Search results for: adhesive
208 Development of Adhesive from Prosopis african Seed Endosperm (OKPEYI)
Authors: Florence Chinyere Nwangwu, Rosemary Ene
Abstract:An experimental study was carried out to develop an adhesive from Prosopis africana seed endosperm. The Prosopis seeds for this work were obtained from Enugu State in the South East part of Nigeria. The Prosopis seeds were prepared by separating the Prosopis endosperm from the seed coat and cotyledon. The dry adhesive gotten from the endosperm was later dissolved to get the adhesive solution. Confirmatory tests like viscosity, density, pH, and binding strength were carried out. The effect of time, temperature, concentration on the yield and properties of the adhesive were investigated. The results obtained showed that increase in concentration, time, temperature decreases the viscosity of the Prosopis adhesive and yield of Prosopis endosperm. It was also deduced that increase in viscosity increases the binding strength of the Prosopis adhesive. The percentage of the adhesive yield from Prosopis endosperm showed that the commercialization of the seed in Nigeria will be possible and profitable.
Keywords: adhesive, Prosopis, viscosity, endospermProcedia PDF Downloads 237
207 Evaluation of the Elastic Mechanical Properties of a Hybrid Adhesive Material
Authors: Moudar H. A. Zgoul, Amin Al Zamer
Abstract:Adhesive materials and adhesion have been the focal point of multiple research works related to numerous applications, particularly, aerospace, and aviation industries. To enhance the properties of conventional adhesive materials, additives have been introduced to the mix in order to enhance their mechanical and physical properties by creating a hybrid adhesive material. The evaluation of the mechanical properties of such hybrid adhesive materials is thus of an essential requirement for the purpose of properly modeling their behavior accurately. This paper presents an approach/tool to simulate the behavior such hybrid adhesives in a way that will allow researchers to better understand their behavior while in service.
Keywords: adhesive materials, analysis, hybrid adhesives, mechanical properties, simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 350
206 New Techniques to Decrease the Interfacial Stress in Steel Beams Strengthened With FRP Laminates
Authors: A. S. Bouchikhi, A. Megueni, S. Habibi
Abstract:One major problem when using bonded Fiber Reinforced Polymer is the presence of high inter facial stresses near the end of the composite laminate which might govern the failure of the strengthening schedule. It is known that the decrease of FRP plate thickness and the fitness of adhesive reduce the stress concentration at plate ends. Another way is to use a plate with a non uniform section or tapered ends and softer adhesive at the edges. In this paper, a comprehensive finite element (FE) study has been conducted to investigate the effect of mixed adhesive joints (MAJ) and tapering plate on the inter facial stress distribution in the adhesive layer, this paper presents the results of a study of application of two adhesives with different stiffnesses (bi-adhesive) along the joint strength length between the CFRP-strengthened steel beam for tapered and untapered plate on the distribution of inter facial stresses. A stiff adhesive was applied in the middle portion of the joint strength, while a low modulus adhesive was applied towards the edges prone to stress concentrations.
Keywords: FRP, mixed adhesive joints, stresses, tapered plate, retrofitted beams bondedProcedia PDF Downloads 429
205 Studying the Load Sharing and Failure Mechanism of Hybrid Composite Joints Using Experiment and Finite Element Modeling
Authors: Seyyed Mohammad Hasheminia, Heoung Jae Chun, Jong Chan Park, Hong Suk Chang
Abstract:Composite joints have been getting attention recently due to their high specific mechanical strength to weight ratio that is crucial for structures such as aircrafts and automobiles. In this study on hybrid joints, quasi-static experiments and finite element analysis were performed to investigate the failure mechanism of hybrid composite joint with respect to the joint properties such as the adhesive material, clamping force, and joint geometry. The outcomes demonstrated that the stiffness of the adhesive is the most imperative design parameter. In this investigation, two adhesives with various stiffness values were utilized. Regarding the joints utilizing the adhesive with the lower stiffness modulus, it was observed that the load was exchanged promptly through the adhesive since it was shared more proficiently between the bolt and adhesive. This phenomenon permitted the hybrid joints with low-modulus adhesive to support more prominent loads before failure when contrasted with the joints that utilize the stiffer adhesive. In the next step, the stress share between the bond and bolt as a function of various design parameters was studied using a finite element model in which it was understood that the geometrical parameters such as joint overlap and width have a significant influence on the load sharing between the bolt and the adhesive.
