Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Jaeyoung Lee

5 Investigation on the Capacitive Deionization of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes (F-CNTs) and Silver-Decorated F-CNTs for Water Softening

Authors: Khrizelle Angelique Sablan, Rizalinda De Leon, Jaeyoung Lee, Joey Ocon


The impending water shortage drives us to find alternative sources of water. One of the possible solutions is desalination of seawater. There are numerous processes by which it can be done and one if which is capacitive deionization. Capacitive deionization is a relatively new technique for water desalination. It utilizes the electric double layer for ion adsorption. Carbon-based materials are commonly used as electrodes for capacitive deionization. In this study, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were treated in a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acid. The silver addition was also facilitated to incorporate antimicrobial action. The acid-treated carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) and silver-decorated f-CNTs ([email protected]) were used as electrode materials for seawater deionization and compared with CNT and acid-treated CNT. The synthesized materials were characterized using TEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and BET. The electrochemical performance was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the deionization performance was tested on a single cell with water containing 64mg/L NaCl. The results showed that the synthesized [email protected] H could have better performance than CNT and a-CNT with a maximum ion removal efficiency of 50.22% and a corresponding adsorption capacity of 3.21 mg/g. It also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli. However, the said material lacks stability as the efficiency decreases with repeated usage of the electrode.

Keywords: capacitive deionization, carbon nanotubes, desalination, acid functionalization, silver

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4 Patterns of Problem Behavior of Out-Of-School Adolescents and Gender Difference in South Korea

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee, Minji Je


Objectives: The adolescents not attending school are named out-of-school adolescents. They are more vulnerable to health management and are likely to be exposed to a number of risk factors. This study was conducted to investigate the problem behavior of out-of-school adolescents and analyze the difference caused by gender. Methods: In this study, the problem behaviors of out-of-school adolescents, the vulnerable class, were defined in 8 types and based on this definition, the survey on run away from home, drop out, prostitution, violence, internet game addiction, theft, drug addiction, and smoking was conducted. The study was conducted in a total of 507 out-of-school adolescents, including 342 males, and 165 females. The type, frequency and start time of the 8 problem behaviors were identified. The collected data were analyzed with chi-square test and t-test using SPSS statistics 22. Results: Among the problem behaviors of the subjects, violence ( =17.41, p < .001), internet game addiction ( =16.14, p < .001), theft ( =22.48, p < .001), drug addiction ( =4.17, p=.041), and smoking ( =3.90, p=.048) were more significantly high in male out-of-school adolescents than female out-of-school adolescents. In addition, the frequency of the problem behavior was higher in male out-of-school adolescents with statistical significance than in female out-of-school adolescents (t=5.08, p= < .001). In terms of the start time of the problem behavior, only internet game addiction was higher in male out-of-school adolescents with the statistical significance than in female out-of-school adolescents ( =6.22, p=.032). No statistically significant difference was found in other problem behaviors (p > .05). Conclusions: In this study, it was found that gender difference in problem behaviors of out-of-school adolescents exists, and its frequency and difference of types were identified. When the social countermeasures were provided for those adolescents, a distinguished approach is required depending on the patterns of problem behavior and gender. When preparing policy alternatives and interventions for out-of-school adolescents, it is required to reflect the results of this study.

Keywords: addictive behavior, adolescent, gender, problem behavior

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3 Enhanced Near-Infrared Upconversion Emission Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Background-Free Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses

Authors: Jaeyoung Kim, Heeju Lee, Huijin Jung, Heesoo Pyo, Seungki Kim, Joonseok Lee


Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are the primary cause of highly contagious respiratory diseases caused by type A influenza viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AIV are categorized on the basis of types of surface glycoproteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Certain H5 and H7 subtypes of AIV have evolved to the high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, which has caused considerable economic loss to the poultry industry and led to severe public health crisis. Several commercial kits have been developed for on-site detection of AIV. However, the sensitivity of these methods is too low to detect low virus concentrations in clinical samples and opaque stool samples. Here, we introduced a background-free near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (NNLFA) platform to yield a sensor that detects AIV within 20 minutes. Ca²⁺ ion in the shell was used to enhance the NIR-to-NIR upconversion photoluminescence (PL) emission as a heterogeneous dopant without inducing significant changes in the morphology and size of the UCNPs. In a mixture of opaque stool samples and gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are components of commercial AIV LFA, the background signal of the stool samples mask the absorption peak of GNPs. However, UCNPs dispersed in the stool samples still show strong emission centered at 800 nm when excited at 980 nm, which enables the NNLFA platform to detect 10-times lower viral load than a commercial GNP-based AIV LFA. The detection limit of NNLFA for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 and HPAI H5N6 viruses was 10² EID₅₀/mL and 10³.⁵ EID₅₀/mL, respectively. Moreover, when opaque brown-colored samples were used as the target analytes, strong NIR emission signal from the test line in NNLFA confirmed the presence of AIV, whereas commercial AIV LFA detected AIV with difficulty. Therefore, we propose that this rapid and background-free NNLFA platform has the potential of detecting AIV in the field, which could effectively prevent the spread of these viruses at an early stage.

