Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 515

Search results for: Brazil

515 Accounting Performance of the Leading Companies in the Construction Sector in Brazil during the Period 2009-2012

Authors: Fabrício José Piacente, Vanessa de Cillos Silva, Thiago Luiz Mello Melato

Abstract:

The construction industry has been demonstrating increased growth and importance in Brazil’s national economic development. This study aims to evaluate the financial performance of the leading companies in the construction sector in Brazil in the period from 2009 to 2012. An analysis is made of the capital structure, liquidity, and profitability of the six largest companies in the construction sector in Brazil: Brookfield, Cyrela, Gafisa, MRV, PDG and Rossi. The results are then compared with standard industry ratios. It was found that among the companies analyzed, MRV and Cyrela showed the best relative performance in the period under consideration.

Keywords: accounting ratios, construction, financial performance, Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
514 Recidivism in Brazil: Exploring the Case of the Association of Protection and Assistance to Convicts Methodology

Authors: Robyn Heitzman

Abstract:

The traditional method of punitive justice in Brazil has failed to prevent high levels of recidivism. Combined with overcrowding, a lack of resources, and human rights abuses, the conventional prison approach in Brazil is being questioned; one alternative approach is the association of protection and assistance to convicts (APAC) method. Justice -according to the principles of the APAC methodology- is served through education, reformation, and human development. The model has reported relatively low levels of recidivism and has been internationally recognised for its progress. Through qualitative research such as interviews and case studies, this paper explains why, applying the theory of restorative justice, the APAC methodology yields lower rates of recidivism compared to the traditional models of prisons in Brazil. 

Keywords: Brazil, justice, prisons, restorative

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
513 Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis In Brazil

Authors: Elisangela Sobreira, Denise Teixeira

Abstract:

Visceral leishmaniasis is a public health problem in Brazil, it is the main reservoir dog. In the period 2012-2016 78 diagnoses were performed in dogs suspected. Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein obtaining serum used for the indirect immunofluorescence test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while it collected a drop of blood for the rapid chromatographic immunoassay. Obtained in 32 dogs positive. The test is important for the control of this disease and is used routinely in the Zoonoses Control Center.

Keywords: Brazil, dogs, Leismaniasis, Zoonoses center

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
512 Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Climate-Induced Migration in Brazil: Legislation, Policies and Practice

Authors: Heloisa H. Miura, Luiza M. Pallone

Abstract:

In Brazil, people forced to move due to environmental causes, called 'environmental migrants', have always been neglected by public policies and legislation. Meanwhile, the numbers of climate-induced migration within and to Brazil continues to increase. The operating Immigration Law, implemented in 1980 under the Brazilian military regime, is widely considered to be out of date, once it does not offer legal protection to migrants who do not fit the definition of a refugee and are not allowed to stay regularly in the country. Aiming to reformulate Brazil’s legislation and policies on the matter, a new Migration Bill (PL 2516/2015) is currently being discussed in the Senate and is expected to define a more humanized approach to migration. Although the present draft foresees an expansion of the legal protection to different types of migrants, it still hesitates to include climate-induced displacements in its premises and to establish a migration management strategy. By introducing a human rights-based approach, this paper aims to provide a new multidisciplinary perspective to the protection of environmental migrants in Brazil.

Keywords: environmental migrants, human mobility, climate change, migration policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
511 Community Interpreting in the Process of Asylum Seeking in Brazil

Authors: Fernanda Garcia

Abstract:

