Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6634

Search results for: reproductive health

6634 Encouraging Girl-Child Education for Better Reproductive Health in Nigeria

Authors: Alikeju F. Maji


The role of girl child education on reproductive health of any nation cannot be over emphasized. Today this has become a global concern because of the awareness that girl child education has direct proven impact on reproductive health and sustainable development of a national. Thus, this paper attempts to re-emphasize and re-awaken the mind of humanity on the undisputable importance of girl-child education as a tool for improving reproductive health in Nigeria. The paper further examine that despite government’s effort in attaining education for all by the year 2015, the numbers of girls attending schools remain abysmally low in Nigeria. The paper noted that if the trend persists, personal health of women and their contribution to national development will reduce. The paper recommends that women in Nigeria should be availed with good educational opportunities to enhance their improved reproductive health, and greater participating in national development.

Keywords: girl-child education, reproductive health, sustainable development, personal health

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6633 Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitude and Health Services Utilization among Adolescents in Kaski District of Nepal

Authors: Dipendra Kumar Yadav, Rajani Ghimire, Saroj Yadav


Background: The concern about adolescent on reproductive health has grown due to unprecedented increasing rates of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted Infections and they do not have adequate awareness and knowledge about it. Access to these services as well as information about them is, therefore, crucial for adolescents to utilize and benefit from sexual and reproductive health services. The objective of the study was to assess the reproductive health knowledge, attitude and health services utilization among adolescents in rural and urban areas of Kaski district. Materials and Methods: A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents (10-19 years of age) in rural and urban areas of Kaski district, Nepal. The period of data collection was October to November, 2014. Altogether 419 participants were taken for the study. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 15.86 and standard deviation was ±2.305. More than half (58.7 %) of the respondents were females and 41.3 % were males. Out of 419, majority (78.8%) of the respondents were known about family planning, among them only 70 % of respondents were aware about family planning methods. Fifty-one percentages of the respondents were aware about the sexually transmitted diseases. Before giving a birth there is need to consult with partner with this fact 68.7 % of the respondents were agree, 23.6 % of them were neutral and very few (7.6%) of them were disagree. Nearly twenty six percentage of the respondents were faced the reproductive health problems within one month. Out of 107 respondents, 57.9 % did not utilize reproductive health services because of different reasons. Conclusions: The overall level of knowledge towards reproductive health among adolescents was found low. However, levels of attitude towards different reproductive health components were found favorable. Only 42.1% of the respondents were utilized reproductive health services among those who was faced the reproductive health problems within one month which was low coverage of reproductive health services utilization.

Keywords: reproductive health knowledge, reproductive health attitudes, adolescent, service utilization

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6632 Understanding the Issue of Reproductive Matters among Urban Women: A Study of Four Cities in India from National Family Health Survey-4

Authors: Priyanka Dixit


Reproductive health problem is an important public health issue in most of the developing countries like India. It is a common problem in India for women in the reproductive age group to suffer from reproductive illnesses and not seek care. Existing literatures tell us very little about the several dimensions of reproductive morbidity. In addition the general perception says, metros have better medical infrastructure, so its residents should lead a healthier life. However some of the studies reveal a very different picture. Therefore, the present study is conducted with the specific objectives to find out the prevalence of reproductive health problem and treatment seeking behavior of currently married women in four metro cities in India namely; Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai and Kolkata. In addition, this paper also examines the effect of socio-economic and demographic factors on self-reported reproductive health problems. Bi-variate and multivariate regression have been applied to achieve the proposed objectives. Study is based on National Family Health Survey 2015-16 data. The analysis shows that the prevalence of any reproductive health problem among women is the highest in Mumbai followed by Delhi, Chennai, and Kolkata. A bulk of women in all four metro cities has reported abdominal pain, itching and burning sensation as the major problems while urinating. However, in spite of the high prevalence of reproductive health problems, a huge proportion of such women in all these cities do not seek any advice or treatment for these problems. This study also investigates determinants that affect the prevalence of reproductive health problem to policy makers plan for proper interventions for improving women’s reproductive health.

