampers.

Keywords: damped cable system, fragility curve, life cycle cost, seismic retrofit, self-centering

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812 Optimal Design of Friction Dampers for Seismic Retrofit of a Moment Frame

Authors: Hyungoo Kang, Jinkoo Kim


This study investigated the determination of the optimal location and friction force of friction dampers to effectively reduce the seismic response of a reinforced concrete structure designed without considering seismic load. To this end, the genetic algorithm process was applied and the results were compared with those obtained by simplified methods such as distribution of dampers based on the story shear or the inter-story drift ratio. The seismic performance of the model structure with optimally positioned friction dampers was evaluated by nonlinear static and dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that compared with the system without friction dampers, the maximum roof displacement and the inter-story drift ratio were reduced by about 30% and 40%, respectively. After installation of the dampers about 70% of the earthquake input energy was dissipated by the dampers and the energy dissipated in the structural elements was reduced by about 50%. In comparison with the simplified methods of installation, the genetic algorithm provided more efficient solutions for seismic retrofit of the model structure.

Keywords: friction dampers, genetic algorithm, optimal design, RC buildings

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811 Performance Based Seismic Retrofit of Masonry Infiled Reinforced Concrete Frames Using Passive Energy Dissipation Devices

Authors: Alok Madan, Arshad K. Hashmi


The paper presents a plastic analysis procedure based on the energy balance concept for performance based seismic retrofit of multi-story multi-bay masonry infilled reinforced concrete (R/C) frames with a ‘soft’ ground story using passive energy dissipation (PED) devices with the objective of achieving a target performance level of the retrofitted R/C frame for a given seismic hazard level at the building site. The proposed energy based plastic analysis procedure was employed for developing performance based design (PBD) formulations for PED devices for a simulated application in seismic retrofit of existing frame structures designed in compliance with the prevalent standard codes of practice. The PBD formulations developed for PED devices were implemented for simulated seismic retrofit of a representative code-compliant masonry infilled R/C frame with a ‘soft’ ground story using friction dampers as the PED device. Non-linear dynamic analyses of the retrofitted masonry infilled R/C frames is performed to investigate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed energy based plastic analysis procedure in achieving the target performance level under design level earthquakes. Results of non-linear dynamic analyses demonstrate that the maximum inter-story drifts in the masonry infilled R/C frames with a ‘soft’ ground story that is retrofitted with the friction dampers designed using the proposed PBD formulations are controlled within the target drifts under near-field as well far-field earthquakes.

Keywords: energy methods, masonry infilled frame, near-field earthquakes, seismic protection, supplemental damping devices

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810 Hybrid Seismic Energy Dissipation Devices Made of Viscoelastic Pad and Steel Plate

Authors: Jinkoo Kim, Minsung Kim


This study develops a hybrid seismic energy dissipation device composed of a viscoelastic damper and a steel slit damper connected in parallel. A cyclic loading test is conducted on a test specimen to validate the seismic performance of the hybrid damper. Then a moment-framed model structure is designed without seismic load so that it is retrofitted with the hybrid dampers. The model structure is transformed into an equivalent simplified system to find out optimum story-wise damper distribution pattern using genetic algorithm. The effectiveness of the hybrid damper is investigated by fragility analysis and the life cycle cost evaluation of the structure with and without the dampers. The analysis results show that the model structure has reduced probability of reaching damage states, especially the complete damage state, after seismic retrofit. The expected damage cost and consequently the life cycle cost of the retrofitted structure turn out to be significantly small compared with those of the original structure. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) and Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) through the International Cooperative R & D program (N043100016).