With the recent growth of refugees in the world, there has been an exponential increase in requests for asylum seeking in Brazil. When asylum seekers arrive in the country, the government initiates a process to evaluate the case, which will serve as grounds to determine the refugee status of the asylum seekers. During this process, an interview where the migrant has the chance to tell their story takes place. The aim of this article is to analyse how community interpreting is conducted in Brazil with regard to asylum seeking, as well as to analyse the role of the interpreter in the context of these official interviews to request refuge in Brazil. We investigate how the presence of an interpreter influences this interview, but more specifically, we study some of the linguistic techniques used by the interpreter in order to make the interaction more effective, as well as the challenges and difficulties they encounter during the interview. To do so, surveys with the interpreters took place, in addition to on-site observations. The interpreters involved in this research are volunteers as part of an extra-curricular extension programme from the University of Brasilia, in Brazil. Community Interpreting is a somewhat new field in Brazil, still facing several obstacles, such as the lack of professional community interpreters. This research illustrates some of these issues and, thus, has the potential to foster Brazilian literature in the matter as well as help understand the role of the interpreter in the interview to seek asylum in Brazil. The refugees’ situation in the world is certainly a pressing matter, and the language barrier is an issue of great importance. Hence, translation and interpretation studies have a fundamental role in this area, when it comes to contributing to a more inclusive world to those in need.

Keywords: asylum seeking, community interpreting, interviews, refugees

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
510 The Challenges for Engineers to Change the Construction Method in Brazil

Authors: Yuri B. Cesarino, Vinícius R. Domingues, Darym J. F. Campos

Abstract:

Developing countries have some restrains towards the adoption of new technologies and construction methods. Some nations, such as Brazil, still use conventional construction methodologies, knowing its lesser cost-effectiveness. This research has been conducted to demonstrate how industrialized construction methods should be implemented in Brazil, especially in times of need. Using the common sense among different authors with different perspectives, it is clear that the second method is more suitable for construction development because of its great advantages. However, it is unlikely for this process to be adopted in the country as a result of several social-economic restraints. Nonetheless, Brazilian engineers have a major challenge ahead of them, and it will take more than creativity to solve such an issue.

Keywords: Brazilian engineers, construction methods, industrialized construction, infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
509 The Social and Economic Discourse of Roberto Cochrane Simonsen: The Presence of Americanism

Authors: Maxwel F. Silva, José Geraldo Pedrosa

Abstract:

The issue revolves around the discourse on development that was current in Brazil in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century and its relation to industrialization as idea of civility, modernity and progress. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the workmanship of the visionary entrepreneur and organic intellectual Roberto Cochrane Simonsen (1889-1948). In the set of speeches, lectures and conferences pronounced by Simonsen, the USA constantly appears like model of civilization. The hypothesis is that, as base of the proposals of industrialization defended by him there was an idea of Americanism that would serve of foundation to a way of thinking and acting. For Simonsen, the construction of a nation is directly related to its industrialization. In his thought, develop the Brazil means to structure the country with rational economic mechanisms. This paper investigates the American influences on the discourse of Simonsen about the development of Brazil.

Keywords: Americanism, development of Brazil, Simonsen, social discourse

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
508 System of Innovation: Comparing Savings of Brazil and South Africa

Authors: Glessiane de O. Almeida, Sérgio Murilo C. Messias, Iracema Machado de Aragão Gomes

Abstract:

This article discusses issues related to the System of Innovation: Comparing economies of Brazil and South Africa. Having as this study aimed at comparing the Innovation System of the countries mentioned. Then briefly describe the process of Venture Capital/Risk Capital and present the industry innovation in Brazil and South Africa. The methodological approach described in this article is descriptive and the approach is qualitative, taking as a basis secondary data relating to research articles. The main results are related to the different forms of financing of Venture Capital used by countries compared, in addition to the training and economic policy. And finally, it was highlighted the importance of implementation of policy reforms for the Brazil and Africa in the innovation process.

Keywords: innovation, Venture Capital, Economy, National Innovation System (NIS), BRICS

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
507 Causes of Institutionalization of Children and Adolescents in a Shelter in Brazil

Authors: Eduardo Guilherme, Sabrina Duarte

Abstract:

Shelters or orphanages are institutions responsible for ensuring the physical and mental integrity of children and adolescents who had their rights violated or neglected, whether from a social-leavers, is at personal risk to which they were exposed or the negligence of its parents; in Brazil about twenty thousand children and adolescents living in about five hundred registered shelters that receive funds from the federal government. We evaluated the records of institutionalized children and adolescents from the foundation of municipal shelter in Rio Negro/Parana State, Brazil since June/2000 to February/2015. Institutionalization of the causes cited were: lack of family/guardian material resources, abandonment by parents/guardians, domestic violence, substance abuse of parents/guardians, street experience, orphans and others. In Brazil, poverty and extreme poverty are closely related to the institutionalization of causes of children and adolescents. Census data in 2010, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) indicate that 40% of Brazilians living in poverty are girls and boys up to 14 years in a total of approximately 23 million individuals. Poverty denies children and adolescents their rights, representing a vulnerability which predisposes to some causes of shelter.