Keywords: composite joints, composite materials, hybrid joints, single-lap jointProcedia PDF Downloads 303
204 Modification of Polyurethane Adhesive for OSB/EPS Panel Production
Authors: Stepan Hysek, Premysl Sedivka, Petra Gajdacova
Abstract:Currently, structural composite materials contain cellulose-based particles (wood chips, fibers) bonded with synthetic adhesives containing formaldehyde (urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde adhesives and others). Formaldehyde is classified as a volatile substance with provable carcinogenic effects on live organisms, and an emphasis has been put on continual reduction of its content in products. One potential solution could be the development of an agglomerated material which does not contain adhesives releasing formaldehyde. A potential alternative to formaldehyde-based adhesives could be polyurethane adhesives containing no formaldehyde. Such adhesives have been increasingly used in applications where a few years ago formaldehyde-based adhesives were the only option. Advantages of polyurethane adhesive in comparison with others in the industry include the high elasticity of the joint, which is able to resist dynamic stress, and resistance to increased humidity and climatic effects. These properties predict polyurethane adhesives to be used in OSB/EPS panel production. The objective of this paper is to develop an adhesive for bonding of sandwich panels made of material based on wood and other materials, e.g. SIP) and optimization of input components in order to obtain an adhesive with required properties suitable for bonding of the given materials without involvement of formaldehyde. It was found that polyurethane recyclate as a filler is suitable modification of polyurethane adhesive and results have clearly revealed that modified adhesive can be used for OSB/EPS panel production.
Keywords: adhesive, polyurethane, recyclate, SIPProcedia PDF Downloads 157
203 Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of Bonded Single Lap Joint in Composite Material
Authors: A. Benhamena, L. Aminallah, A. Aid, M. Benguediab, A. Amrouche
Abstract:The goal of this work is to analyze the severity of interfacial stress distribution in the single lap adhesive joint under tensile loading. The three-dimensional and non-linear finite element method based on the computation of the peel and shear stresses was used to analyze the fracture behaviour of single lap adhesive joint. The effect of the loading magnitude and the overlap length on the distribution of peel and shear stresses was highlighted. A good correlation was found between the FEM simulations and the analytical results.
Keywords: aluminum 2024-T3 alloy, single-lap adhesive joints, Interface stress distributions, material nonlinear analysis, adhesive, bending moment, finite element methodProcedia PDF Downloads 500
202 Bonding Strength of Adhesive Scarf Joints Improved by Nano-Silica Subjected to Humidity
Authors: B. Paygozar, S.A. Dizaji, A.C. Kandemir
Abstract:In this study, the effects of the modified adhesive including different concentrations of Nano-silica are surveyed on the bonding strength of the adhesive scarf joints. The nanoparticles are added in two different concentrations, to an epoxy-based two-component structural adhesive, Araldite 2011, to survey the influences of the nanoparticle weight percentage on the failure load of the joints compared to that of the joints manufactured by the neat adhesive. The effects of being exposure to a moist ambience on the joint strength are also investigated for the joints produced of both neat and modified adhesives. For this purpose, an ageing process was carried out on the joints of both neat and improved kinds with variable immersion periods (20, 40 and 60 days). All the specimens were tested under a quasi-static tensile loading of 2 mm/min speed so as to find the quantities of the failure loads. Outcomes indicate that the failure loads of the joints with modified adhesives are measurably higher than that of the joint with neat adhesive, even while being put for a while under a moist condition. Another result points out that humidity lessens the bonding strength of all the joints of both types as the exposure time increases, which can be attributed to the change in the failure mode.
Keywords: bonding strength, humidity, nano-silica, scarf jointProcedia PDF Downloads 87
201 Bonding Characteristics Between FRP and Concrete Substrates
Authors: Houssam A. Toutanji, Meng Han
Abstract:This study focuses on the development of a fracture mechanics based-model that predicts the debonding behavior of FRP strengthened RC beams. In this study, a database includes 351 concrete prisms bonded with FRP plates tested in single and double shear were prepared. The existing fracture-mechanics-based models are applied to this database. Unfortunately the properties of adhesive layer, especially a soft adhesive layer, used on the specimens in the existing studies were not always able to found. Thus, the new model’s proposal was based on fifteen newly conducted pullout tests and twenty four data selected from two independent existing studies with the application of a soft adhesive layers and the availability of adhesive properties.
Keywords: carbon fiber composite materials, interface response, fracture characteristics, maximum shear stress, ultimate transferable loadProcedia PDF Downloads 196
200 Experimental and Numerical Analysis on Enhancing Mechanical Properties of CFRP Adhesive Joints Using Hybrid Nanofillers
Authors: Qiong Rao, Xiongqi Peng
Abstract:In this work, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene nanoplates (GNPs) were dispersed into epoxy adhesive to investigate their synergy effects on the shear properties, mode I and mode II fracture toughness of unidirectional composite bonded joints. Testing results showed that the incorporation of MWCNTs and GNPs significantly improved the shear strength, the mode I and mode II fracture toughness by 36.6%, 45% and 286%, respectively. In addition, the fracture surfaces of the bonding area as well as the toughening mechanism of nanofillers were analyzed. Finally, a nonlinear cohesive/friction coupled model for delamination analysis of adhesive layer under shear and normal compression loadings was proposed and implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit via user subroutine VUMAT.