Keywords: seismic retrofit, slit dampers, friction dampers, hybrid dampers

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809 Seismic Performance of a Framed Structure Retrofitted with Damped Cable Systems

Authors: Asad Naeem, Minsung Kim, Jinkoo Kim


In this work, the effectiveness of damped cable systems (DCS) on the mitigation of earthquake-induced response of a framed structure is investigated. The seismic performance of DCS is investigated using fragility analysis and life cycle cost evaluation of an existing building retrofitted with DCS, and the results are compared with those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. The comparison of the analysis results reveals that, due to the self-centering capability of the DCS, residual displacement becomes nearly zero in the structure retrofitted with the DCS. According to the fragility analysis, the structure retrofitted with the DCS has smaller probability of reaching a limit states compared to the structure with viscous dampers. It is also observed that both the initial and life cycle costs of the DCS method required for the seismic retrofit is smaller than those of the structure retrofitted with viscous dampers. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by a grant (17CTAP-C132889-01) from Technology Advancement Research Program (TARP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport of Korean government.

Keywords: damped cable system, seismic retrofit, self centering, fragility analysis

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808 Comparison of Double Unit Tunnel Form Building before and after Repair and Retrofit under in-Plane Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. A. Anuar, N. H. Hamid, M. H. Hashim, S. M. D. Salleh


This paper present the experimental work on the seismic performance of double unit tunnel form building (TFB) subjected to in-plane lateral cyclic loading. A one third scale of 3-storey double unit of TFB is tested at ±0.01%, ±0.1%, ±0.25%, ±0.5%, ±0.75% and ±1.0% drifts until the structure achieves its strength degradation. After that, the TFB is repaired and retrofitted using additional shear wall, steel angle and CFRP sheet. A similar testing approach is applied to the specimen after repair and retrofit. The crack patterns, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility and equivalent viscous damping (EVD) were analyzed and compared before and after repair and retrofit. The result indicates that the lateral strength increases by 22 in pushing direction and 27% in pulling direction. Moreover, the stiffness and ductility obtained before and after retrofit increase tremendously by 87.87% and 39.66%, respectively. Meanwhile, the energy absorption measured by equivalent viscous damping obtained after retrofit increase by 12.34% in pulling direction. It can be concluded that the proposed retrofit method is capable to increase the lateral strength capacity, stiffness and energy absorption of double unit TFB.

Keywords: tunnel form building, in-plane lateral cyclic loading, crack pattern, lateral strength, stiffness, ductility, equivalent viscous damping, repair and retrofit

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807 Comparative Study of Seismic Isolation as Retrofit Method for Historical Constructions

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra


Seismic isolation can be used as a retrofit method for historical buildings with the advantage that minimum intervention on super-structure is required. However, selection of isolation devices depends on weight and stiffness of upper structure. In this study, two buildings are considered for analyses to evaluate the applicability of this retrofitting methodology. Both buildings are located at Akita prefecture in the north part of Japan. One building is a wooden structure that corresponds to the old council meeting hall of Noshiro city. The second building is a brick masonry structure that was used as house of a foreign mining engineer and it is located at Ani town. Ambient vibration measurements were performed on both buildings to estimate their dynamic characteristics. Then, target period of vibration of isolated systems is selected as 3 seconds is selected to estimate required stiffness of isolation devices. For wooden structure, which is a light construction, it was found that natural rubber isolators in combination with friction bearings are suitable for seismic isolation. In case of masonry building elastomeric isolator can be used for its seismic isolation. Lumped mass systems are used for seismic response analysis and it is verified in both cases that seismic isolation can be used as retrofitting method of historical construction. However, in the case of the light building, most of the weight corresponds to the reinforced concrete slab that is required to install isolation devices.