Keywords: Brazil, shelter, orphanages, institutionalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
506 Systematic Review of Functional Analysis in Brazil

Authors: Felipe Magalhaes Lemos

Abstract:

Functional behavior analysis is a procedure that has been studied for several decades by behavior analysts. In Brazil, we still have few studies in the area, so it was decided to carry out a systematic review of the articles published in the area by Brazilians. A search was done on the following scientific article registration sites: PsycINFO, ERIC, ISI Web of Science, Virtual Health Library. The research includes (a) peer-reviewed studies that (b) have been carried out in Brazil containing (c) functional assessment as a pre-treatment through (d) experimental procedures, direct or indirect observation and measurement of behavior problems (e) demonstrating a relationship between environmental events and behavior. During the review, 234 papers were found; however, only 9 were included in the final analysis. Of the 9 articles extracted, only 2 presented functional analysis procedures with manipulation of environmental variables, while the other 7 presented different procedures for a descriptive behavior assessment. Only the two studies using "functional analysis" used graphs to demonstrate the prevalent function of the behavior. Other studies described procedures and did not make clear the causal relationship between environment and behavior. There is still confusion in Brazil regarding the terms "functional analysis", "descriptive assessment" and "contingency analysis," which are generally treated in the same way. This study shows that few articles are published with a focus on functional analysis in Brazil.

Keywords: behavior, contingency, descriptive assessment, functional analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
505 Governance and Public Policy: The Perception of Efficiency and Equility in Brazil and South Africa

Authors: Paulino V. Tavares, Ana L. Romao

Abstract:

Public governance represents an articulated arrangement, dynamic and interactive, present in the exercise of authority aimed at strengthening the decision-making procedure in public administration with transparency, accountability, responsiveness and capable of to emerge control and social empowerment, to pursue and achieve the objectives efficiently and with the effectiveness desired by the collective, respecting laws and providing social, institutional and economic equility in society. With this, using a multidimensional approach with the application of three questionnaires to a universe of twenty Counselors of the Courts of Auditors (Brazil), twenty professionals of public administration (Brazil), twenty Government/Provincial Counselors (South Africa), and twenty South African professionals of public administration, the present work aims to capture what is the perception about the efficiency and equility of public policies in Brazil and South Africa. With this, up until now, 30 responses have been obtained, and the results indicate that, in Brazil, 65% affirm due to the inefficiency of public policies, 70% point out that they do not believe in the equility of these same policies. In South Africa, the results indicate that 45% believe in government efficiency, and, with regard to the equility of public policies, 65% do not believe. In Brazil, the research reveals at least three reasons for this result, that is, lack of planning, lack of clear objectives of public policies, and lack of information on the part of society, while in South Africa, so far, research has not identified a specific reason for this result.

Keywords: efficiency, equility, governance, public policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
504 The Sociocultural and Critical Theories under the Empiricism of a Study Abroad Program

Authors: Magda Silva

Abstract:

This paper presents the sociocultural and critical theories used in the creation of a study abroad program in Brazil, as well as the successful results obtained in the fourteen years of experience provided by the program in distinct regions of Brazil. This program maximizes students’ acquisition of the Portuguese language, and affords them an in-depth intercultural and intracultural competence by on site studies in cosmopolitan Rio de Janeiro, afro-heritage Salvador da Bahia, and Amazonian Belém do Pará. The program provides the means to acknowledge the presence, influence, similarities, and differences of Portuguese-speaking Brazil in Latin America.