Keywords: nanofillers, adhesive joints, fracture toughness, cohesive zone modelProcedia PDF Downloads 73
199 The Influence of Fiber Fillers on the Bonding Safety of Wood-Adhesive Interfaces: A Fracture Energetic Approach
Authors: M. H. Brandtner-Hafner
Abstract:Adhesives have established themselves as an innovative joining technology in the wood industry. The strengths of adhesive bonding lie in the realization of lightweight designs, the avoidance of material weakening, and the joining of different types of materials. There is now a number of ways to positively influence the properties of bonded joints. One way is to add fiber fillers. This leads to an improvement in adhesion, structural integrity, and fracture toughness. In this study, the effectiveness of fiber-modified adhesives for bonding wooden joints is reviewed. A series of experimental tests were performed using the fracture analytical GF-principle to study the adhesive bonding safety and performance of the wood-adhesive interface. Two different construction adhesives based on epoxy and PUR were modified with different fiber materials and applied to bond wooden joints. The results show that bonding efficiency by adding fibrous materials to the bonding matrix leads to significant improvements in structural material properties.
Keywords: fiber-modified adhesives, bonding safety, wood-adhesive interfaces, fracture analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 42
198 In Vitro Evaluation of a Chitosan-Based Adhesive to Treat Bone Fractures
Authors: Francisco J. Cedano, Laura M. Pinzón, Camila I. Castro, Felipe Salcedo, Juan P. Casas, Juan C. Briceño
Abstract:Complex fractures located in articular surfaces are challenging to treat and their reduction with conventional treatments could compromise the functionality of the affected limb. An adhesive material to treat those fractures is desirable for orthopedic surgeons. This adhesive must be biocompatible and have a high adhesion to bone surface in an aqueous environment. The proposed adhesive is based on chitosan, given its adhesive and biocompatibility properties. Chitosan is mixed with calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite, which contribute to structural support and a gel like behavior, and glutaraldehyde is used as a cross-linking agent to keep the adhesive mechanical performance in aqueous environment. This work aims to evaluate the rheological, adhesion strength and biocompatibility properties of the proposed adhesive using in vitro tests. The gelification process of the adhesive was monitored by oscillatory rheometry in an ARG-2 TA Instruments rheometer, using a parallel plate geometry of 22 mm and a gap of 1 mm. Time sweep experiments were conducted at 1 Hz frequency, 1% strain and 37°C from 0 to 2400 s. Adhesion strength is measured using a butt joint test with bovine cancellous bone fragments as substrates. The test is conducted at 5 min, 20min and 24 hours after curing the adhesive under water at 37°C. Biocompatibility is evaluated by a cytotoxicity test in a fibroblast cell culture using MTT assay and SEM. Rheological results concluded that the average gelification time of the adhesive is 820±107 s, also it reaches storage modulus magnitudes up to 106 Pa; The adhesive show solid-like behavior. Butt joint test showed 28.6 ± 9.2 kPa of tensile bond strength for the adhesive cured for 24 hours. Also there was no significant difference in adhesion strength between 20 minutes and 24 hours. MTT showed 70 ± 23 % of active cells at sixth day of culture, this percentage is estimated respect to a positive control (only cells with culture medium and bovine serum). High vacuum SEM observation permitted to localize and study the morphology of fibroblasts presented in the adhesive. All captured fibroblasts presented in SEM typical flatted structure with filopodia growth attached to adhesive surface. This project reports an adhesive based on chitosan that is biocompatible due to high active cells presented in MTT test and these results were correlated using SEM. Also, it has adhesion properties in conditions that model the clinical application, and the adhesion strength do not decrease between 5 minutes and 24 hours.
Keywords: bioadhesive, bone adhesive, calcium carbonate, chitosan, hydroxyapatite, glutaraldehydeProcedia PDF Downloads 240
197 Adhesive Connections in Timber: A Comparison between Rough and Smooth Wood Bonding Surfaces
Authors: Valentina Di Maria, Anton Ianakiev
Abstract:The use of adhesive anchors for wooden constructions is an efficient technology to connect and design timber members in new timber structures and to rehabilitate the damaged structural members of historical buildings. Due to the lack of standard regulation in this specific area of structural design, designers’ choices are still supported by test analysis that enables knowledge, and the prediction, of the structural behavior of glued in rod joints. The paper outlines an experimental research activity aimed at identifying the tensile resistance capacity of several new adhesive joint prototypes made of epoxy resin, steel bar and timber, Oak and Douglas Fir species. The development of new adhesive connectors has been carried out by using epoxy to glue stainless steel bars into pre-drilled holes, characterized by smooth and rough internal surfaces, in timber samples. The realization of a threaded contact surface using a specific drill bit has led to an improved bond between wood and epoxy. The applied changes have also reduced the cost of the joints’ production. The paper presents the results of this parametric analysis and a Finite Element analysis that enables identification and study of the internal stress distribution in the proposed adhesive anchors.
