Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 801

Search results for: intellectual disabilities

801 The Place of Inclusive Education in the Transformative Education of Children with Intellectual Disabilities in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Adewale Olabisi

Abstract:

The society has bastion of people with diverse kinds of special needs which invariably affect the kind of education that is provided to this category of children. Most schools for pupils with intellectual disabilities seem not to be achieving the objectives it was set out to achieve. Hence, there is the need to provide transformative education for these children with intellectual disabilities which can only be achieved in an inclusive educational setting. However, achieving this has been a great challenge in Nigeria. This paper, however, dealt with the urgent need for transformative teaching for persons with intellectual disabilities in readiness for them to be accepted in the society and also enhance their self-concept and perception which in turn will make a way for their self-sustenance. Suggestions and recommendations that will better enhance the full implementation of transformative teaching for pupils with intellectual disabilities in an inclusive environment were also made.

Keywords: inclusive education, transformative education, intellectual disabilities, Oyo state, Nigeria

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800 Physical Aggression and Language Skills among Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Maryam Razmjoee

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Physical aggression is one of the most common behavioural problems among children with intellectual disabilities. Behaviours such as hitting, kicking, and threatening with the intent to harm others are examples of physical aggression. Identified language delays are related to physically aggressive behaviours, as children with poor language skills are often frustrated by socially interactions with their peers, leaving them at risk engaging in acts of physical aggression. As a result of this concern, physical aggression and language skills of children with mild intellectual disabilities was investigated. In the current study, 102 students, from years 1-3, with mild intellectual disabilities (51 girls and 51 boys) have been recruited from five educational centres which cater for children with mild intellectual disabilities in the city of Shiraz (a major city in Iran). The Test of Language Development-Primary: 3rd Edition (TOLD-3) and Overt and Relational Aggression Questionnaire were used to assess these children. Results showed that physical aggression had a significant negative association with expressive (p = 0.008), and receptive (p = 0.019) language skills. In addition, boys demonstrated more physically aggressive behaviours than girls (p = 0.014). No difference was found in expressive and receptive language skills between girls and boys with mild intellectual disabilities. The overall findings suggest that improving the language skills of children with intellectual disabilities experiencing language delays will help them to avoid exhibiting antisocial behaviours in social interactions.

Keywords: behaviour, language skills, mild intellectual disabilities, physical aggression, primary school students

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
799 Access to Justice for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in Indonesia: Case and Problem in Indonesian Criminal Justice System

Authors: Fines Fatimah, SH. MH.

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Indonesia is one of the countries that has ratified the UNCRPD (United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). The ratification of this convention brings consequences on the adjustment of national legislation with the UNCRPD convention, where this ratification at the same time is a measure in the eyes of the international community that a state party could be consistent with the issues and problems of disability. Persons with disabilities often have little access to justice when they are forced to deal with the criminal justice system. Pursuit of justice through litigation are often not in their favor, therefore without any awareness of law enforcement/awareness of disability will further complicate access to justice for persons with disabilities. Under Article 13 of the UNCRPD, it appeared that the convention requires ratifying states to guarantee equal opportunity and treatment in justice for persons with disabilities. The States should also ensure that any judicial rules must be adapted to the circumstances of persons with disabilities so that people with disabilities can fully participate in all stages of the trial court and, for example, as a witness. Finally, the state must provide training to understand these persons with disabilities (for those who work in the judiciary institution such as police or prison officials). Further, this paper aims to describe problem faced by persons with intellectual disabilities to access justice in Indonesian Criminal Justice System. This paper tries to find and propose the alternative solutions to promote the quality of law enforcement in Indonesia, especially for persons with intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: access to justice, Indonesian criminal justice system, intellectual disability, ratifying states

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798 The Impact of Exercise on Osteoporosis and Body Composition in Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Hisham Mughrabi

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Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases in the world and, its seriousness lies in the lack of clear symptoms. The researcher aims to identify the impact of sports activities on osteoporosis and the body component of those with mild intellectual disabilities of students in the schools in Saudi Arabia -Medina. The research sample was selected in an intentional manner and consisted of 45 students and they were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 23 individuals participate in sports and the second group consisted of 22 individuals does not participate in sports. The researcher used the descriptive method and collected the data by measuring osteoporosis using and ultrasound osteoporosis screening device (OSTEO PRO B.M. Tech) and measured the body composition by using a Tanita devise (Body Composition Analyzer TBF- 300 Tanita). The results indicated that there was a statistical significant difference between the two comparing groups in osteoporosis measurement and body composition for the benefit of the group of sport participants. The researcher recommended the need to involve individuals with mild intellectual disabilities in physical activities to improve their rate of osteoporosis and body composition as well as to develop sports programs for individuals with mild intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: body composition, mild intellectual disabilities, osteoporosis, physical activities

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797 Social Workers' Perspectives on Muslim Parents with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Ayelet Gur

