Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1032

Search results for: consumer socialization

1032 Organizational Socialization Levels in Nurses

Authors: Manar Aslan, Ayfer Karaaslan, Serap Selçuk

Abstract:

The research was conducted in order to determine the organizational socialization levels of nurses working in hospitals in the form of a descriptive study. The research population was composed of nurses employed in public and private sector hospitals in the province of Konya with 0-3 years of professional experience in the hospitals (N=1200); and the sample was composed of 495 nurses that accepted to take part in the study voluntarily. Organizational Socialization Scale which was developed by Haueter, Macan and Winter (2003) and whose validity-reliability in Turkish was analyzed by Ataman (2012) was used. Statistical evaluation of data was conducted in SPSS.16 software. The results of the study revealed that the total score taken by nurses at the organizational socialization scale was 262.95; and this was close to the maximum score. Particularly the departmental socialization sub-dimension proved to be higher in comparison to the other two dimensions (organization socialization and task socialization). Statistically meaningful differences were found in the levels of organization socialization in relation to the status of organizational orientation training, level of education and age group.

Keywords: nurses, newcomers, organizational socialization, total score

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1031 The Effect of Socialization Tactics on Job Satisfaction of Employees, Regarding to Personality Types in Tehran University of Medical Science’s Employees

Authors: Maryam Hoorzad, Narges Shokry, Mandan Momeni

Abstract:

According to importance of socialization in effectiveness of organizations and on the other hand assessing the impact of individual differences on socialization tactics by measuring employees satisfaction, can be assessed for each of the personality types which socialization tactics is the more effective. The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect job satisfaction of employees according to personality types. A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein’s theory on organizational socialization tactics and Myers Briggs’ measurement tools of personality types. The respondents were employees with more than 3 years backward in Tehran University of Medical Science. Data collection was performed using both library and field, the data collection instrument was questionnaires and data were analysed using the Spss and Lisrel programs. It was found that investiture and serial tactics has a significant effect on employees satisfaction, any increase in investiture and serial tactics led to increase in job satisfaction and any increase in divestiture and disjunctive tactics led to reduction of job satisfaction. Investiture tactic has the most effect on employees satisfaction. Also based on the results, personality types affect the relationship between socialization tactics and job satisfaction. In the ESFJ personality type the effect of investiture tactic on employee satisfaction is the most.

Keywords: organizational socialization, organizational socialization tactics, personality types, job satisfaction

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1030 Consequences of Sentence on Children's Socialization: Exploratory Study of Criminal Women of Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Shabbir

Abstract:

This paper inspects the effects of the sentenced criminal women upon the socialization of their children, in the Pakistani context. The objectives of the study are to find out the socio-psychological and cultural effects of the jail environment on the children and behavior of sentenced women towards their children as well as analyze the facilities provided by the jail authorities for the socialization of the women. Quantitative variables and qualitative thematic variables caused by the opinions through open-ended questionnaire were collected and analyze by applying statistical measures, e.g. Social Sciences Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), to reflect out the results. It was found that the sentence of women shatters the socialization process of their children which commonly leads them to criminality. The government should review the ongoing sentence policies for an improvement and betterment. For this purpose, the idea of socialization centers would be a healthy initiative.

Keywords: socialization, criminal women, sentence, socio-psychological and cultural

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1029 An Empirical Investigation of Relationships between Consumer Involvement and Advertisement Effectiveness

Authors: Nasim Karami Mal Amiri, Farhad Razm Azma

Abstract:

Parts of consumer involvement in regards to one product are related to advertisement strategies. Different consumer involvement has different answers to the effectiveness of advertisement. This study has divided the market considering the characteristics and relationship between consumer involvement and the effectiveness of advertisement. The results of this study show consumer involvement which does affect parts of marketing. A positive and direct relationship among consumer involvement and the eventual effectiveness of advertisement has been shown. A great amount of consumer involvement is directly related to advertisement effectiveness. Therefore, consumer involvement is a critical factor in advertisement strategies.