Keywords: historical building, finite element method, masonry structure, seismic isolation, wooden structure

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806 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Existing Building Using Structural Information Modeling

Authors: Byungmin Cho, Dongchul Lee, Taejin Kim, Minhee Lee


The procedure for the seismic retrofit of existing buildings includes the seismic evaluation. In the evaluation step, it is assessed whether the buildings have satisfactory performance against seismic load. Based on the results of that, the buildings are upgraded. To evaluate seismic performance of the buildings, it usually goes through the model transformation from elastic analysis to inelastic analysis. However, when the data is not delivered through the interwork, engineers should manually input the data. In this process, since it leads to inaccuracy and loss of information, the results of the analysis become less accurate. Therefore, in this study, the process for the seismic evaluation of existing buildings using structural information modeling is suggested. This structural information modeling makes the work economic and accurate. To this end, it is determined which part of the process could be computerized through the investigation of the process for the seismic evaluation based on ASCE 41. The structural information modeling process is developed to apply to the seismic evaluation using Perform 3D program usually used for the nonlinear response history analysis. To validate this process, the seismic performance of an existing building is investigated.

Keywords: existing building, nonlinear analysis, seismic performance, structural information modeling

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805 Design of Seismically Resistant Tree-Branching Steel Frames Using Theory and Design Guides for Eccentrically Braced Frames

Authors: R. Gary Black, Abolhassan Astaneh-Asl


The International Building Code (IBC) and the California Building Code (CBC) both recognize four basic types of steel seismic resistant frames; moment frames, concentrically braced frames, shear walls and eccentrically braced frames. Based on specified geometries and detailing, the seismic performance of these steel frames is well understood. In 2011, the authors designed an innovative steel braced frame system with tapering members in the general shape of a branching tree as a seismic retrofit solution to an existing four story “lift-slab” building. Located in the seismically active San Francisco Bay Area of California, a frame of this configuration, not covered by the governing codes, would typically require model or full scale testing to obtain jurisdiction approval. This paper describes how the theories, protocols, and code requirements of eccentrically braced frames (EBFs) were employed to satisfy the 2009 International Building Code (IBC) and the 2010 California Building Code (CBC) for seismically resistant steel frames and permit construction of these nonconforming geometries.

Keywords: eccentrically braced frame, lift slab construction, seismic retrofit, shear link, steel design

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804 A New Approach to Retrofit Steel Moment Resisting Frame Structures after Mainshock

Authors: Amir H. Farivarrad, Kiarash M. Dolatshahi


During earthquake events, aftershocks can significantly increase the probability of collapse of buildings, especially for those with induced damages during the mainshock. In this paper, a practical approach is proposed for seismic rehabilitation of mainshock-damaged buildings that can be easily implemented within few days after the mainshock. To show the efficacy of the proposed method, a case study nine story steel moment frame building is chosen which was designed to pre-Northridge codes. The collapse fragility curve for the aftershock is presented for both the retrofitted and non-retrofitted structures. Comparison of the collapse fragility curves shows that the proposed method is indeed applicable to reduce the seismic collapse risk.

Keywords: aftershock, the collapse fragility curve, seismic rehabilitation, seismic retrofitting

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803 Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Highly Dissipative Technologies

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi, Giulia Mazzieri, Iacopo Costoli


The prolonged earthquake sequence that struck several urban agglomerations and villages in Central Italy, starting from 24 August 2016 through January 2017, highlighted once again the seismic vulnerability of pre-normative reinforced concrete (R/C) structures. At the same time, considerable damages were surveyed in recently retrofitted R/C buildings too, one of which also by means of a dissipative bracing system. The solution adopted for the latter did not expressly take into account the performance of non-structural elements, and namely of infills and partitions, confirming the importance of their dynamic interaction with the structural skeleton. Based on this consideration, an alternative supplemental damping-based retrofit solution for this representative building, i.e., a school with an R/C structure situated in the municipality of Norcia, is examined in this paper. It consists of the incorporation of dissipative braces equipped with pressurized silicone fluid viscous (FV) dampers, instead of the BRAD system installed in the building, the delayed activation of which -caused by the high stiffness of the constituting metallic dampers- determined the observed non-structural damages. Indeed, the alternative solution proposed herein, characterized by dissipaters with mainly damping mechanical properties, guarantees an earlier activation of the protective system. A careful assessment analysis, preliminarily carried out to simulate and check the case study building performance in originally BRAD-retrofitted conditions, confirms that the interstorey drift demand related to the Norcia earthquake's mainshock and aftershocks is beyond the response capacity of infills. The verification analyses developed on the R/C structure, including the FV-damped braces, highlight their higher performance, giving rise to a completely undamaged response both of structural and non-structural elements up to the basic design earthquake normative level of seismic action.