Keywords: study abroad, critical thinking, sociocultural theory, foreign language, empirical, theoretical

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
503 Analysing Environmental Licensing of Infrastructure Projects in Brazil

Authors: Ronaldo Seroa Da Motta, Gabriela Santiago

Abstract:

The main contribution of this study is the identification of the factors influencing the environmental licensing process of infrastructure projects in Brazil. These factors will be those that reflect the technical characteristics of the project, the corporate governance of the entrepreneur, and the institutional and regulatory governance of the environmental agency, including the number of interventions by non-licensing agencies. The model conditions these variables to the licensing processing time of 34 infrastructure projects. Our results indicated that the conditions would be more sensitive to the type of enterprise, complexity as in gas pipelines and hydroelectric plants in the most vulnerable biome with a greater value of the enterprise or the entrepreneur's assets, together with the number of employees of the licensing agency. The number of external interventions by other non-licensing institutions does not affect the licensing time. Such results challenge the current criticism that environmental licensing has been often pointed out as a barrier to speed up investments in infrastructure projects in Brazil due to the participation of civil society and other non-licensing institutions.

Keywords: environmental licensing, condionants, Brazil, timing process

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
502 The Influence of Republican Culture in the Professional Education Reforms in Brazil (1892-1930)

Authors: Milene Magalhães Pinto, Irlen Antônio Gonçalves

Abstract:

This paper is within the area of History of Education in Brazil, having a descriptive and exploratory nature. It has been built on the belief that professional education is organized under political guidelines and solidifies through institutionalized discourses, allowing to know its mission concerning the society in which it operates by studying these speeches. Our purpose is to analyze how the Republican political culture yielded changes in public education through reforms to professional education in the First Republic, based on seven procedures of law that occurred in the Legislature of State of Minas Gerais. The Republican effort to reform the teaching was the result of a conception of society that aspired to advance the country by way of the national worker.

Keywords: professional education, republican political culture, education reforms, Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
501 Tax Evasion in Brazil: The Case of Specialists

Authors: Felippe Clemente, Viviani S. Lírio

Abstract:

Brazilian tax evasion is very high. It causes many problems for economics as budget realization, income distribution and no allocation of productive resources. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to use the instrumental game theory to understand tax evasion agents and tax authority in Brazil (Federal Revenue and Federal Police). By means of Game Theory approaches, the main results from considering cases both with and without specialists show that, in a high dropout situation, penalizing taxpayers with either high fines or deprivations of liberty may not be very effective. The analysis also shows that audit and inspection costs play an important role in driving the equilibrium system. This would suggest that a policy of investing in tax inspectors would be a more effective tool in combating non-compliance with tax obligations than penalties or fines.

Keywords: tax evasion, Brazil, game theory, specialists

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
500 Gender: Schooling and Social Condition’s Women in Brazil

Authors: Simone Tamires Vieira

Abstract:

This paper aims to investigate the history of women's schooling in Brazil and to reflect on the condition and social space of women today. Therefore, the following question arises as a research problem: how does the history of the school in/exclusion of women in Brazil relate to the occupations occupied today? As for the objectives, we seek to collect data on the education of women and girls in Brazil, analyze some institutionalized educational legislation and policies, reflect on issues of opportunity and deprivation in order to problematize the female condition through the review of qualitative literature. The results showed that gender and symbolic violence are powerful categories to analyze this theme since the trajectories, choices, and opportunities given to women are permeated by veiled mechanisms perpetuated by a structurally patriarchal society, focused on the interests of the elite, which denies diversity to maintain its status. The aim of this research is to contribute to reflections on the potential of dialogical action, as it highlights the forces that act and permeate the trajectories of women to empower current and future generations.

Keywords: gender, school in/exclusion symbolic violence, women, symbolic violence, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
499 Asymmetric of the Segregation-Enhanced Brazil Nut Effect

Authors: Panupat Chaiworn, Soraya lama

Abstract:

We study the motion of particles in cylinders which are subjected to a sinusoidal vertical vibration. We measure the rising time of a large intruder from the bottom of the container to free surface of the bed particles and find that the rising time as a function of intruder density increases to a maximum and then decreases monotonically. The result is qualitatively accord to the previous findings in experiments using relative humidity of the bed particles and found speed convection of the bed particles containers it moving slowly, and the rising time of the intruder where a minimal instead of maximal rising time in the small density region was found. Our experimental results suggest that the topology of the container plays an important role in the Brazil nut effect.