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Background: Parents with intellectual disability are of great interest to social service professionals. Article 23 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities aims to ensure that persons with disabilities can create a family by providing adequate supports. The aim of the current investigation was to portray families with parents with intellectual disabilities within Muslim- Arab society in Israel. Method: Qualitative method using semi-structured interviews with nine-teen Muslim Israeli social workers was employed. Thematic analysis was used to identify major themes. Results: Families with parents with intellectual disability are not a rare phenomenon in the Arab society. The common type is of marriage between a man with intellectual disability and a woman without disability. Findings indicated two main motives for the arranged marriage of a man with intellectual disability: the extended family's concerns about his future and their desire for the family continuity. The non-disabled wives' motives for marrying men with intellectual disabilities revolved around their lack of other opportunities to create a family and their desire to leave their parents' household and live independently. Those women were described as partly or fully aware of their husbands' disability prior to the marriage. The family life of those families were described in relation to the fathers' involvement in family life and relation to the wives' high burden and in many cases, acceptance of their life situation. Conclusions: Findings are discussed with respect to religious values on disability, arranged marriage and the status of Muslim women. Services and supports for parents with intellectual disabilities should be developed with respect to the cultural values and norms.

Keywords: Arab society in Israel, intellectual and developmental disability, parents with intellectual disability, social work

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796 Barriers That Special Education Teachers Faced When Working with Students with Intellectual Disabilities in an Inclusion Schools

Authors: Faris Algahtani

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Every child has a right to education. This is one of the laws in the constitution and it empowers every child to access knowledge but it does not, however, allocate special interest to the rights of education for children with disabilities. It also does not address the challenges that teachers of such children face while trying to educate them. This study was conducted at government schools of Saudi Arabia. As the teaching profession is the most valuable profession and deserves to have its challenges tackled. This paper explores the challenges that teachers face as they try to teach students who have intellectual disabilities (ID). It looks at the daily challenges of a teacher who has to teach both children with disabilities and those without. The literature review shed light on the various aspects of mainstream education from the classroom to the outside environment to the teachers involved in mainstream education. The study employed qualitative methods in which Focus Group Discussions were utilized and Twenty (N=20) special education teachers were randomly sampled from primary schools through 6 groups of teachers from 6 different schools were interviewed through semi-structured interviews with the aim of drawing collective perceptions rather than personal perceptions about the challenges. The study found that most teachers had similar perceptions about the challenges that teachers face as they educate students with intellectual disabilities. The study recommends that The Ministry of Education should consider increasing the availability of special needs courses, workshops and conference for special education teachers.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, inclusion, mainstream schools, disabilities, special education teachers

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795 Factors of Successful Transition of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities from School to Employment

Authors: Mubarak S. Aldosari

Abstract:

Transition of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) from secondary level to post-school employment level is a critical step for them and their families. Transition of adolescents with mild ID to post secondary levels faces serious difficulties and challenges. The current research highlighted the important factors related to the success of transition of students with mild ID to post-school employment such as vocational training, Self-determination skills, Social skills, and family involvement.

Keywords: adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities, post-school employment, vocational training, self-determination skills, social skills, family involvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
794 Israeli Households Caring for Children and Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: An Explorative Study

Authors: Ayelet Gur

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Background: In recent years we are witnessing a welcome trend in which more children/persons with disabilities are living at home with their families and within their communities. This trend is related to various policy innovations as the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities that reflect a shift from the medical-institutional model to a human rights approach. We also witness the emergence of family centered approaches that perceive the family and not just the individual with the disability as a worthy target of policy planning, implementation and evaluation efforts. The current investigation aims to explore economic, psychological and social factors among households of families of children or adults with intellectual disabilities in Israel and to present policy recommendation. Methods: A national sample of 301 households was recruited through the education and employment settings of persons with intellectual disability. The main caregiver of the person with the disability (a parent) was interviewed. Measurements included the income and expense surveys; assets and debts questionnaire; the questionnaire on resources and stress; the social involvement questionnaire and Personal Wellbeing Index. Results: Findings indicate significant gaps in financial circumstances between households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and households of the general Israeli society. Households of families of children with intellectual disabilities report lower income and higher expenditures and loans than the general society. They experience difficulties in saving and coping with unexpected expenses. Caregivers (the parents) experience high stress, low social participation, low financial support from family, friend and non-governmental organizations and decreased well-being. They are highly dependent on social security allowances which constituted 40% of the household's income. Conclusions: Households' dependency on social security allowances may seem contradictory to the encouragement of persons with intellectual disabilities to favor independent living in light of the human rights approach to disability. New policy should aim at reducing caregivers' stress and enhance their social participation and support, with special emphasis on families of lower socio-economic status. Finally, there is a need to continue monitoring the economic and psycho-social needs of households of families of children with intellectual disabilities and other developmental disabilities.