Keywords: dissipative technologies, performance assessment analysis, concrete structures, seismic retrofit

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802 Seismic Performance of Slopes Subjected to Earthquake Mainshock Aftershock Sequences

Authors: Alisha Khanal, Gokhan Saygili


It is commonly observed that aftershocks follow the mainshock. Aftershocks continue over a period of time with a decreasing frequency and typically there is not sufficient time for repair and retrofit between a mainshock–aftershock sequence. Usually, aftershocks are smaller in magnitude; however, aftershock ground motion characteristics such as the intensity and duration can be greater than the mainshock due to the changes in the earthquake mechanism and location with respect to the site. The seismic performance of slopes is typically evaluated based on the sliding displacement predicted to occur along a critical sliding surface. Various empirical models are available that predict sliding displacement as a function of seismic loading parameters, ground motion parameters, and site parameters but these models do not include the aftershocks. The seismic risks associated with the post-mainshock slopes ('damaged slopes') subjected to aftershocks is significant. This paper extends the empirical sliding displacement models for flexible slopes subjected to earthquake mainshock-aftershock sequences (a multi hazard approach). A dataset was developed using 144 pairs of as-recorded mainshock-aftershock sequences using the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) database. The results reveal that the combination of mainshock and aftershock increases the seismic demand on slopes relative to the mainshock alone; thus, seismic risks are underestimated if aftershocks are neglected.

Keywords: seismic slope stability, mainshock, aftershock, landslide, earthquake, flexible slopes

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801 An Integrated Framework for Seismic Risk Mitigation Decision Making

Authors: Mojtaba Sadeghi, Farshid Baniassadi, Hamed Kashani


One of the challenging issues faced by seismic retrofitting consultants and employers is quick decision-making on the demolition or retrofitting of a structure at the current time or in the future. For this reason, the existing models proposed by researchers have only covered one of the aspects of cost, execution method, and structural vulnerability. Given the effect of each factor on the final decision, it is crucial to devise a new comprehensive model capable of simultaneously covering all the factors. This study attempted to provide an integrated framework that can be utilized to select the most appropriate earthquake risk mitigation solution for buildings. This framework can overcome the limitations of current models by taking into account several factors such as cost, execution method, risk-taking and structural failure. In the newly proposed model, the database and essential information about retrofitting projects are developed based on the historical data on a retrofit project. In the next phase, an analysis is conducted in order to assess the vulnerability of the building under study. Then, artificial neural networks technique is employed to calculate the cost of retrofitting. While calculating the current price of the structure, an economic analysis is conducted to compare demolition versus retrofitting costs. At the next stage, the optimal method is identified. Finally, the implementation of the framework was demonstrated by collecting data concerning 155 previous projects.

Keywords: decision making, demolition, construction management, seismic retrofit

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800 Foundation Retrofitting of Storage Tank under Seismic Load

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade, E. Izadi, M. Hossein Zade


The different seismic behavior of liquid storage tanks rather than conventional structures makes their responses more complicated. Uplifting and excessive settlement due to liquid sloshing are the most frequent damages in cylindrical liquid tanks after shell bucking failure modes. As a matter of fact, uses of liquid storage tanks because of the simple construction on compact layer of soil as a foundation are very conventional, but in some cases need to retrofit are essential. The tank seismic behavior can be improved by modifying dynamic characteristic of tank with verifying seismic loads as well as retrofitting and improving base ground. This paper focuses on a typical steel tank on loose, medium and stiff sandy soil and describes an evaluation of displacement of the tank before and after retrofitting. The Abaqus program was selected for its ability to include shell and structural steel elements, soil-structure interaction, and geometrical nonlinearities and contact type elements. The result shows considerable decreasing in settlement and uplifting in the case of retrofitted tank. Also, by increasing shear strength parameter of soil, the performance of the liquid storage tank under the case of seismic load increased.