Keywords: granular particles, Brazil nut effect, cylinder container, vertical vibration, convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
498 Prospection of Technology Production in Physiotherapy in Brazil

Authors: C. M. Priesnitz, G. Zanandrea, J. P. Fabris, S. L. Russo, M. E. Camargo

Abstract:

This study aimed to the prospection the physiotherapy area technological production registered with the National Intellectual Property Institute (INPI) in Brazil, for understand the evolution of the technological production in the country over time and visualize the distribution this production request in Brazil. There was an evolution in the technology landscape, where the average annual deposits had an increase of 102%, from 3.14 before the year 2004 to 6,33 after this date. It was found differences in the distribution of the number the deposits requested to each Brazilian region, being that of the 132 request, 68,9% were from the southeast region. The international patent classification evaluated the request deposits, and the more found numbers were A61H and A63B. So even with an improved panorama of technology production, this should still have incentives since it is an important tool for the development of the country.

Keywords: distribution, evolution, patent, physiotherapy, technological prospecting

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
497 A Macroeconomic Analysis of Defense Industry: Comparisons, Trends and Improvements in Brazil and in the World

Authors: J. Fajardo, J. Guerra, E. Gonzales

Abstract:

This paper will outline a study of Brazil's industrial base of defense (IDB), through a bibliographic research method, combined with an analysis of macroeconomic data from several available public data platforms. This paper begins with a brief study about Brazilian national industry, including analyzes of productivity, income, outcome and jobs. Next, the research presents a study on the defense industry in Brazil, presenting the main national companies that operate in the aeronautical, army and naval branches. After knowing the main points of the Brazilian defense industry, data on the productivity of the defense industry of the main countries and competing companies of the Brazilian industry were analyzed, in order to summarize big cases in Brazil with a comparative analysis. Concerned the methodology, were used bibliographic research and the exploration of historical data series, in order to analyze information, to get trends and to make comparisons along the time. The research is finished with the main trends for the development of the Brazilian defense industry, comparing the current situation with the point of view of several countries.

Keywords: economics of defence, industry, trends, market

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
496 Analyzing the Potential of Job Creation by Taking the First Step Towards Circular Economy: Case Study of Brazil

Authors: R. Conde

Abstract:

The Brazilian economic projections and social indicators show a future of crisis for the country. Solutions to avoid this crisis scenario are necessary. Several developed countries implement initiatives linked to sustainability, mainly related to the circular economy, to solve their crises quickly - green recovery. This article aims to assess social gains if Brazil followed the same recovery strategy. Furthermore, with the use of data presented and recognized in the international academic society, the number of jobs that can be created, if Brazil took the first steps towards a more circular economy, was found. Moreover, in addition to the gross value in the number of jobs created, this article also detailed the number of these jobs by type of activity (collection, processing, and manufacturing) and by type of material.

Keywords: circular economy, green recovery, job creation, social gains

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
495 Host Status of Pitaya Genotypes Fruit to Meloidogyne enterolobii and M. incognita

Authors: Freitas Vania Moreira, Rodrigues B. B., Araujo M.B., Silva D. R., Sousa A. C., Araujo K. P., Pimentel R. R., Cares J. E., Junqueira N. T. V.