Keywords: disability policy, family policy, intellectual and developmental disabilities, Israel, households study, parents of children with disabilities

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793 Barriers of Successful Employment of Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Mubarak Aldosari

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The focus of this qualitative study was to explore the main barriers of successful employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: The semi-structured interviews were used to explore perception of a sample of eight managers/supervisors of employees who had ID regarding the main barriers that face successful employment of individuals with ID. Results: Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed four major themes that impede successful employment of individuals with ID: experiences of work, (b) social skills, (c) attitudes to individuals with ID, and (d) transportation. Conclusion: The current study was designed to provide important information to policymakers, officials, educators and parents regarding the challenges and barriers that face the successful employment of individuals with ID. The study show the importance of the support as well as effective and planned preparation for individuals with ID during schools to be qualified and have skills that they to be successful in the employment. Additionally, the results of this study will encourage further study of transition to post schools for individuals with ID in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: barriers, employment, individuals with mild intellectual disabilities, social skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
792 Influence of Animal Assisted Activity with Cat on Emotions of People with Intellectual Disabilities: Preliminary Study

Authors: Angelika Magiera, Weronika Penar, Czesław Klocek

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Intellectual disability (ID) affects approximately 1.55% of children and adults in the society of developed countries. Depending on the ID degree, the patient is burdened with additional disease entities. Intellectual disability does not only limits a person’s opportunities to participate in social life but also affects whole families. People with ID belong to the group of risk of mental illnesses, they are less emotionally stable, while families are predisposed to depression. The study was held in a day care center for people with intellectual disabilities (of various degrees of disability) on 26 people. Nurses and carers also took part. The age range of study groups ranged from 22 to 67 years. Therapeutic classes were held for four independent mixed groups (sex and intellectual disability degree) from 6 to 7 people each, lasting no more than 30 minutes. They were created by the facility's staff to make sure that a group is stable. The animal assisted activity took place with a 2.5-year-old Ragdoll cat. The animal has passed the exam (certificate entitling her to take part in felinotherapy) and had 1.5 years of work experience. Due to the different degrees of ID, an individual emotional state survey was conducted among the caregivers of those who were involved in the activity, to assess the impact of animal assisted activity with a cat on patients. A positive effect on the emotional state of people with different types of intellectual disability was observed. Caregivers and nurses of those participating in the study express willingness to continue these types of classes and consider them necessary for this group of people.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, animal-assisted activity, cat, feline, emotions

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791 The Impact of Universal Design for Learning Implementation on Teaching Practices for Students with Intellectual Disabilities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adnan Alhazmi

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Background: UDL can be understood as a framework that holds the potential to elaborate the alternatives and platforms for the students with intellectual disabilities within general education settings and aims at offering flexible pathways that can support all the students in gaining a mastering over the goals of learning. This system of learning addresses the problem of the variability of the learner by delineating the diverse ways in which the individuals can understand, conceive, express and deal with the information. Goal: The aim of the proposed research is to examine the impact of the implementation of UDL in teaching practices for the students with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabian schools. Method: This research has used a combination of quantitative and qualitative designs. Survey questionnaires were used to gather the data for under this analytical descriptive method. The application of the qualitative interpretive approach was applied with the help of the interview to gather a detailed understanding on the aim of the research. For this purpose, the semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thus, the primary data will be gathered with the help of survey and interview to examine the impact of universal design learning implementation on teaching practices for intellectually disabled students in Saudi Arabian schools. The survey was conducted to examine the prevailing teaching practices for the students with intellectual disabilities in Saudi Arabia and evaluate if the teaching experience influences the current practices or not. The surveys were distributed to 50 teachers who teach the students with intellectual disabilities. However, the interviews were conducted to explore barriers of implementing UDL in Saudi Arabia and provide suggested guideline for the implementation of UDL in Saudi Arabia. The interviews, therefore, were with 10 teachers teaching the same subject. Findings: A key findings highlighted in this study revealed that the UDL framework serves as a crucial guide for teachers within inclusive settings to undertake meaningful planning for the individuals with intellectual disabilities so that they are able to access, participate, and grow within the general education curriculum. Other findings of the study highlighted the need to prepare the educators and all faculty members to understand the purpose and need for inclusion, the UDL framework so that better information about academic and social expectations for individuals with intellectual disabilities can be delivered. Conclusion: On the basis of the preliminary study undertaken on the subject of research, it could be suggested that UDL can serve to be an effective support for undertaking a meaningful inclusion of students with intellectual disability (ID) in general educational settings. It holds the potential role of working as an institutional design framework that could be used for designing curriculum for students with intellectual disabilities.