Keywords: consumer involvement, advertisement effectiveness, strategy, effective marketing

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1028 Democratic Political Socialization of the 5th and 6th Graders under the Authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok

Authors: Mathinee Khongsatid, Phusit Phukamchanoad, Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

This research aims to study the democratic political socialization of the 5th and 6th Graders under the Authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok by using stratified sampling for probability sampling and using purposive sampling for non-probability sampling to collect data toward the distribution of questionnaires to 300 respondents. This covers all of the schools under the authority of Dusit District Office. The researcher analyzed the data by using descriptive statistics which include arithmetic mean and standard deviation. The result shows that 5th and 6th graders under the authority of Dusit District Office, Bangkok, have displayed some characteristics following democratic political socialization both inside and outside classroom as well as outside school. However, the democratic political socialization in classroom through grouping and class participation is much more emphasized.

Keywords: democratic, political socialization, students grades 5-6, descriptive statistics

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1027 Adolescents’ Role in Family Buying Decision Making

Authors: Harleen Kaur, Deepika Jindal Singla

Abstract:

Buying decision making is a complicated process, in which consumer’s decision is under the impact of others. The buying decision making is directed in a way that they have to act as customers in the society. Media and family are key socialising agents for adolescents’. Moreover, changes in the socio-cultural environment in India necessitate that adolescents’ influence in family’s buying decision-making should be investigated. In comparison to Western society, Indian is quite different, when compared in terms of family composition and structure, behaviour, values and norms which effect adolescents’ buying decision-making.

Keywords: adolescents, buying behavior, Indian urban families, consumer socialization

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1026 Review of Models of Consumer Behaviour and Influence of Emotions in the Decision Making

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

In order to begin the process of studying the task of making consumer decisions, the main decision models must be analyzed. The objective of this task is to see if there is a presence of emotions in those models, and analyze how authors that have created them consider their impact in consumer choices. In this paper, the most important models of consumer behavior are analysed. This review is useful to consider an unproblematic background knowledge in the literature. The order that has been established for this study is chronological.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, emotions, decision making, consumer psychology

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1025 Stuck Down in the Mess of Aisles: Need of a Practical Consumer Welfare Policy Framework in Sri Lanka with Special Reference to Japan

Authors: E. N. R. de Silva

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to set a policy framework for establishing a legal, institutional and social infrastructure that enhances the welfare, health, safety and economic interest of the consumers in Sri Lanka. It will help to develop an approach to continuously and successfully advocate for a consumer protection legal reform agenda and also it is significant as it gives directions to create national consumer protection associations in Sri Lanka. The methodology adopted for this research is purely a qualitative approach and it is generally and specifically categorized. Generally, part of this research looked at the existing laws, regulations and how effective they are in order to protect consumers. It will analyze the consumer protection framework and specially, consumer protection enhanced by the public organizations in Japan. This research offers a model with methods and legal instruments to enforce advocacy group to enhance consumer welfare, also brings out reforms to be made in the national legal framework on consumer welfare.

Keywords: consumer protection association, consumer protection law, consumer welfare, legal framework

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1024 Discussing Concept Gratitude of Muslim Consumers Based on Islamic Law: A Confirmation on the Theory of Consumer Satisfaction through Imam Al-Ghazali's Thought

Authors: Suprihatin Soewarto

Abstract:

The background of writing this paper is to assess the truth of rejection of some Muslim scholars who develop Islamic economics on the concept of consumer satisfaction and replace it with the concept of maslahah. In the perspective of Islamic law, this rejection attitude needs to be verified in order to know the accuracy of the replacement of this concept of satisfaction with maslahah as part of consumer behavior. This is done so that replacement of rejection of the term satisfaction with maslahah is objective. This objective replacement of the term will surely be more enlightening and more just than the subjective substitution. Therefore the writing of this paper aims to get an answer whether the concept of satisfaction needs to be replaced? is it possible for Islamic law to confirm the theory of consumer satisfaction? The method of writing this paper using the method of literature with a critical analysis approach. The results of this study is an explanation of the similarities and differences of consumer satisfaction theory and consumer theory maslahah according to Islamic law. disclosure of the concept of consumer gratitude according to Islamic law and its implementation in Muslim consumer demand theory.