Abstract:

The Pitahayas are cactus native from America and abundant in arid regions. The cultivation is based mainly on the following species: Hylocereus undatus, H. polyrhizus, H. setaceus and H. megalanthus, being H. undatus the most cultivated in Brazil. The pitahaya cultivation is recent in Brazil and is concentrated in São Paulo. Meloidogyne enterolobii is of unknown origin being distributed in several countries. This nematode has recently been detected in Brazil causing damage in several crops. Similarly, M. incognita is a widely distributed pathogen in Brazil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the following accesses of pitahaya to M. enterolobii: CPAC- Py H. hundatus 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07 and 08; CPAC - Py H. costaricense 8A; CPAC - Py Selenicereus setaceus 17 and CPAC - Py S. megalantus 22. And the following accesses to M. incognita: CPAC- Py H. hundatus 05; CPAC - Py H. costaricense 8A; CPAC - Py S. setaceus 17 and CPAC - Py S. megalantus 22. According to the results, CPAC – Py H. hundatus 01, 02, 03, 04 and 07 were considered resistant. While CPAC - Py 05 and 08 was susceptible. CPAC-Py 06 also was considered susceptible, because there was the reaction of susceptibility in one of the trials. Given this wide diversity in H. hundatus and being this species the most cultivated in Brazil it is suggested to work more with this material in Embrapa Cerrados. CPAC - Py H. costaricense 8A behaved as susceptible in one of the trials. CPAC - Py S. setaceus 17 and CPAC – Py S. megalantus 22 were considered highly susceptible. The susceptibility of S. megalantus is widely described in the literature. In relation to M. incognita, there were differences between the results in both experiments, but all behaved as susceptible in at least one of the tests.

Keywords: pitaya, meloidogyne, fruit, resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
494 Internationalization and Multilingualism in Brazil: Possibilities of Content and Language Integrated Learning and Intercomprehension Approaches

Authors: Kyria Rebeca Finardi

Abstract:

The study discusses the role of foreign languages in general and of English in particular in the process of internationalization of higher education (IHE), defined as the intentional integration of an international, intercultural or global dimension in the purpose, function or offer of higher education. The study is bibliographical and offers a brief outline of the current political, economic and educational scenarios in Brazil, before discussing some possibilities and challenges for the development of multilingualism and IHE there. The theoretical background includes a review of Brazilian language and internationalization policies. The review and discussion concludes that the use of the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach and the Intercomprehension approach to foreign language teaching/learning are relevant alternatives to foster multilingualism in that context.

Keywords: Brazil, higher education, internationalization, multilingualism

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
493 Public Governance in Brazil: The Perception of Professionals and Counselors of the Courts of Auditors on Transparency, Responsiveness and Accountability of Public Policies

Authors: Paulino Varela Tavares, Ana Lucia Romao

Abstract:

Public governance represents an articulated arrangement, dynamic and interactive, present in the exercise of authority aimed at strengthening the decision-making procedure in public administration with transparency, accountability, responsiveness and capable of to emerge control and social empowerment, to pursue and achieve the objectives efficiently and with the effectiveness desired for the collectivity, respecting the laws and provide social, institutional and economic equity in society. In this context, using a multidimensional approach with the application of a questionnaire with four questions directed to twenty Counselors of the Courts of Auditors of the States (Brazil) and twenty professionals (liberals, teachers, and specialists) of the public administration in Brazil, preliminary results indicate that 70% believe that the level of transparency in public policies is low; 40% say that the government makes accountability because it is required by law, but, other instruments must be developed to force the government to account for all accounts with society; 75% say that government responsiveness is very limited because of the lack of long term planning, which is greatly affected by party political issues in Brazil. Therefore, the results, as yet, point out that Brazilian society has a huge challenge regarding the transparency, accountability, and responsiveness of governments in relation to their public policies.

Keywords: accountability, public governance, responsiveness, transparency

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
492 The Industrial Property in the Context of Wine Production in Brazil

Authors: Fátima R. Zan, Daniela C. Guimarães, Rosângela O. Soares, Suzana L. Russo

Abstract:

The wine until it reaches the consumer has a long way to go, from planting the wine to the bottling and the placing on the market, bringing many years of experimentation, and through several generations to have recognition for quality and excellence. The winemaking grew dramatically and are today many brands, including the associated locations, demonstrating their origin and cultural order that is associated with their production. The production, circulation and marketing of wines and products of grape and wine in Brazil is regulated by Law 7.678/88, amended by Law 10970/04, and adjusting the legislation to Regulation Wine Mercosur. This study was based on a retrospective study, and aimed to identify and characterize the modalities of industrial property used in wine production in Brazil. The wineries were selected from the 2014 ranking list, drawn up by the World Association of Journalists and Writers of Wines and Spirits (WAWWJ). The results show that the registration with INPI, regarding Patents, Trademarks, Industrial Designs and Geographical Indications, is not used by the wineries analyzed.