Keywords: intellectual disability, inclusion, universal design for learning, teaching practice

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790 Challenges of Skill Training among Women with Intellectual Disability: Stakeholders' Perspective

Authors: Jayanti Pujari

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The present study attempts to find out the barriers faced by adult women with an Intellectual disability during their training at vocational training centres offered by rehabilitation institutes. As economic independence is the ultimate aim of rehabilitation, this study tries to focus on the barriers which restrict the adult women with intellectual disability in equipping themselves in required skill which can really empower them and help them in independent living. The objectives of the study are (1) To find out the barriers perceived by job coaches during training given to women with intellectual disability (2) To find out the barriers perceived by the parents of women with intellectual disability who are undergoing vocational training and (3) To find out the barriers perceived by the women with intellectual disabilities during the vocational training. The barriers have been operationalised in the present study from three perspectives such as behavioural barriers, competency related barriers and accessibility barriers. For the present study three groups of participants(N=60) have been selected through purposive nonprobability sampling procedure to generate the data. They are( 20) job coaches who are working at vocational centres, (20) parents of women with intellectual disabilities, (20) adult women with intellectual disabilities. The study followed a descriptive research design and data are generated through self developed questionnaire. Three sets of self-developed and face validated questionnaires were used as the tool to gather the data from the three categories of sample. The questionnaire has 30 close ended questions and the respondents have to answer on a three point scale (yes, no, need help). Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. The major findings of the study depict that the 87% of the women with intellectual disability perceived highest barriers related to competency whereas barriers related to behaviour and accessibility are perceived lowest. 92% of job coaches perceived barriers related to competencies and accessibility are highest which hinder the effectiveness of skill development of women with intellectual disability and 74% of the parents of adult women with intellectual disability also opines that the barriers related to competencies and accessibility are highest. In conclusion, it is stressed that there is need to create awareness among the stakeholders about the training and management strategies of skill training and positive behaviour support which will surely enable the adult women with intellectual disability to utilise their residual skill and acquire training to become economically independent.

Keywords: economic independence, intellectual disability, skill development, training barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
789 Examining Bulling Rates among Youth with Intellectual Disabilities

Authors: Kaycee L. Bills

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Adolescents and youth who are members of a minority group are more likely to experience higher rates of bullying in comparison to other student demographics. Specifically, adolescents with intellectual disabilities are a minority population that is more susceptible to experience unfair treatment in social settings. This study employs the 2015 Wave of the National Crime Victimization Survey – School Crime Supplement (NCVS/SCS) longitudinal dataset to explore bullying rates experienced among adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This study uses chi-square testing and a logistic regression to analyze if having a disability influences the likelihood of being bullied in comparison to other student demographics. Results of the chi-square testing and the logistic regression indicate that adolescent students who were identified as having a disability were approximately four times more likely to experience higher bullying rates in comparison to all other majority and minority student populations. Thus, it means having a disability resulted in higher bullying rates in comparison to all student groups.

Keywords: disability, bullying, social work, school bullying

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788 Benefits of Occupational Therapy for Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Aspects of Vocational Activities and Instrumental Activities of Daily Life

Authors: Shakhawath Hossain, Tazkia Tahsin

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Introduction/Background: Intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. Vocational education is a multi-professional approach that is provided to individuals of working age with health-related impairments, limitations, or restrictions with work functioning and whose primary aim is to optimize work participation. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living activities to support daily life within the home and community. Like as community mobility, financial management, meal preparation, and clean-up, shopping. Material and Method: Electronic searches of Medline, PubMed, Google scholar, OT Seeker literature using the key terms of intellectual disability, vocational rehabilitation, instrumental activities of daily living and Occupational Therapy, as well as a thorough manual search for relevant literature. Results: There were 13 articles, all qualitative and quantitative, which are included in this review. All studies were mixed methods in design. To take the Occupational Therapy services, there is a significant improvement in their children's various areas like as sensory issues, cognitive abilities, perceptual skills, visual, motor planning, and group therapy. After taking the vocational and instrumental activities of daily living training children with intellectual disabilities to participate in their daily activities and work as an employee different company or organizations. Conclusion: The persons with intellectual disability are an integral part of our society who deserves social support and opportunities like other human beings. From the result section of the project papers, it is found that the significant benefits of Occupational Therapy services in the aspects of vocational and instrumental activities of daily living.