Keywords: glued in rod joints, adhesive anchors, timber, epoxy, rough contact surface, threaded hole shapeProcedia PDF Downloads 338
196 Influence of Composite Adherents Properties on the Dynamic Behavior of Double Lap Bonded Joint
Authors: P. Saleh, G. Challita, R. Hazimeh, K. Khalil
Abstract:In this paper 3D FEM analysis was carried out on double lap bonded joint with composite adherents subjected to dynamic shear. The adherents are made of Carbon/Epoxy while the adhesive is epoxy Araldite 2031. The maximum average shear stress and the stress homogeneity in the adhesive layer were examined. Three fibers textures were considered: UD; 2.5D and 3D with same volume fiber then a parametric study based on changing the thickness and the type of fibers texture in 2.5D was accomplished. Moreover, adherents’ dissimilarity was also investigated. It was found that the main parameter influencing the behavior is the longitudinal stiffness of the adherents. An increase in the adherents’ longitudinal stiffness induces an increase in the maximum average shear stress in the adhesive layer and an improvement in the shear stress homogeneity within the joint. No remarkable improvement was observed for dissimilar adherents.
Keywords: adhesive, composite adherents, impact shear, finite elementProcedia PDF Downloads 321
195 Fatigue-Induced Debonding Propagation in FM300 Adhesive
Authors: Reza Hedayati, Meysam Jahanbakhshi
Abstract:Fracture Mechanics is used to predict debonding propagation in adhesive joint between aluminum and composite plates. Three types of loadings and two types of glass-epoxy composite sequences: [0/90]2s and [0/45/-45/90]s are considered for the composite plate and their results are compared. It was seen that generally the cases with stacking sequence of [0/45/-45/90]s have much shorter lives than cases with [0/90]2s. It was also seen that in cases with λ=0 the ends of the debonding front propagates forward more than its middle, while in cases with λ=0.5 or λ=1 it is vice versa. Moreover, regardless of value of λ, the difference between the debonding propagations of the ends and the middle of the debonding front is very close in cases λ=0.5 and λ=1. Another main conclusion was the non-dimensionalized debonding front profile is almost independent of sequence type or the applied load value.
Keywords: adhesive joint, debonding, fracture, LEFM, APDLProcedia PDF Downloads 297
194 Adhesive Bonded Joints Characterization and Crack Propagation in Composite Materials under Cyclic Impact Fatigue and Constant Amplitude Fatigue Loadings
Authors: Andres Bautista, Alicia Porras, Juan P. Casas, Maribel Silva
Abstract:The Colombian aeronautical industry has stimulated research in the mechanical behavior of materials under different loading conditions aircrafts are generally exposed during its operation. The Calima T-90 is the first military aircraft built in the country, used for primary flight training of Colombian Air Force Pilots, therefore, it may be exposed to adverse operating situations such as hard landings which cause impact loads on the aircraft that might produce the impact fatigue phenomenon. The Calima T-90 structure is mainly manufactured by composites materials generating assemblies and subassemblies of different components of it. The main method of bonding these components is by using adhesive joints. Each type of adhesive bond must be studied on its own since its performance depends on the conditions of the manufacturing process and operating characteristics. This study aims to characterize the typical adhesive joints of the aircraft under usual loads. To this purpose, the evaluation of the effect of adhesive thickness on the mechanical performance of the joint under quasi-static loading conditions, constant amplitude fatigue and cyclic impact fatigue using single lap-joint specimens will be performed. Additionally, using a double cantilever beam specimen, the influence of the thickness of the adhesive on the crack growth rate for mode I delamination failure, as a function of the critical energy release rate will be determined. Finally, an analysis of the fracture surface of the test specimens considering the mechanical interaction between the substrate (composite) and the adhesive, provide insights into the magnitude of the damage, the type of failure mechanism that occurs and its correlation with the way crack propagates under the proposed loading conditions.
Keywords: adhesive, composites, crack propagation, fatigueProcedia PDF Downloads 97
193 Choosing the Right Lignin for Phenolic Adhesive Application
Authors: Somayyeh Kalami, Mojgan Nejad
Abstract:Based on the source (softwood, hardwood or annual crop) and isolation method (kraft, organosolv, sulfite or pre-enzymatic treatment), there are significant variations in lignin structure and properties. The first step in using lignin as biobased feedstock is to make sure that specific lignin is suitable for intended application. Complete characterization of lignin and measuring its chemical, physical and thermal properties can help to predict its suitability. To replace 100% phenol portion of phenolic adhesive, lignin should have high reactivity toward formaldehyde. Theoretically, lignins with closer backbone structure to phenol should be better candidate for this application. In this study, a number of different lignins were characterized and used to formulate phenolic adhesive. One of the main findings was that lignin sample with higher percentage of hydroxyl-phenyl units was better candidate than lignin with more syringyl units. This could be explained by the fact that hydroxyl-phenyl lignin units have two available ortho positions for reaction with formaldehyde while in syringyl units all ortho and para positions are occupied, and there is no available site in lignin structure to react with formaldehyde.