Keywords: consumer's gratitude, islamic law, confirmation, satisfaction consumer's

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1023 Consumer Innovativeness and Shopping Styles: An Empirical Study in Turkey

Authors: Hande Begum Bumin Doyduk, Elif Okan Yolbulan

Abstract:

Innovation is very important for success and competitiveness of countries, as well as business sectors and individuals' firms. In order to have successful and sustainable innovations, the other side of the game, consumers, should be aware of the innovations and appreciate them. In this study, the consumer innovativeness is focused and the relationship between motivated consumer innovativeness and consumer shopping styles is analyzed. Motivated consumer innovativeness scale by (Vandecasteele & Geuens, 2010) and consumer shopping styles scale by (Sproles & Kendall, 1986) is used. Data is analyzed by SPSS 20 program through realibility, factor, and correlation analysis. According to the findings of the study, there are strong positive relationships between hedonic innovativeness and recreational shopping style; social innovativeness and brand consciousness; cognitive innovativeness and price consciousness and functional innovativeness and perfectionistic high-quality conscious shopping styles.

Keywords: consumer innovativeness, consumer decision making, shopping styles, innovativeness

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1022 Citizenship Education and Access to Information for Political Socialization and Unity in Nigeria

Authors: Alh Rauf Bello Bella

Abstract:

The main purpose of citizenship education if properly executed is to create awareness and enlightenment in the society to bring tolerance and political unity among the people. For the citizenry to have a meaningful participation for the achievement of this objective in a modern society where democracy thrives, all citizens should also have access to information on all matters affecting their lives and well-being. The paper therefore examines the scope of citizenship education and the complementary role of information providers in the quest for political socialization and national unity. It emphasizes some issues of national unity which should be addressed through proper enlightenment of the citizenry and access to relevant and timely information at the grassroots.

Keywords: citizenship education, national unity, political socialization, Nigeria

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1021 Understanding Consumer Behaviors by Using Neuromarketing Tools and Methods

Authors: Tabrej Khan

Abstract:

Neuromarketing can refer to the commercial application of neuroscience technologies and insights to drive business further. On the other side, consumer neuroscience can be seen as the academic use of neuroscience to better understand marketing effects on consumer behavior. Consumer Neuroscience and Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary effort between economics, psychology, and neuroscience and information technology. Traditional methods are using survey, interviews, focus group people are overtly and consciously reporting on their experience and thoughts. The unconscious side of customer behavior is largely unmeasured in the traditional methods. Neuroscience has a potential to understand the unconscious part. Through this paper, we are going to present specific results of selected tools and methods that are used to understand consumer behaviors.

Keywords: neuromarketing, neuroscience, consumer behaviors, tools

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1020 Calculate Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus Using Integration

Authors: Bojan Radisic, Katarina Stavlic

Abstract:

The paper describes two economics terms consumer surplus and producer surplus using the definite integrals (the Riemann integral). The consumer surplus is the difference between what consumers are willing to pay and actual price. The producer surplus is the difference between what producers selling at the current price, rather than at the price they would have been are willing to accept. Using the definite integrals describe terms and mathematical formulas of the consumer surplus and the producer surplus and will be applied to the numerical examples.