Keywords: occupational therapy, daily living activities, intellectual disabilities, instrumental ADL

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787 The Difficulties Witnessed by People with Intellectual Disability in Transition to Work in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Adel S. Alanazi

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The transition of a student with a disability from school to work is the most crucial phase while moving from the stage of adolescence into early adulthood. In this process, young individuals face various difficulties and challenges in order to accomplish the next venture of life successfully. In this respect, this paper aims to examine the challenges encountered by the individuals with intellectual disabilities in transition to work in Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, this study has undertaken a qualitative research-based methodology; wherein interpretivist philosophy has been followed along with inductive approach and exploratory research design. The data for the research has been gathered with the help of semi-structured interviews, whose findings are analysed with the help of thematic analysis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities, officials, supervisors and specialists of two vocational rehabilitation centres providing training to intellectually disabled students, in addition to that, directors of companies and websites in hiring those individuals. The total number of respondents for the interview was 15. The purposive sampling method was used to select the respondents for the interview. This sampling method is a non-probability sampling method which draws respondents from a known population and allows flexibility and suitability in selecting the participants for the study. The findings gathered from the interview revealed that the lack of awareness among their parents regarding the rights of their children who are intellectually disabled; the lack of adequate communication and coordination between various entities; concerns regarding their training and subsequent employment are the key difficulties experienced by the individuals with intellectual disabilities. Training in programmes such as bookbinding, carpentry, computing, agriculture, electricity and telephone exchange operations were involved as key training programmes. The findings of this study also revealed that information technology and media were playing a significant role in smoothing the transition to employment of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Furthermore, religious and cultural attitudes have been identified to be restricted for people with such disabilities in seeking advantages from job opportunities. On the basis of these findings, it can be implied that the information gathered through this study will serve to be highly beneficial for Saudi Arabian schools/ rehabilitation centres for individuals with intellectual disability to facilitate them in overcoming the problems they encounter during the transition to work.

Keywords: intellectual disability, transition services, rehabilitation centre, employment

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786 Learning Difficulties of Children with Disabilities

Authors: Chalise Kiran

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The learning difficulties of children with disabilities are always a matter of concern when we talk about educational needs and quality education of children with disabilities. This paper is the outcome of the review of the literatures based on the literatures on the educational needs and learning difficulties of children with disabilities. For the paper, different studies written on children with disabilities and their education were collected through search engines. The literature put together was analyzed from the angle of learning difficulties faced by children with disabilities and the same were used as a precursor to arrive at the findings on the learning of the children. The analysis showed that children with disabilities face learning difficulties. The reasons for these difficulties could be attributed to factors in terms of authority, structure, school environment, and behaviors of teachers and parents, and the society as a whole.

Keywords: children with disabilities, learning difficulties, education, disabled children

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785 Political and Economic Transition of People with Disabilities Related to Globalization

Authors: Jihye Jeon

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This paper analyzes the political and economic issues that people with disabilities face related to globalization; how people with disabilities have been adapting globalization and surviving under worldwide competition system. It explains that economic globalization exacerbates inequality and deprivation of people with disabilities. The rising tide of neo-liberal welfare policies emphasized efficiency, downsized social expenditure for people with disabilities, excluded people with disabilities against labor market, and shifted them from welfare system to nothing. However, there have been people with disabilities' political responses to globalization, which are characterized by a global network of people with disabilities as well as participation to global governance. Their resistance can be seen as an attempt to tackle the problems that economic globalization has produced. It is necessary paradigm shift of disability policy from dependency represented by disability benefits to independency represented by labor market policies for people with disabilities.

Keywords: economic globalization, people with disability, deprivation, welfare cut, disability right movement, resistance

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784 Intertwined Lives: Narratives of Children with Disabilities and Their Siblings

Authors: Shyamani Hettiarachchi

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The experiences of children with disabilities and their siblings are seldom documented in Sri Lanka. The aim of this study was to uncover the narratives of young children with disabilities and their siblings in Sri Lanka. Fifteen children with disabilities and fifteen siblings were included in this study. Opportunities were offered to the participants to engage in artwork and story making activities. Narratives on the artwork and stories were gathered and the data analyzed using the key principles of Framework Analysis to determine the key themes. The key themes to emerge were of love, protectiveness, insecurity and visibility. The results highlight the need to take account of the experiences of children with disabilities and their siblings to understand how they understand and cope with disability.

Keywords: art, children with disabilities, narratives, siblings, storymaking

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
783 Intellectual Capital Reporting: Case Study of Indonesian Corporations

Authors: Martin Surya Mulyadi, Rosinta Ria Panggabean

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The terms of intellectual capital emerge as the economic activity shift from the agricultural economy to knowledge economy and it will allow corporations to earn competitive advantage to its competitors. Considering its importance, many researches have a focus on how corporations disclose its intellectual capital. This intellectual capital research mainly focuses on developed country with only several researchers conducted this research in developing the country. While there are several intellectual capital researches in developing country, to authors’ best knowledge, there is no intellectual capital reporting research in Indonesia published internationally. This research will focus on two industries that acknowledge having a high reliance on intellectual capital: finance industry and the pharmaceutical industry. Our research found that Indonesian corporations in these industries are aware of the importance of intellectual capital, and variations of this disclosure exist within the industry.