Keywords: steel tank, soil-structure, sandy soil, seismic load

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799 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim


Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

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798 Seismic Retrofit of Tall Building Structure with Viscous, Visco-Elastic, Visco-Plastic Damper

Authors: Nicolas Bae, Theodore L. Karavasilis


Increasingly, a large number of new and existing tall buildings are required to improve their resilient performance against strong winds and earthquakes to minimize direct, as well as indirect damages to society. Those advent stationary functions of tall building structures in metropolitan regions can be severely hazardous, in socio-economic terms, which also increase the requirement of advanced seismic performance. To achieve these progressive requirements, the seismic reinforcement for some old, conventional buildings have become enormously costly. The methods of increasing the buildings’ resilience against wind or earthquake loads have also become more advanced. Up to now, vibration control devices, such as the passive damper system, is still regarded as an effective and an easy-to-install option, in improving the seismic resilience of buildings at affordable prices. The main purpose of this paper is to examine 1) the optimization of the shape of visco plastic brace damper (VPBD) system which is one of hybrid damper system so that it can maximize its energy dissipation capacity in tall buildings against wind and earthquake. 2) the verification of the seismic performance of the visco plastic brace damper system in tall buildings; up to forty-storey high steel frame buildings, by comparing the results of Non-Linear Response History Analysis (NLRHA), with and without a damper system. The most significant contribution of this research is to introduce the optimized hybrid damper system that is adequate for high rise buildings. The efficiency of this visco plastic brace damper system and the advantages of its use in tall buildings can be verified since tall buildings tend to be affected by wind load at its normal state and also by earthquake load after yielding of steel plates. The modeling of the prototype tall building will be conducted using the Opensees software. Three types of modeling were used to verify the performance of the damper (MRF, MRF with visco-elastic, MRF with visco-plastic model) 22-set seismic records used and the scaling procedure was followed according to the FEMA code. It is shown that MRF with viscous, visco-elastic damper, it is superior effective to reduce inelastic deformation such as roof displacement, maximum story drift, roof velocity compared to the MRF only.

Keywords: tall steel building, seismic retrofit, viscous, viscoelastic damper, performance based design, resilience based design

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797 Shaking Table Test and Seismic Performance Evaluation of Spring Viscous Damper Cable System

Authors: Asad Naeem, Jinkoo Kim


This research proposes a self-centering passive damping system consisting of a spring viscous damper linked with a preloaded tendon. The seismic performance of the spring viscous damper is evaluated by pseudo-dynamic tests, and the results are used for the formulation of an analytical model of the damper in the structural analysis program. The shaking table tests of a two-story steel frame installed with the proposed damping system are carried out using five different earthquake records. The results from the shaking table tests are verified by numerical simulation of the retrofitted structure. The results obtained from experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed damping system with self-centering capability is effective in reducing earthquake-induced displacement and member forces.

Keywords: seismic retrofit, spring viscous damper, shaking table test, earthquake resistant structures

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796 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

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795 Seismic Retrofit of Existing Bridge Foundations with Micropiles: 3D Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Mohanad Talal Alfach


This paper concerns the seismic behaviour of soil-piles-bridge reinforced by additional micropiles. The analysis carried out by three-dimensional finite element modelling using the FE software ABAQUS. The soil behaviour is assumed to be elastic with Rayleigh damping, while the micropiles are modeled as 3D elastic beam elements. The bridge deck slab was represented by a concentrated mass at the top of the pier column. The interaction between the added micropiles and the existing piles as well as the performance of the retrofitted soil-pile-superstructure system were investigated for different configurations of additional micropiles (number, position, inclination). Numerical simulation results show that additional micropiles constitute an efficient retrofitting solution. Analysis of results also shows that spacing between existing piles and retrofitting micropiles has little effect; while it is observed a substantial improvement (in case of weak piles/micropiles - soil interface) with reducing the inclination angle of retrofitting micropiles.