Keywords: consumer surplus, producer surplus, definite integral, integration

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1019 Consumer Ethnocentrism: A Dynamic Literature Review from 1987-2015

Authors: Thi Phuong Chi Nguyen

Abstract:

Although consumer ethnocentrism has been widely studied in academic research since 1987, somehow it is still considered as a new and unknown concept in marketing theory and practice. By analyzing the content, three mainstreams of consumer ethnocentrism were found including economic, management and marketing approaches. The present study indicated that the link between consumer ethnocentrism and consumer behaviours varies across countries. Consumers in developing countries might be both patriotic about their home countries and curious about foreign cultures at the same time. The most important finding is identifying three main periods in the chronological development of consumer ethnocentrism research. The first period, spanning from 1987 to 1995, was characterized by the introduction of the consumer ethnocentrism concepts and scales, the unidimensionality and the adaptation of the standard CETSCALE version. The second period 1996-2005 witnessed the replication of CETSCALE in various fields, as well as an increase in the volume of researches in developing and emerging countries; the exploration of determinants and the begin of multidimensionality. In the third period from 2006 to present, all variables related to CET were syntherized within the theory of planne behavior. Consumer ethnocentrism analyses were conducted even in less-developed countries and in groups of countries within longitudinal studies. The results from this study showed many inadequacies relating to consumer ethnocentrism in the context of globalisation for further researches to examine.

Keywords: CETSCALE, consumer behavior, consumer ethnocentrism, business, marketing

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1018 Mobile Health Programs by Government: A Content Analysis of Online Consumer Reviews

Authors: Ge Zhan

Abstract:

Mobile health (mHealth) concerns the use of mobile technologies to deliver health care and improve wellness. In this paper, we ask the question of what are the drivers of positive consumer attitude toward mHealth programs. Answers to this question are important to consumer health, but existing marketing and health care service literature does not provide sufficient empirical conclusions on the use of mobile technologies for consumer health. This study aims to fill the knowledge gap by investigating mHealth use and consumer attitude. A content analysis was conducted with sample mHealth programs and online consumer reviews in Hong Kong, UK, US, and India. The research findings will contribute to marketing and health services literature.

Keywords: mobile health, consumer attitude, content analysis, online marketing

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1017 The Consumer's Behavior of Bakery Products in Bangkok

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon

Abstract:

The objectives of the consumer behavior of bakery products in Bangkok are to study consumer behavior of the bakery product, to study the essential factors that could possibly affect the consumer behavior and to study recommendations for the development of the bakery products. This research is a survey research. Populations are buyer’s bakery products in Bangkok. The probability sample size is 400. The research uses a questionnaire for self-learning by using information technology. The researcher created a reliability value at 0.71 levels of significance. The data analysis will be done by using the percentage, mean, and standard deviation and testing the hypotheses by using chi-square.

Keywords: consumer, behavior, bakery, standard deviation

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1016 Domains of Socialization Interview: Development and Psychometric Properties

Authors: Dilek Saritas Atalar, Cansu Alsancak Akbulut, İrem Metin Orta, Feyza Yön, Zeynep Yenen, Joan Grusec

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Objective: The aim of this study was to develop semi-structured Domains of Socialization Interview and its coding manual and to test their psychometric properties. Domains of Socialization Interview was designed to assess maternal awareness regarding effective parenting in five socialization domains (protection, mutual reciprocity, control, guided learning, and group participation) within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach. Method: A series of two studies were conducted to develop and validate the interview and its coding manual. The pilot study, sampled 13 mothers of preschool-aged children, was conducted to develop the assessment tools and to test their function and clarity. Participants of the main study were 82 Turkish mothers (Xage = 34.25, SD = 3.53) who have children aged between 35-76 months (Xage = 50.75, SD = 11.24). Mothers filled in a questionnaire package including Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionnaire, Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation-30, Child Rearing Questionnaire, and Two Dimensional Social Desirability Questionnaire. Afterward, interviews were conducted online by a single interviewer. Interviews were rated independently by two graduate students based on the coding manual. Results: The relationships of the awareness of effective parenting scores to the other measures demonstrate convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of the coding manual. Intra-class correlation coefficient estimates were ranged between 0.82 and 0.90, showing high interrater reliability of the coding manual. Conclusion: Taken as a whole, the results of these studies demonstrate the validity and reliability of a new and useful interview to measure maternal awareness regarding effective parenting within the framework of the domains-of-socialization approach.