Keywords: lignin, phenolic adhesive, biobased, sustainableProcedia PDF Downloads 155
192 Lamb Waves Propagation in Elastic-Viscoelastic Three-Layer Adhesive Joints
Authors: Pezhman Taghipour Birgani, Mehdi Shekarzadeh
Abstract:In this paper, the propagation of lamb waves in three-layer joints is investigated using global matrix method. Theoretical boundary value problem in three-layer adhesive joints with perfect bond and traction free boundary conditions on their outer surfaces is solved to find a combination of frequencies and modes with the lowest attenuation. The characteristic equation is derived by applying continuity and boundary conditions in three-layer joints using global matrix method. Attenuation and phase velocity dispersion curves are obtained with numerical solution of this equation by a computer code for a three-layer joint, including an aluminum repair patch bonded to the aircraft aluminum skin by a layer of viscoelastic epoxy adhesive. To validate the numerical solution results of the characteristic equation, wave structure curves are plotted for a special mode in two different frequencies in the adhesive joint. The purpose of present paper is to find a combination of frequencies and modes with minimum attenuation in high and low frequencies. These frequencies and modes are recognizable by transducers in inspections with Lamb waves because of low attenuation level.
Keywords: three-layer adhesive joints, viscoelastic, lamb waves, global matrix methodProcedia PDF Downloads 251
191 The Effect of the Adhesive Ductility on Bond Characteristics of CFRP/Steel Double Strap Joints Subjected to Dynamic Tensile Loadings
Authors: Haider Al-Zubaidy, Xiao-Ling Zhao, Riadh Al-Mahaidi
Abstract:In recent years, the technique adhesively-bonded fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites has found its way into civil engineering applications and it has attracted a widespread attention as a viable alternative strategy for the retrofitting of civil infrastructure such as bridges and buildings. When adopting this method, adhesive has a significant role and controls the general performance and degree of enhancement of the strengthened and/or upgraded structures. This is because the ultimate member strength is highly affected by the failure mode which is considerably dependent on the utilised adhesive. This paper concerns with experimental investigations on the effect of the adhesive used on the bond between CFRP patch and steel plate under medium impact tensile loading. Experiment were conducted using double strap joints and these samples were prepared using two different types of adhesives, Araldite 420 and MBrace saturant. Drop mass rig was used to carry out dynamic tests at impact speeds of 3.35, 4.43 and m/s while quasi-static tests were implemented at 2mm/min using Instrone machine. In this test program, ultimate load-carrying capacity and failure modes were examined for all loading speeds. For both static and dynamic tests, the adhesive type has a significant effect on ultimate joint strength. It was found that the double strap joints prepared using Araldite 420 showed higher strength than those prepared utilising MBrace saturant adhesive. Failure mechanism for joints prepared using Araldite 420 is completely different from those samples prepared utilising MBrace saturant. CFRP failure is the most common failure pattern for joints with Araldite 420, whereas the dominant failure for joints with MBrace saturant adhesive is adhesive failure.
Keywords: CFRP/steel double strap joints, adhesives of different ductility, dynamic tensile loading, bond between CFRP and steelProcedia PDF Downloads 181
190 FE Analysis of the Notch Effect on the Behavior of Repaired Crack with Bonded Composite Patch in Aircraft Structures
Authors: Faycal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra
Abstract:In this paper, the finite element analysis is applied to study the performance of the bonded composite reinforcement or repair for reducing stress concentration at a semi-circular lateral notch and repairing cracks emanating from this kind of notch. The effects of the adhesive properties on the variation of the stress intensity factor at the crack tip were highlighted. The obtained results show that the stress concentration factor at the notch tip is reduced about 30% and the maximal reduction of the stress intensity factor is about 80%. The adhesive properties must be optimized in order to increase the performance of the patch repair or reinforcement.