Keywords: counterfeiting, industrial property, protection, wine production

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
491 Public Participation in Science: The Case of Genetic Modified Organisms in Brazil

Authors: Maria Luisa Nozawa Ribeiro, Maria Teresa Miceli Kerbauy

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the theories of public participation in order to understand the context of the public GMO (Genetic Modified Organisms) policies in Brazil, highlighting the characteristics of its configuration and the dialog with the experts. As a controversy subject, the commercialization of GMO provoked manifestation of some popular and environmental representative groups questioning the decisions of policy makers and experts on the matter. Many aspects and consequences of the plantation and consumption of this crops emerged and the safety of this technology was questioned. Environmentalists, Civil Right's movement, representatives of rural workers, farmers and organics producers, etc. demonstrated their point of view, also sustained by some experts of medical, genetical, environmental, agronomical sciences, etc. fields. Despite this movement, the precautionary principle (risk management), implemented in 1987, suggested precaution facing new technologies and innovations in the sustainable development society. This principle influenced many legislation and regulation on GMO around the world, including Brazil, which became a reference among the world regulatory GMO systems. The Brazilian legislation ensures the citizens participation on GMO discussion, characteristic that was important to establish the connection between the subject and the participation theory. These deliberation spaces materialized in Brazil through the "Public Audiences", which are managed by the National Biosafety Technical Commission (CTNBio), the department responsible for controlling the research, production and commercialization of GMOs in Brazil.

Keywords: public engagement, public participation, science and technology studies, transgenic politics

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
490 Governance and Public Policy: The Perception of Civil Society Participation in Brazil and South Africa

Authors: Paulino V. Tavares, Ana L. Romao

Abstract:

Public governance, in general, is essential to qualify and educate, pedagogically, the decision-making process of the government in relation to the management of resources and the provision of public services, with transparency and active participation of individuals and citizens for the development of a more democratic environment, besides stimulating control and social empowerment, aiming at the development of the collectivity. In this context, the participation of society in the elaboration, execution, and control of public policies is prominent to strengthen public governance itself. With this, using a multidimensional approach with the application of two questionnaires to a universe of twenty Counselors of the Courts of Auditors (Brazil), twenty professionals of public administration (Brazil), twenty Government/Provincial Counselors (South Africa), and twenty South African professionals of public administration, the preliminary results indicate that the participation of civil society, for both countries, is very low in the elaboration, execution, and control of public policies. At the same time, about 70% of the answers obtained indicate, on average, three possible paths to increase the participation of civil society. With this, it is delineated that developing new horizons to strengthen both public policies how social participation is necessary, but, for both, it is important that governments and civil society, in their respective countries, have an awareness of the effective importance of this interaction.

Keywords: Brazil, civil society, participation, South Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
489 Diagnosis on Environmental Impacts of Tourism at Caju Beach in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska, C. Dutra, Jr., Keity L. F. Oliveira, Patrícia A. Santos, Alana C. M. Santana

Abstract:

Environmental impacts are the changes in the physical, chemical or biological properties of natural areas that are most often caused by human actions on the environment and which have consequences for human health, society and the elements of nature. The identification of the environmental impacts is important so that they are mitigated, and above all that the mitigating measures are applied in the area. This work aims to identify the environmental impacts generated in the Praia do Caju area in the city of Palmas/Brazil and show that the lack of structure on the beach intensifies the environmental impacts. The present work was carried out having as parameter, the typologies of exploratory and descriptive and quantitative research through a matrix of environmental impacts through direct observation and registration. The study took place during the holidays from August to December 2016 and photographic record of impacts. From the collected data it was possible to verify that Caju beach suffers constant degradation due to irregular deposition.