Keywords: domains of socialization, parenting, interview, assessment

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1015 Calculation of Inflation from Salaries Instead of Consumer Products: A Logical Exercise

Authors: E. Dahlen

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Inflation can be calculated from either the prices of consumer products or from salaries. This paper presents a logical exercise that shows it is easier to calculate inflation from salaries than from consumer products. While the prices of consumer products may change due to technological advancement, such as automation, which must be corrected for, salaries do not. If technological advancements are not accounted for within calculations based on consumer product prices, inflation can be confused with real wage changes, since both inflation and real wage changes affect the prices of consumer products. The method employed in this paper is a logical exercise. Logical arguments are presented that suggest the existence of many different feasible ways by which inflation can be determined. Then a short mathematical exercise will be presented which shows that one of these methods –using salaries – contains the fewest number of unknown parameters, and hence, is the preferred method, since the risk of mistakes is lower. From the results, it can be concluded that salaries, rather than consumer products, should be used to calculate inflation.

Keywords: inflation, logic, math, real wages

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1014 Assessing the Roles Languages Education Plays in Nation Building in Nigeria

Authors: Edith Lotachukwu Ochege

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Nations stay together when citizens share enough values and preferences and can communicate with each other. Homogeneity among people can be built with education, teaching a common language to facilitate communication, infrastructure for easier travel, but also by brute force such as prohibiting local cultures. This paper discusses the role of language education in nation building. It defines education, highlights the functions of language. Furthermore, it expresses socialization agents that aid culture which are all embodied in language, problems of nation building.

Keywords: nation building, language education, function of language, socialization

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1013 Climate Change and Perceived Socialization: The Role of Parents’ Climate Change Coping Style and Household Communication

Authors: Estefanya Vazquez-Casaubon, Veroline Cauberghe, Dieneke Van de Sompel, Hayley Pearce

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Working together to reduce the anthropogenic impact should be a collective action, including effort within the household. In the matter, children are considered to have an important role in influencing the household to reduce the environmental impact through reversed socialization where children motivate and increase the concern of the parents towards environmental protection. Previous studies reveal that communication between parents and kids is key for effective reversed socialization. However, multiple barriers have been identified in the literature, such as the acceptance of the influence from the kids, the properties of the communication, among other factors. Based on the previous evidence, the present study aims to assess barriers and facilitators of communication at the household level that have an impact on reversed socialization. More precisely, the study examines how parents’ climate change coping strategy (problem-focused, meaning-focused, disregarding) influences the valence and the type of the communication related to climate change, and eventually the extent to which they report their beliefs and behaviours to be influenced by the pro-environmental perspectives of their children; i.e. reversed socialization. Via an online survey, 723 Belgian parents self-reported on communication about environmental protection and risk within their household (such as the frequency of exchange about topics related to climate change sourced from school, the household rules, imparting knowledge to the children, and outer factors like media or peer pressure, the emotional valence of the communication), their perceived socialization, and personal factors (coping mechanisms towards climate change). The results, using structural equation modelling, revealed that parents applying a problem-solving coping strategy related to climate change, appear to communicate more often in a positive than in a negative manner. Parents with a disregarding coping style towards climate change appear to communicate less often in a positive way within the household. Parents that cope via meaning-making of climate change showed to communicate less often in either a positive or negative way. Moreover, the perceived valence of the communication (positive or negative) influenced the frequency and type of household communication. Positive emotions increased the frequency of the communication overall. However, the direct effect of neither of the coping mechanisms on the reversed socialization was significant. High frequency of communication about the media, environmental views of the household members among other external topics had a positive impact on the perceived socialization, followed by discussions school-related; while parental instructing had a negative impact on the perceived socialization. Moreover, the frequency of communication was strongly affected by the perceived valence of the communication (positive or negative). The results go in line with previous evidence that a higher frequency of communication facilitates reversed socialization. Hence the results outstand how the coping mechanisms of the parents can be either a facilitator when they cope via problem-solving, while parents that disregard might avert frequent communication about climate change at the household.