Keywords: bonded repair, notch, crack, adhesive, compositeProcedia PDF Downloads 315
189 Genome of Bio-Based Construction Adhesives and Complex Rheological Behavior
Authors: Ellie Fini, Mahour Parast, Daniel Oldham, Shahrzad Hosseinnezhad
Abstract:This paper investigates the relationship between molecular species of four different bio-based adhesives (made from Swine Manure, Miscanthus Pellet, Corn Stover, and Wood Pellet) and their rheological behavior before and after they undergo extensive oxidative aging. To study the effect of oxidative aging on the chemical structure of bio-adhesives, Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared) was utilised. In addition, a Drop Shape Analyser, Rotational Viscometer, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer were used to evaluate the surface properties and rheological behaviour of each bio-adhesive. Overall, bio-adhesives were found to be significantly different in terms of their ageing characteristics. Accordingly, their surface and rheological properties were found to be ranked differently before and after ageing. The results showed that the bio-adhesive from swine manure is less susceptible to aging compared to plant-based bio-oils. This can be further attributed to the chemical structure and the high lipid contents of the bio-adhesive from swine manure, making it less affected by oxidative ageing.
Keywords: bio-adhesive, rheology, bio-mass, material genomeProcedia PDF Downloads 196
188 Synthesis and Properties of Oxidized Corn Starch Based Wood Adhesive
Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgun Kizilcan, Basak Bengu
Abstract:At present, formaldehyde-based adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde (UF), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), melamine – urea-formaldehyde (MUF), etc. are mostly used in wood-based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility, and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde-based wood adhesives are produced from non- renewable resources and also formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group B1) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment-friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives to meet wood-based panel industry requirements. In this study, like a formaldehyde-free adhesive, oxidized starch – urea wood adhesives was synthesized. In this scope, firstly, acid hydrolysis of corn starch was conducted and then acid thinned corn starch was oxidized by using hydrogen peroxide and CuSO₄ as an oxidizer and catalyst, respectively. Secondly, the polycondensation reaction between oxidized starch and urea conducted. Finally, nano – TiO₂ was added to the reaction system to strengthen the adhesive network. Solid content, viscosity, and gel time analyses of the prepared adhesive were performed to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR, DSC, TGA, SEM characterization techniques were used to investigate chemical structures, thermal, and morphological properties of the adhesive, respectively. Rheological analysis of the adhesive was also performed. In order to evaluate the quality of oxidized corn starch – urea adhesives, particleboards were produced in laboratory scale and mechanical and physical properties of the boards were investigated such as an internal bond, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, formaldehyde emission, etc. The obtained results revealed that oxidized starch – urea adhesives were synthesized successfully and it can be a good potential candidate to use the wood-based panel industry with some developments.
Keywords: nano-TiO₂, corn starch, formaldehyde emission, wood adhesivesProcedia PDF Downloads 84
187 Mimosa Tannin – Starch - Sugar Based Wood Adhesive
Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgün Kizilcan, Başak Bengü
Abstract:At present, formaldehyde based adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), melamine – urea formaldehyde (MUF), etc. are mostly used in wood based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility, and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde based wood adhesives are produced from non- renewable resources. Hence, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives in order to meet wood based panel industry requirements. In this study, as formaldehyde free adhesive, Mimosa tannin, starch, sugar based wood adhesivewas synthesized. Citric acid and tartaric acid were used as hardener for the resin system. Solid content, viscosity, and gel time analyzes of the prepared adhesive were performed in order to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR characterization technique was used to elucidate the chemical structures of the cured adhesivesamples. In order to evaluate the performance of the prepared bio-based resin formulation, particleboards were produced in a laboratory scale, and mechanical, physical properties of the boards were investigated. Besides, the formaldehyde contents of the boards were determined by using the perforator method. The obtained results revealed that the developed bio-based wood adhesive formulation can be a good potential candidate to use wood based panel industry with some developments.
Keywords: bio-based wood adhesives, mimosa tannin, corn starch, sugar, polycarboxyclic acidProcedia PDF Downloads 155
186 Biomimetic Adhesive Pads for Precision Manufacturing Robots
Authors: Hoon Yi, Minho Sung, Hangil Ko, Moon Kyu Kwak, Hoon Eui Jeong
Abstract:Inspired by the remarkable adhesion properties of gecko lizards, bio-inspired dry adhesives with smart adhesion properties have been developed in the last decade. Compared to earlier dry adhesives, the recently developed ones exhibit excellent adhesion strength, smart directional adhesion, and structural robustness. With these unique adhesion properties, bio-inspired dry adhesive pads have strong potential for use in precision industries such as semiconductor or display manufacturing. In this communication, we present a new manufacturing technology based on advanced dry adhesive systems that enable precise manipulation of large-area substrates over repeating cycles without any requirement for external force application. This new manufacturing technique is also highly accurate and environment-friendly, and thus has strong potential as a next-generation clean manufacturing technology.