Keywords: retrofitting, seismic, finite element, micropiles, elastic

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794 Structural Analysis and Strengthening of the National Youth Foundation Building in Igoumenitsa, Greece

Authors: Chrysanthos Maraveas, Argiris Plesias, Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Konstantinos Petronikolos


The current paper presents a structural assessment and proposals for retrofit of the National Youth Foundation Building, an existing reinforced concrete (RC) building in the city of Igoumenitsa, Greece. The building is scheduled to be renovated in order to create a Municipal Cultural Center. The bearing capacity and structural integrity have been investigated in relation to the provisions and requirements of the Greek Retrofitting Code (KAN.EPE.) and European Standards (Eurocodes). The capacity of the existing concrete structure that makes up the two central buildings in the complex (buildings II and IV) has been evaluated both in its present form and after including several proposed architectural interventions. The structural system consists of spatial frames of columns and beams that have been simulated using beam elements. Some RC elements of the buildings have been strengthened in the past by means of concrete jacketing and have had cracks sealed with epoxy injections. Static-nonlinear analysis (Pushover) has been used to assess the seismic performance of the two structures with regard to performance level B1 from KAN.EPE. Retrofitting scenarios are proposed for the two buildings, including type Λ steel bracings and placement of concrete shear walls in the transverse direction in order to achieve the design-specification deformation in each applicable situation, improve the seismic performance, and reduce the number of interventions required.

Keywords: earthquake resistance, pushover analysis, reinforced concrete, retrofit, strengthening

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793 Seizure Effects of FP Bearings on the Seismic Reliability of Base-Isolated Systems

Authors: Paolo Castaldo, Bruno Palazzo, Laura Lodato


This study deals with the seizure effects of friction pendulum (FP) bearings on the seismic reliability of a 3D base-isolated nonlinear structural system, designed according to Italian seismic code (NTC08). The isolated system consists in a 3D reinforced concrete superstructure, a r.c. substructure and the FP devices, described by employing a velocity dependent model. The seismic input uncertainty is considered as a random variable relevant to the problem, by employing a set of natural seismic records selected in compliance with L’Aquila (Italy) seismic hazard as provided from NTC08. Several non-linear dynamic analyses considering the three components of each ground motion have been performed with the aim to evaluate the seismic reliability of the superstructure, substructure, and isolation level, also taking into account the seizure event of the isolation devices. Finally, a design solution aimed at increasing the seismic robustness of the base-isolated systems with FPS is analyzed.

Keywords: FP devices, seismic reliability, seismic robustness, seizure

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792 Design and Performance Evaluation of Hybrid Corrugated-GFRP Infill Panels

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Sung Min Park, Ho Young Son, Viriyavudh Sim


This study presents a way to reduce earthquake damage and emergency rehabilitation of critical structures such as schools, high-tech factories, and hospitals due to strong ground motions associated with climate changes. Regarding recent trend, a strong earthquake causes serious damage to critical structures and then the critical structure might be influenced by sequence aftershocks (or tsunami) due to fault plane adjustments. Therefore, in order to improve seismic performance of critical structures, retrofitted or strengthening study of the structures under aftershocks sequence after emergency rehabilitation of the structures subjected to strong earthquakes is widely carried out. Consequently, this study used composite material for emergency rehabilitation of the structure rather than concrete and steel materials because of high strength and stiffness, lightweight, rapid manufacturing, and dynamic performance. Also, this study was to develop or improve the seismic performance or seismic retrofit of critical structures subjected to strong ground motions and earthquake aftershocks, by utilizing GFRP-Corrugated Infill Panels (GCIP).

Keywords: aftershock, composite material, GFRP, infill panel

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