Keywords: communication, parents’ coping mechanisms, environmental protection, household, perceived socialization

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1012 The Influences of Marketplace Knowledge, General Product Class Knowledge, and Knowledge in Meat Product with Traceability on Trust in Meat Traceability

Authors: Kawpong Polyorat

Abstract:

Since the outbreak of mad cow disease and bird flu, consumers have become more concerned with meat quality and safety. As a result, meat traceability is adopted as one approach to handle consumers’ concern in this issue. Nevertheless, in Thailand, meat traceability is rarely used as a marketing tool to persuade consumers. As a consequence, the present study attempts to understand consumer trust in the meat traceability system by conducting a study in this country to examine the impact of three types of consumer knowledge on this trust. The study results reveal that out of three types of consumer knowledge, marketplace knowledge was the sole predictor of consumer trust in meat traceability and it has a positive influence. General product class knowledge and knowledge in meat products with traceability, however, did not significantly influence consumer trust. The research results provide several implications and directions for future study.

Keywords: consumer knowledge, marketing, product knowledge, traceability

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1011 The Consumer Responses toward the Offensive Product Advertising

Authors: Chin Tangtarntana

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of animation in offensive product advertising. Experiment was conducted to collect consumer responses toward animated and static ads of offensive and non-offensive products. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to the target respondents. According to statistics from Innovative Internet Research Center, Thailand, majority of internet users are 18 – 44 years old. The results revealed an interaction between ad design and offensive product. Specifically, when used in offensive product advertisements, animated ads were not effective for consumer attention, but yielded positive response in terms of attitude toward product. The findings support that information processing model is accurate in predicting consumer cognitive response toward cartoon ads, whereas U&G, arousal, and distinctive theory is more accurate in predicting consumer affective response. In practical, these findings can also be used to guide ad designers and marketers that are suitable for offensive products.

Keywords: animation, banner ad design, consumer responses, offensive product advertising, stock exchange of Thailand

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1010 Consumer Behavior and Marketing Mixed Factor Effect on Consumer Decision Making for Independent Movies Presented in Lido Cinema

Authors: Pongsawee Supanonth

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This study aims to investigate the consumer behavior and marketing mixed factor affect on consumer decision making for independent movies presented in Lido cinema. The research method will use quantitative research, data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the audience in the Lido cinema for 400 sample by accidental sampling technique. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including independent t-test for hypothesis testing. The results showed that marketing mixed factors affecting consumer decision-making for Independent movies presented in Lido cinema by gender as different as less than the 0.05 significance level, it was found that the kind of movie ,quality of theater ,price of ticket, facility of watching movies, staff services and promotion of Lido cinema respectively had a vital influence on their attention and response which makes the advertisement more attractive is in harmony with the research hypotheses also.

Keywords: consumer behavior, marketing mixed factor, resonance, consumer decision making, Lido cinema

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1009 Aberrant Consumer Behavior in Seller’s and Consumer’s Eyes: Newly Developed Classification

Authors: Amal Abdelhadi

Abstract:

Consumer misbehavior evaluation can be markedly different based on a number of variables and different from one environment to another. Using three aberrant consumer behavior (ACB) scenarios (shoplifting, stealing from hotel rooms and software piracy) this study aimed to explore Libyan seller and consumers of ACB. Materials were collected by using a multi-method approach was employed (qualitative and quantitative approaches) in two fieldwork phases. In the phase stage, a qualitative data were collected from 26 Libyan sellers’ by face-to-face interviews. In the second stage, a consumer survey was used to collect quantitative data from 679 Libyan consumers. This study found that the consumer’s and seller’s evaluation of ACB are not always consistent. Further, ACB evaluations differed based on the form of ACB. Furthermore, the study found that not all consumer behaviors that were considered as bad behavior in other countries have the same evaluation in Libya; for example, software piracy. Therefore this study suggested a newly developed classification of ACB based on marketers’ and consumers’ views. This classification provides 9 ACB types within two dimensions (marketers’ and consumers’ views) and three degrees of behavior evaluation (good, acceptable and misbehavior).