Keywords: gecko, manufacturing robot, precision manufacturingProcedia PDF Downloads 446
185 The Evaluation for Interfacial Adhesion between SOFC and Metal Adhesive in the High Temperature Environment
Authors: Sang Koo Jeon, Seung Hoon Nahm, Oh Heon Kwon
Abstract:The unit cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) must be stacked as several layers type to obtain the high power. The most of researcher have concerned about the performance of stacked SOFC rather than the structural stability of stacked SOFC and especially interested how to design for reducing the electrical loss and improving the high efficiency. Consequently, the stacked SOFC able to produce the electrical high power and related parts like as manifold, gas seal, bipolar plate were developed to optimize the stack design. However, the unit cell of SOFC was just layered on the interconnector without the adhesion and the hydrogen and oxygen were injected to the interfacial layer in the high temperature. On the operating condition, the interfacial layer can be the one of the weak point in the stacked SOFC. Therefore the evaluation of the structural safety for the failure is essentially needed. In this study, interfacial adhesion between SOFC and metal adhesive was estimated in the high temperature environment. The metal adhesive was used to strongly connect the unit cell of SOFC with interconnector and provide the electrical conductivity between them. The four point bending test was performed to measure the interfacial adhesion. The unit cell of SOFC and SiO2 wafer were diced and then attached by metal adhesive. The SiO2 wafer had the center notch to initiate a crack from the tip of the notch. The modified stereomicroscope combined with the CCD camera and system for measuring the length was used to observe the fracture behavior. Additionally, the interfacial adhesion was evaluated in the high temperature condition because the metal adhesive was affected by high temperature. Also the specimen was exposed in the furnace during several hours and then the interfacial adhesion was evaluated. Finally, the interfacial adhesion energy was quantitatively determined and compared in the each condition.
Keywords: solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), metal adhesive, adhesion, high temperatureProcedia PDF Downloads 299
184 Computation of Thermal Stress Intensity Factor for Bonded Composite Repairs in Aircraft Structures
Authors: Fayçal Benyahia, Abdelmohsen Albedah, Bel Abbes Bachir Bouiadjra
Abstract:In this study the Finite element method is used to analyse the effect of the thermal residual stresses resulting from adhesive curing on the performances of the bonded composite repair in aircraft structures. The stress intensity factor at the crack tip is chosen as fracture criterion in order to estimate the repair performances. The obtained results show that the presence of the thermal residual stresses reduces considerably the repair performances and consequently decreases the fatigue life of cracked structures. The effects of the curing temperature, the adhesive properties and the adhesive thickness on the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) variation with thermal stresses are also analysed.
Keywords: bonded composite repair, residual stress, adhesion, stress transfer, finite element analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 341
183 Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination
Authors: Iris Käppler, Paul Matthäi, Chokri Cherif
Abstract:In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non-Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitch-free method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the adhesive, oxyfluorination was used. The modification of carbon-fibres by oxyfluorination was investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and single fibre tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the maximum force required for detachment.
Keywords: non-crimp fabric, adhesive, stitch-free, high-performance fibreProcedia PDF Downloads 288
182 Influence of Dry-Film Lubricants on Bond Strength and Corrosion Behaviour of 6xxx Aluminium Alloy Adhesive Joints for Automotive Industry
Authors: Ralph Gruber, Martina Hafner, Theresia Greunz, Christian Reisecker, David Stifter
Abstract:The application of dry lubricant on aluminium for automotive industry is indispensable for a high-quality forming behaviour. To provide a short production time those forming aids will not be removed during the joining step. The aim of this study was the characterization of the influence of dry lubricants on the bond strength and the corrosion resistance of an 6xxx aluminium alloy for automotive applications. For this purpose, samples with a well-defined surface were lubricated with 1 g/m² dry lubricant and joined with a commercial thermosetting 1K-epoxy structural adhesive. The bond strength was characterized by means of lap shear test. To evaluate the corrosion resistance of the adhered aluminium samples an immersion test in 5 w% NaCl-solution was used. Based on fracture pattern analysis, the corrosion behaviour could be described. Dissolved corrosion products were examined using ICP-MS and NMR. By means of SEM/EDX the elementary composition of precipitated solids was determined. The results showed a dry lubricant independent bond strength for standard testing conditions. However, a significant effect of the forming aid, regarding the corrosion resistance of adhered aluminium samples against corrosive infiltration of the metal-adhesive-interface, was observed
Keywords: aluminium alloys, dry film lubricants, automotive industry, adhesive bonding, corrosionProcedia PDF Downloads 39
181 Determination of Mechanical Properties of Adhesives via Digital Image Correlation (DIC) Method
Authors: Murat Demir Aydin, Elanur Celebi
Abstract:Adhesively bonded joints are used as an alternative to traditional joining methods due to the important advantages they provide. The most important consideration in the use of adhesively bonded joints is that these joints have appropriate requirements for their use in terms of safety. In order to ensure control of this condition, damage analysis of the adhesively bonded joints should be performed by determining the mechanical properties of the adhesives. When the literature is investigated; it is generally seen that the mechanical properties of adhesives are determined by traditional measurement methods. In this study, to determine the mechanical properties of adhesives, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method, which can be an alternative to traditional measurement methods, has been used. The DIC method is a new optical measurement method which is used to determine the parameters of displacement and strain in an appropriate and correct way. In this study, tensile tests of Thick Adherent Shear Test (TAST) samples formed using DP410 liquid structural adhesive and steel materials and bulk tensile specimens formed using and DP410 liquid structural adhesive was performed. The displacement and strain values of the samples were determined by DIC method and the shear stress-strain curves of the adhesive for TAST specimens and the tensile strain curves of the bulk adhesive specimens were obtained. Various methods such as numerical methods are required as conventional measurement methods (strain gauge, mechanic extensometer, etc.) are not sufficient in determining the strain and displacement values of the very thin adhesive layer such as TAST samples. As a result, the DIC method removes these requirements and easily achieves displacement measurements with sufficient accuracy.