Keywords: leisure, tourism, environmental impacts, Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
488 Trace Elements in Yerba Mate from Brazil and Argentina by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

Authors: F. V. Matta, C. M. Donnelly, M. B. Jaafar, N. I. Ward

Abstract:

‘Yerba Mate’ (Ilex paraguariensis) is a native plant from South America with the main producers being Argentina and Brazil. ‘Mate’ is widely consumed in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. The most popular format is as an infusion made from dried leaves of a traditional cup, roasted material in tea bags or iced tea infusions. There are many alleged health benefits resulted from mate consumption, even though there is a lack of conclusive research published in the international literature. The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the sample preparation and instrumental analysis stages involved in the determination of trace elements in yerba mate using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Specific details on the methods of sample digestion, validation of the ICP-MS analysis especially for polyatomic ion correction and matrix effects associated with the complex medium of mate will be presented. More importantly, mate produced in Brazil and Argentina, is subject to different soil conditions, methods of cultivation and production, especially for loose leaves and tea bags. The highest concentrations for loose mate leaf were for (mg/kg, dry weight): aluminium (253.6 – 506.9 for Brazil (Bra), 230.0 – 541.8 for Argentina (Arg), respectively), manganese (378.3 – 762.6 Bra; 440.8 – 879.9 Arg), iron (32.5 – 85.7 Bra; 28.2 – 132.9 Arg), zinc (28.2 – 91.1 Bra; 39.1 – 92.3 Arg), nickel (2.2 – 4.3 Bra; 2.9 – 10.8 Arg) and copper (4.8 – 9.1 Bra; 4.3 – 9.2 Arg), with lower levels of chromium, cobalt, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, lead and arsenic. Elemental levels of mate leaf consumed in tea bags were found to be higher, mainly due to only using leaf material (as opposed to leaf and twig for loose packed product). Further implications of the way of consuming yerba mate will be presented, including different infusion methods in Brazil and Argentina. This research provides for the first time an extensive evaluation of mate products from both countries and the possible implications of specific trace elements, especially Mn, Fe, Se, Cu and Zn and the various health claims of consuming yerba mate.

Keywords: beverage analysis, ICP-MS, trace elements, yerba mate

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
487 Economic Growth Relations to Domestic and International Air Passenger Transport in Brazil

Authors: Manoela Cabo da Silva, Elton Fernandes, Ricardo Pacheco, Heloisa Pires

Abstract:

This study examined cointegration and causal relationships between economic growth and regular domestic and international passenger air transport in Brazil. Total passengers embarked and disembarked were used as a proxy for air transport activity and gross domestic product (GDP) as a proxy for economic development. The test spanned the period from 2000 to 2015 for domestic passenger traffic and from 1995 to 2015 for international traffic. The results confirm the hypothesis that there is cointegration between passenger traffic series and economic development, showing a bi-directional Granger causal relationship between domestic traffic and economic development and unidirectional influence by economic growth on international passenger air transport demand. Variance decomposition of the series showed that domestic air transport was far more important than international transport to promoting economic development in Brazil.

Keywords: air passenger transport, cointegration, economic growth, GDP, Granger causality

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
486 Gender Equality in Brazil: Advances and Retreats in Times of Social Networks

Authors: Lara Góes Da Costa

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the social dimension of the empowerment of women in Brazil, following the principles of human development of the UN WOMEN, in particular the sixth principle, which establishes the promotion of gender equality through social policy initiatives and activism in general aimed at community. In Brazil, women's empowerment has taken social networks through the creation of avatars and pages of dissemination and promotion of gender equality, as well as denunciations and educational posts such as 'Observe Gender', 'Empower Two Women', 'Black Intellectual Women', among others. At the same time, women's social inclusion bills in various sectors are trailing in the legislative apparatus, with little or no relation to the current discussion of gender diversity and intersectionality. In this sense, this article establishes an analytical parallel between the media manifestations of social networks and the social distance of the representatives of the legislative power. This parallelly shows the political failing to meet the social demands of inclusion, as to multiply the creation of laws and the effectiveness of the principle of promoting gender equality.

Keywords: gender, rights, justice, social networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 253