Keywords: aberrant consumer behavior, Libya, multi-method approach, planned behavior theory

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1008 Generic Data Warehousing for Consumer Electronics Retail Industry

Authors: S. Habte, K. Ouazzane, P. Patel, S. Patel

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The dynamic and highly competitive nature of the consumer electronics retail industry means that businesses in this industry are experiencing different decision making challenges in relation to pricing, inventory control, consumer satisfaction and product offerings. To overcome the challenges facing retailers and create opportunities, we propose a generic data warehousing solution which can be applied to a wide range of consumer electronics retailers with a minimum configuration. The solution includes a dimensional data model, a template SQL script, a high level architectural descriptions, ETL tool developed using C#, a set of APIs, and data access tools. It has been successfully applied by ASK Outlets Ltd UK resulting in improved productivity and enhanced sales growth.

Keywords: consumer electronics, data warehousing, dimensional data model, generic, retail industry

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1007 The Effects of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Academic Motivation: The Case of Lithuania

Authors: Ausra Turcinskaite-Balciuniene, Jonas Balciunas, Gediminas Merkys

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The problematic of gender and socioeconomic status biased differences in academic motivation patterns is discussed. Gender identity is understood according to symbolic interactionism perspective: as a result of reflected appraisals, social comparisons, self-attributions, and identifications, shaped by social environment and family context. The effects of socioeconomic status on academic motivation are conceptualized according to Bourdieu’s habitus concept, reflecting the role of unconscious and internalized cultural signals, proper to low and high socioeconomic status family contexts. Since families differ by various socioeconomic features, the hypothesis about possible impact of parents’ socioeconomic status on their children’s academic motivation interfering with gender socialization effects is held. The survey, aiming to seize gender differences in academic motivation and self-recorded improvement-oriented efforts as a result of socialization processes operating in the families of low and high socioeconomic status, was designed. The results of Lithuanian higher education students’ survey are presented and discussed.

Keywords: academic motivation, gender, socialization, socioeconomic status

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1006 The Effects of Consumer Inertia and Emotions on New Technology Acceptance

Authors: Chyi Jaw

Abstract:

Prior literature on innovation diffusion or acceptance has almost exclusively concentrated on consumers’ positive attitudes and behaviors for new products/services. Consumers’ negative attitudes or behaviors to innovations have received relatively little marketing attention, but it happens frequently in practice. This study discusses consumer psychological factors when they try to learn or use new technologies. According to recent research, technological innovation acceptance has been considered as a dynamic or mediated process. This research argues that consumers can experience inertia and emotions in the initial use of new technologies. However, given such consumer psychology, the argument can be made as to whether the inclusion of consumer inertia (routine seeking and cognitive rigidity) and emotions increases the predictive power of new technology acceptance model. As data from the empirical study find, the process is potentially consumer emotion changing (independent of performance benefits) because of technology complexity and consumer inertia, and impact innovative technology use significantly. Finally, the study presents the superior predictability of the hypothesized model, which let managers can better predict and influence the successful diffusion of complex technological innovations.

Keywords: cognitive rigidity, consumer emotions, new technology acceptance, routine seeking, technology complexity

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1005 Determination of International Jurisdiction of Courts over Disputes Arising from Electronic Consumer Contracts