Keywords: Developed country, Indonesia, Intellectual Capital, Intellectual Capital Reporting

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782 Hopes of out of School Children with Disabilities for Educational Inclusion

Authors: Afaf Manzoor, Abdul Hameed

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Hopes to attend school is the most effective means to overcome the burden of disability and become a self-reliant, productive citizen. The objectives of the study were to develop a valid and reliable scale to measure hopes of out of school children with disabilities and find an association between hopes and various demographic factors such as type of disability, gender, socio-economic status, and locale, etc. Child Hope theory by Snyder (2003) was used as a framework to develop a measure for the hopes of children. According to this theory, hope is defined as a set of cognition that includes self- perception which establish routes to achieve desired goals (pathways) and motivation for achieving the goals (agency). By applying this theory, inclusion hope scale was developed and validated. The data were collected from 361 out of school children with disabilities living in three districts (Lahore, Sheikupura, Kasur) of Lahore Division by using the cluster sampling technique. Findings of the study indicated that children with intellectual challenges were more hopeless as compared to other types of disabilities. Similarly, children living in urban areas have better hopes for inclusion in school. However, no gender disparity was found in terms of being hopeful to attend schools. The study also includes recommendations to improve hopes for educational inclusion among out of school children with disabilities.

Keywords: out of school children, disability, hopes, inclusion

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781 Measurement of Intellectual Capital in an Algerian Company

Authors: S. Brahmi, S. Aitouche, M. D. Mouss

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Every modern company should measure the value of its intellectual capital and to report to complement the traditional annual balance sheets. The purpose of this work is to measure the intellectual capital in an Algerian company (or production system) using the Weightless Wealth Tool Kit (WWTK). The results of the measurement of intellectual capital are supplemented by traditional financial ratios. The measurement was applied to the National Company of Wells Services (ENSP) in Hassi Messaoud city, in the south of Algeria. We calculated the intellectual capital (intangible resources) of the ENSP to help the organization to better capitalize on its potential of workers and their know-how. The intangible value of the ENSP is evaluated at 16,936,173,345 DA in 2015.

Keywords: financial valuation, intangible capital, intellectual capital, intellectual capital measurement

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780 Employment of Persons with Disabilities in Georgia: Challenges and Perspectives

Authors: Tamar Makharadze, Anastasia Kitiashvili, Irine Zhvania, Tamar Abashidze

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After ratification of UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD) by the Parliament of Georgia in 2013, ensuring equal access to education and employment for people with disabilities has become one of the priorities of the government. The current research has analyzed the attitudes of people with disabilities, employers and society towards various challenges that employment of persons with disabilities faces in Georgia. The study has been carried out in the capital city and three towns in West and East Georgia. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods have been used. Employers’ attitudes have been studied by analyzing research data from six focus groups and 12 in-depth interviews. Views of persons with disabilities have been analyzed relied on data from eight focus groups and 14 in-depth interviews. The quantitative study covered 490 surveyed respondents from four cities in Georgia. The research was carried out with the employees of companies selected based on the Simple Random Sample; in each company, based on the size of the company 7–10 employees were surveyed. A survey was conducted using a specially developed structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (21.0). The research was carried out during June-August 2015. The research data shows that both qualitative and quantitative research participants view employment of persons with disabilities positively; however persons with severe intellectual disabilities and mental problems are viewed as less workable and desired at workplaces. The respondents support the idea of employment of persons with disabilities at an open labour market; at the same time idea of a development of sheltered workshops is also supported. The vast majority of research participants believe that employers should be rather encouraged to hire persons with disabilities than force them to do so. For employers it is important to have the state assistance in adjusting working place to the needs of employee with disabilities. Some tax benefits for employers having employees with disabilities also are seen as encouraging employment of persons with disabilities. Both employers and persons with disabilities believe that development of job coaching will help persons with disabilities to find and maintain a job at the open market. Majority of survey respondents think that the main reasons discouraging employment of persons with disabilities in Georgia are: poor socioeconomic background and high level of unemployment in the country, absence of related state programs and existed stigma towards persons with disabilities within the society. To conclude it can be said that both employers and persons with disabilities expect initiative from the government – development of the programs and services focusing on employment of persons with disabilities that will be rather encouraging and supporting than punishing and forcing. Relied on survey data it can be said that people have positive attitudes to see persons with disabilities at workplaces, educational institutions and public places. This creates a good background for extensive and consistent work towards social inclusion of persons with disabilities in Georgia.