Keywords: avian influenza viruses, lateral flow immunoassay on-site detection, upconversion nanoparticles

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2 Predictors of Sexually Transmitted Infection of Korean Adolescent Females: Analysis of Pooled Data from Korean Nationwide Survey

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee, Minji Je


Objectives: In adolescence, adolescents are curious about sex, but sexual experience before becoming an adult can cause the risk of high probability of sexually transmitted infection. Therefore, it is very important to prevent sexually transmitted infections so that adolescents can grow in healthy and upright way. Adolescent females, especially, have sexual behavior distinguished from that of male adolescents. Protecting female adolescents’ reproductive health is even more important since it is directly related to the childbirth of the next generation. This study, thus, investigated the predictors of sexually transmitted infection in adolescent females with sexual experiences based on the National Health Statistics in Korea. Methods: This study was conducted based on the National Health Statistics in Korea. The 11th Korea Youth Behavior Web-based Survey in 2016 was conducted in the type of anonymous self-reported survey in order to find out the health behavior of adolescents. The target recruitment group was middle and high school students nationwide as of April 2016, and 65,528 students from a total of 800 middle and high schools participated. The study was conducted in 537 female high school students (Grades 10–12) among them. The collected data were analyzed as complex sampling design using SPSS statistics 22. The strata, cluster, weight, and finite population correction provided by Korea Center for Disease Control & Prevention (KCDC) were reflected to constitute complex sample design files, which were used in the statistical analysis. The analysis methods included Rao-Scott chi-square test, complex samples general linear model, and complex samples multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of 537 female adolescents, 11.9% (53 adolescents) had experiences of venereal infection. The predictors for venereal infection of the subjects were ‘age at first intercourse’ and ‘sexual intercourse after drinking’. The sexually transmitted infection of the subjects was decreased by 0.31 times (p=.006, 95%CI=0.13-0.71) for middle school students and 0.13 times (p<.001, 95%CI=0.05-0.32) for high school students whereas the age of the first sexual experience was under elementary school age. In addition, the sexually transmitted infection of the subjects was 3.54 times (p < .001, 95%CI=1.76-7.14) increased when they have experience of sexual relation after drinking alcohol, compared to those without the experience of sexual relation after drinking alcohol. Conclusions: The female adolescents had high probability of sexually transmitted infection if their age for the first sexual experience was low. Therefore, the female adolescents who start sexual experience earlier shall have practical sex education appropriate for their developmental stage. In addition, since the sexually transmitted infection increases, if they have sexual relations after drinking alcohol, the consideration for prevention of alcohol use or intervention of sex education shall be required. When health education intervention is conducted for health promotion for female adolescents in the future, it is necessary to reflect the result of this study.

Keywords: adolescent, coitus, female, sexually transmitted diseases

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1 Embedded Semantic Segmentation Network Optimized for Matrix Multiplication Accelerator

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee


Autonomous driving systems require high reliability to provide people with a safe and comfortable driving experience. However, despite the development of a number of vehicle sensors, it is difficult to always provide high perceived performance in driving environments that vary from time to season. The image segmentation method using deep learning, which has recently evolved rapidly, provides high recognition performance in various road environments stably. However, since the system controls a vehicle in real time, a highly complex deep learning network cannot be used due to time and memory constraints. Moreover, efficient networks are optimized for GPU environments, which degrade performance in embedded processor environments equipped simple hardware accelerators. In this paper, a semantic segmentation network, matrix multiplication accelerator network (MMANet), optimized for matrix multiplication accelerator (MMA) on Texas instrument digital signal processors (TI DSP) is proposed to improve the recognition performance of autonomous driving system. The proposed method is designed to maximize the number of layers that can be performed in a limited time to provide reliable driving environment information in real time. First, the number of channels in the activation map is fixed to fit the structure of MMA. By increasing the number of parallel branches, the lack of information caused by fixing the number of channels is resolved. Second, an efficient convolution is selected depending on the size of the activation. Since MMA is a fixed, it may be more efficient for normal convolution than depthwise separable convolution depending on memory access overhead. Thus, a convolution type is decided according to output stride to increase network depth. In addition, memory access time is minimized by processing operations only in L3 cache. Lastly, reliable contexts are extracted using the extended atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP). The suggested method gets stable features from an extended path by increasing the kernel size and accessing consecutive data. In addition, it consists of two ASPPs to obtain high quality contexts using the restored shape without global average pooling paths since the layer uses MMA as a simple adder. To verify the proposed method, an experiment is conducted using perfsim, a timing simulator, and the Cityscapes validation sets. The proposed network can process an image with 640 x 480 resolution for 6.67 ms, so six cameras can be used to identify the surroundings of the vehicle as 20 frame per second (FPS). In addition, it achieves 73.1% mean intersection over union (mIoU) which is the highest recognition rate among embedded networks on the Cityscapes validation set.

Keywords: edge network, embedded network, MMA, matrix multiplication accelerator, semantic segmentation network

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