Authors: Aslihan Coban

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As a result of the rapid development of information communication technology, especially the internet, consumers have become an active party in commerce and in law. Consequently, the protection of consumers in cross-border contracts has become increasingly important. This paper is confined to the international jurisdiction of courts over disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts according to the ‘5718 Turkish Act on Private International Law and Civil Procedure’ and the ‘1215/2012 Council Regulation On Jurisdiction and The Recognition and Enforcement Of Judgments In Civil and Commercial Matters’ (Hereafter ‘Brussels I Regulation’). The international jurisdiction of courts for consumer contracts is recognized under both acts above-mentioned; however, there exist some differences between the said legal regulations. Firstly, while there is a specific provision for electronic consumer contracts in Brussels I Regulation, there is no specific provision in the Turkish Act. Secondly, under the Turkish Act, habitual residence, domicile, and workplace of the other party who is not a consumer are all accepted as jurisdiction elements; while domicile is the only jurisdiction element in Brussels I Regulation. Thirdly, the ability to make jurisdiction agreements in disputes arising from electronic consumer contracts is a controversial issue under the Turkish Act while it is explicitly regulated under Brussels I Regulation that such jurisdiction agreements can be concluded by complying with certain conditions.

Keywords: Brussels I Regulation, electronic consumer contracts, jurisdiction, jurisdiction agreement

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1004 Analyzing the Commercialization of New Technology

Authors: Wen-Hsiang Lai, Mei-Wen Chen

Abstract:

In the face of developing new technologies, identifying potential new technological product and the suitable market is important. Since laser technology is widely applied in many industries, this study explores the technology commercialization of laser technology. According to the literature review and industry analysis, this study discusses the factors influencing the consumer’s purchase intention and tries to find a new market direction to develop the laser technology. This study adopts a new product adoption model as the research framework and uses three variables of ‘Consumer characteristics’, ‘Perception of product attributes’ and ‘External environment’ to discuss the purchase intention of consumers, who are physicians and owners of the medical cosmetics. This study finds that in the major variable of ‘Consumer characteristics’, the sub-variables of ‘Personality’, ‘Knowledge of product’, ‘Perceived risk’ and ‘Motivation’ are significantly related to consumer’s purchase intention. In the major variable of ‘Perception of product attributes’, the sub-variables of ‘Brand’ and ‘Measure of manufacture country’ are the key factors that affect the willingness of consumer’s purchase intention. Finally, in the major variable of ‘External environment’ variable, the sub-variables of ‘Time’ and ‘Price’ have significant impact on consumer’s purchase intention.

Keywords: technology commercialization, new product adoption, consumer’s purchase intention, laser technology

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1003 The Role of BPSK (Consumer Dispute Settlement Body) in the Monitoring of Standard Clause Inclusion within Indonesian Customer Protection Law

Authors: Deviana Yuanitasari

Abstract:

The rapid development of world commerce and trade nowadays has created fast-paced demand in every business activities and transactions. That also includes the need for ready to use and practical form of standard contract. For the company or business owner, the use of standard contract is an alternative way to achieve economic goals faster, effectively and efficiently. In the other hand, for the consumer the practice of using standard contract usually unfavorable, because the contract clauses usually have been defined by the company and cannot be individually negotiated. That means consumer cannot influence the substances of the contract clauses. The purpose of this study is to get deeper understanding and analyze the role of Consumer Dispute Settlement Body in the monitoring of standard clause inclusion by businesses and industries within the context of practicing consumer protection law. Furthermore, this study will focus on the procedure of sanction and the effectiveness of the sanction for the business practitioners which disregard the inclusion of the prohibited standard clause. Therefore, this study will depict the law issues and other phenomenon that related with the role of Consumer Dispute Settlement Body in monitoring the inclusion of standard clause and procedure of sanction for the business practitioners that still use exemption clause within Consumer Protection Law System. This study results that BPSK has been assigned to monitor the inclusion of standard clause and settle consumer dispute. At this stage, BPSK role is passive, which means BPSK only takes an action if there are consumer complaints. The procedure of sanction is not part of BPSK tasks, since should there be a violation of standard clause; BPSK can only ask the business practitioners to remove the prohibited clause and not give a sanction. As a result, the procedure of sanction rule for the Standard Clause violation in this context can be considered as ineffective.

Keywords: standard contract, standard clause, consumer protection law, consumer dispute settlement body

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