Keywords: structural adhesive, adhesively bonded joints, digital image correlation, thick adhered shear test (TAST)Procedia PDF Downloads 248
180 Effects of Different Fiber Orientations on the Shear Strength Performance of Composite Adhesive Joints
Authors: Ferhat Kadioglu, Hasan Puskul
Abstract:A composite material with carbon fiber and polymer matrix has been used as adherent for manufacturing adhesive joints. In order to evaluate different fiber orientations on joint performance, the adherents with the 0°, ±15°, ±30°, ±45° fiber orientations were used in the single lap joint configuration. The joints with an overlap length of 25 mm were prepared according to the ASTM 1002 specifications and subjected to tensile loadings. The structural adhesive used was a two-part epoxy to be cured at 70°C for an hour. First, mechanical behaviors of the adherents were measured using three point bending test. In the test, considerations were given to stress to failure and elastic modulus. The results were compared with theoretical ones using rule of mixture. Then, the joints were manufactured in a specially prepared jig, after a proper surface preparation. Experimental results showed that the fiber orientations of the adherents affected the joint performance considerably; the joints with ±45° adherents experienced the worst shear strength, half of those with 0° adherents, and in general, there was a great relationship between the fiber orientations and failure mechanisms. Delamination problems were observed for many joints, which were thought to be due to peel effects at the ends of the overlap. It was proved that the surface preparation applied to the adherent surface was adequate. For further explanation of the results, a numerical work should be carried out using a possible non-linear analysis.
Keywords: composite materials, adhesive bonding, bonding strength, lap joint, tensile strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 312
179 Sulfanilamide/Epoxy Resin and Its Application as Tackifier in Epoxy Adhesives
Authors: Oiane Ruiz de Azua, Salvador Borros, Nuria Agullo, Jordi Arbusa
Abstract:Tackiness is described as the ability to spontaneously form a bond to another material under light pressures within a short application time. During the first few minutes of the adhesive's curing, it is necessary to have enough tack to keep the substrates together while cohesion is increasing within the adhesive. This property plays a key role in the manufacturing process of pieces. Epoxy adhesives, unlike other adhesives, usually present low tackiness before curing; however, there is very little literature about the use of tackifiers in epoxy adhesives, except for the high molecular weight epoxy additives. In the present work, a tetrafunctional epoxy resin based on Bisphenol-A and Sulfanilamide has been synthesized in order to be used as a tackifier. This additive offers improved specific adhesion to two-component (2K) epoxy adhesives. The dosage of the tackifier has to be done carefully not to alter the mechanical and rheological properties of the adhesive. The synthetized product has been analyzed by FTIR and ¹H-NMR analysis, and the effect of the addition of 1 wt % of the tackifier on rheological properties, viscoelastic behavior, and mechanical properties has been studied. On one hand, the addition of the product in the epoxy resin part showed a significant increase in tackiness regarding the neat epoxy resin. On the other hand, tackiness of the whole formulation was also increased. Curing time of the adhesive has not undergone any relevant changes with the tackifier addition. Regarding viscoelastic properties, Storage Modulus (G') and Loss Modulus (G'') remain also unchanged at ambient temperature. Probably, in case higher tackifier concentration would be added, differences in viscoelastic properties would be observed. The study of mechanical properties shows that hardness and tensile strength also keep their values unchanged regarding neat two component adhesive. In conclusion, the addition of 1 wt % of sulfanilamide/epoxy enhanced the tackiness of the epoxy resin part, improves tack without modifying significantly either the rheological, the mechanical, or the viscoelastic properties of the product. Thus, the sulfanilamide presented could be a good candidate to be used as an additive to the 2k epoxy formulation for the manufacturing process of pieces.
Keywords: epoxy adhesive, manufacturing process of pieces, sulfanilamide, tackifiersProcedia PDF Downloads 90