Keywords: supported employment, job coaching, employment of persons with disabilities in Georgia, social inclusion

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779 Perception of People with a Physical Disability towards Those with a Different Kind of Disability

Authors: Monika Skura

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People with physical disabilities, as with other people with differences in appearance or style of functioning come under negative social mechanisms. Therefore, it is worth asking what the relationship of the group is, who experience psychosocial effects because of their physical disability, towards people with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairments, visual impairments, mental illnesses, and their own physically disabled group. To analyse the perception of people with a physical disability, the study explores three areas: the acceptance or rejection of society’s stigmatization towards persons with disabilities; the importance of their own experience regarding their disability, in relation to another kind of disability; their level of acceptance to social interactions, in relation to various types of disabilities. The research sample consisted of 90 people with physical disabilities, who suffer from damage to the locomotor system. The data was collected using a questionnaire and the Adjective Check List by H. B. Gough and A. B. Heilbrun. This study utilized focus interviews to develop survey items for the questionnaire. The findings highlight that the response from those who were physically disabled agreed with the opinions of general society, not only with the issue of promoting integrated solutions and offering assistance but also having the same preferences and opinions about specific types of disability. However, their perception regarding their own group was noticeably different from that of general society. In the light of the study, for people with physical disabilities, just as for able-bodied people, it can be challenging to develop a meaningful relationship with people who have disabilities. All forms of disability suffer from negative attitudes and opinions that exist in society. The majority of those who were researched were focused primarily on their own problems, this inevitably hinders the integrity of the entire group, making it more difficult for it to find a cohesive voice, in which to promote their place within society.

Keywords: general society’s opinions about disability, people with different kinds of disability, perception, physical disability

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778 Equity and Accessibility for Inclusion: A Study of the Lived Experiences of Students with Disabilities in a Ghanaian University

Authors: Yaw Akoto

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The education of people with disabilities remains one of the major concern of policymakers, advocacy groups and researchers. In Ghana, as in many other countries, there is a policy commitment for the educational inclusion of people with disabilities, including in the context of higher education. This qualitative research investigates how students with disabilities experience equity and accessibility in a Ghanaian university. The study also investigates factors that influence equity and accessibility in a Ghanaian university. The study draws on the views of students with disabilities, on lecturer insight and organisational and national policy documents. The findings specifies that the quality of students with disabilities lived experiences are affected by the physical environment, infrastructure facilities and lack of academic and non-academic information. The study highlights the need for the university to ensure equity in making the university accessible for all students in order to ensure retention and participation of students with disabilities; failure to make the university accessible for students with disabilities compromises the ability of this group of students to realise their academic potentials.

Keywords: accessibility, educational inclusion, equity, students with disabilities

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777 Strengthening the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Shafallah Foundation as a Model

Authors: Osman Mohamed

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Over the past two decades, the global interest in the rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs) has increased that resulted in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPWDs). In this regard, the Gulf States have witnessed remarkable efforts towards strengthening the rights of persons with disabilities, including enactment of laws and establishment of specialized government councils for the Persons with Disabilities. This study aims to highlight the efforts of Shafallah Foundation in strengthening the rights of persons with disabilities as a model for the Gulf States. The researcher will conduct interviews with officials at Shafallah Foundation, some persons with disabilities who have benefited from the Foundation's programmes, officials from government agencies related to Persons with disabilities. The study is expected to reveal the role of Shafallah Foundation in implementing the UNCRPWDs through its programmes and activities as well as an overview of the situation of the rights of PWDs in the Gulf States. The study is important for stakeholders, decision-makers, policy-makers, academics, and the disability’s organizations.

Keywords: GCC, Gulf Cooperation Council, Shafallah Foundation, UNCRPWDs, United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, PWDs, persons with disabilities

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776 Public Policy and Sexuality Education for Youth with Disabilities: Impact on Sexual Behavior and Outcomes

Authors: Alexandra M. Kriofske Mainella

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This paper will examine the need for more aggressive public policies around bodily, reproductive and sexual health education for young people with disabilities in the United States. This paper will consider the policies around sexuality education for students in the United States and the recommendation for national standards around sexuality education. We will investigate the intersection of these policies and recommendations for students with disabilities and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): what this means for students with disabilities’ access to comprehensive sexuality education and how it affects their behaviors and outcomes.

Keywords: disability, sexuality, education, policy

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775 Siblings of People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Influence of Culture on Their Identity and Quality of Life

Authors: Olga Muries-Cantan, Alice Schippers, Climent Gine, Noelle van den Heuvel

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A systematic review of the literature about the quality of life perceptions of siblings of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) has shown differences and similarities among siblings’ perceptions around the world. Some of these differences might be explained by the influence of cultural and religious backgrounds on siblings’ quality of life through values, beliefs, and perceptions of ‘normalcy’ and stigma. The main goal of the multiple case study that we present, is to explore the quality of life perceptions of two adolescent siblings of individuals with ID/DD in order to identify the role cultural influence has played in their perceptions of quality of life. Two siblings from different European regions will participate in the study: one from a Southern European country (Spain) and the other one from a Western European country (The Netherlands). Taking a cross-cultural perspective, concepts such as values, cultural beliefs regarding disability, expectations, identity, supports, desires, and sibling relationships, will be discussed in a semi-structured interview with each sibling. Data will be analysed following an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). It is expected that findings will show the particularities of the experience of having a brother or a sister with ID/DD and the singular influence of the culture on siblings’ perceptions of quality of life. The results of this study will help to spread awareness around the necessity that researchers, practitioners, and policymakers take into account the cultural background of the individuals in order to provide them with better services and support. In this line, more culturally situated research is required to enlarge the knowledge in this field.

Keywords: culture, intellectual disability, quality of life, siblings

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774 Enterprise Infrastructure Related to the Product Value Transferred from Intellectual Capital

Authors: Chih Chin Yang

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The paper proposed a new theory of intellectual capital (so called IC) and a value approach in associated with production and market. After an in-depth review and research analysis of leading firms in this field, a holistic intellectual capital model is discussed, which involves transport, delivery supporting, and interface and systems of on intellectual capital. Through a quantity study, it is found that there is a significant relationship between the product value and infrastructure in a company. The product values are transferred from intellectual capital elements which includes three elements of content and the enterprise includes three elements of infrastructure in its market and product values of enterprise.

Keywords: enterprise, product value, intellectual capital, market and product values

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773 Quality of Life Responses of Students with Intellectual Disabilities Entering an Inclusive, Residential Post-Secondary Program

Authors: Mary A. Lindell

Abstract:

Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are increasingly attending postsecondary institutions, including inclusive residential programs at four-year universities. The legislation, national organizations, and researchers support developing postsecondary education (PSE) options for this historically underserved population. Simultaneously, researchers are assessing the quality of life indicators (QOL) for people with ID. This study explores the quality of life characteristics for individuals with ID entering a two-year PSE program. A survey aligned with the PSE program was developed and administered to participants before they began their college program (in future studies, the same survey will be administered 6 months and 1 year after graduating). Employment, income, and housing are frequently cited QOL measures. People with disabilities, and especially people with ID, are more likely to experience unemployment and low wages than people without disabilities. PSE improves adult outcomes (e.g., employment, income, housing) for people with and without disabilities. Similarly, adults with ID who attend PSE are more likely to be employed than their peers who do not attend PSE; however, adults with ID are least likely among their typical peers and other students with disabilities to attend PSE. There is increased attention to providing individuals with ID access to PSE and more research is needed regarding the characteristics of students attending PSE. This study focuses on the participants of a fully residential two-year program for individuals with ID. Students earn an Applied Skills Certificate while focusing on five benchmarks: self-care, home care, relationships, academics, and employment. To create a QOL measure, the goals of the PSE program were identified, and possible assessment items were initially selected from the National Core Indicators (NCI) and the National Transition Longitudinal Survey 2 (NTLS2) that aligned with the five program goals. Program staff and advisory committee members offered input on potential item alignment with program goals and expected value to students with ID in the program. National experts in researching QOL outcomes of people with ID were consulted and concurred that the items selected would be useful in measuring the outcomes of postsecondary students with ID. The measure was piloted, modified, and administered to incoming students with ID. Research questions: (1) In what ways are students with ID entering a two-year PSE program similar to individuals with ID who complete the NCI and NTLS2 surveys? (2) In what ways are students with ID entering a two-year PSE program different than individuals with ID who completed the NCI and NTLS2 surveys? The process of developing a QOL measure specific to a PSE program for individuals with ID revealed that many of the items in comprehensive national QOL measures are not relevant to stake-holders of this two-year residential inclusive PSE program. Specific responses of students with ID entering an inclusive PSE program will be presented as well as a comparison to similar items on national QOL measures. This study explores the characteristics of students with ID entering a residential, inclusive PSE program. This information is valuable for, researchers, educators, and policy makers as PSE programs become more accessible for individuals with ID.

Keywords: intellectual disabilities, inclusion, post-secondary education, quality of life

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772 Theory and Reality on Working Life of People with Disability: The Case in Poland

Authors: Dorota Kobus-Ostrowska

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Work for everyone, especially for person with disability is a condition in independence; it secures basic needs and develops manual and intellectual capabilities. The work is a source of income, and it builds and strengthens of self-esteem and competence. The purpose of this article is to identify work as an important factor in everyone’s life, despite Polish disabled persons rarely having the chance to undertake a job. In order to achieve this purpose, two methods were used: comparative and qualitative. The theoretical part of this article is based on studies of a wide range of Polish and foreign literature devoted to the issue of the occupational development of people with disabilities. The article was also enriched with the institutional and legal analysis types of support for people with disabilities in Poland. Currently, a Polish person with disability who wants to enter or return to the labor market is under a special protection. Those entities employing workers with disabilities may obtain a subsidy for the salary of a person with disabilities. Unfortunately, people with disability in Poland rarely participate in the workforce. The factors that contribute to this include the difficulty in obtaining work, the uncertainty of keeping it, and the low salary offered. Despite that domestic and foreign literature highlight the important role of disabled people as a workforce, very few people with disability in Poland are economically active.

Keywords: disabled person, employer, rehabilitation, work

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