Keywords: reproductive health, India, national family health survey-4, city

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6631 The Relation between Physical Health and Mental Health in Women of Reproductive Age

Authors: Hannah Yael Ephraim


During reproductive age (between 15 and 44), women are particularly susceptible to psychiatric illness. Depression and anxiety disorders are especially common for women during reproductive age. Women of reproductive age are also at greater risk for multiple physical conditions during this time. Existing literature focuses on the impact of mental health on physical health, showing that people with anxiety and depression repeatedly show greater physical health risk among those with developing chronic medical illness. However, there is limited research on the impact physical health has on mental health in women of reproductive age, a large and vulnerable population. For this reason, the current study seeks to ask the following questions: are women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition more likely to experience symptoms of mental illness than women without a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition? Does the type of physical illness relate to signs and symptoms of depression and anxiety? A quasi-experimental research design was implemented to compare the mental health outcomes of women with the diagnosis of chronic medical conditions and women without the diagnosis of a chronic medical condition. Quantitative data was collected through an anonymous ten-minute Qualtrics survey. The survey was sent out through multiple online platforms. The sample includes two groups of women: one group with the diagnosis of a chronic medical illness, and one group without a diagnosis and/or symptoms (N = 541). Participants identify as a woman and are between the ages of 15 and 44. A comparison of women with a diagnosis of a chronic physical condition and those without a diagnosis will be conducted to explore differences in depression and anxiety symptoms between women with and without a chronic medical diagnosis. The impact race, SES, and occupation will also be addressed in relation to anxiety and/or depression in women of reproductive age. This study will further the understanding of the relationship between mental illness in women of reproductive age with chronic medical conditions. The results of this study will have implications for the integration of mental health care in women’s health centers and perhaps training of clinicians and physicians providing psychological and medical care to women of reproductive age.

Keywords: mental health, physical health, reproductive age, women

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6630 The Effect of Support Program Based on The Health Belief Model on Reproductive Health Behavior in Women with Orthopedic Disabled

Authors: Eda Yakit Ak, Ergül Aslan


The study was conducted using the quasi-experimental design to determine the influence of the nursing support program prepared according to the Health Belief Model on reproductive health behaviors of orthopedically disabled women in the physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic at a university hospital between August 2019-October, 2020. The research sample included 50 women (35 in the control group and 15 in the experimental group with orthopedic disability). A 3-week nursing support program was applied to the experimental group of women. To collect the data, Introductory Information Form and Scale for Determining the Protective Attitudes of Married Women towards Reproductive Health (SDPAMW) were applied. The evaluation was made with a follow-up form for four months. In the first evaluation, the total SDPAMW scores were 119.93±20.59 for the experimental group and 122.20±16.71 for the control group. In the final evaluation, the total SDPAMW scores were 144.27±11.95 for the experimental group and 118.00±16.43 for the control group. The difference between the groups regarding the first and final evaluations for the total SDPAMW scores was statistically significant (p<0.01). In the experimental group, between the first and final evaluations regarding the sub-dimensions of SDPAMW, an increase was found in the behavior of seeing the doctor on reproductive health issues, protection from reproductive organ and breast cancer, general health behaviors to protect reproductive health, and protection from genital tract infections (p<0.05). Consequently, the nursing support program based on the Health Belief Model applied to orthopedically disabled women positively affected reproductive health behaviors.

Keywords: orthopedically disabled, woman, reproductive health, nursing support program, health belief model

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6629 Knowledge regarding Sexual and Reproductive Health among Adolescents in Higher Secondary School

Authors: Kopila Shrestha


Adolescent sexual reproductive health is one of the most important issues in the world. Reproductive ability is taking place at an earlier age and adolescents are indulging in risk taking behaviors day by day. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Kathmandu valley to assess the knowledge regarding sexual and reproductive health among adolescent. Total of 200 respondents were selected through non-probability convenient sampling technique. Self-administered written questionnaires using semi-structured questions were used. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics such as Chi-square test. The findings revealed that most of the respondents had adequate knowledge regarding transmission and protection of HIV/AIDs and STIs but still some respondents had a misconception regarding it. Few respondents had knowledge regarding legal age for marriage and the minimum age for first child bearing. The statistical analysis revealed that the total mean knowledge score with standard deviation was 45.02±8.674. Nearly half of the respondents (49.5%) had a moderate level of knowledge, followed by an inadequate level of knowledge 29.5% and adequate level of knowledge 21.0% regarding sexual and reproductive health. There was significant association of level of knowledge with area of residence (p-value .002) but no association with age (p-value .067), sex (p-value .999), religion (p-value .082) and ethnicity (p-value .114). Nearly half of the participants possess some knowledge about sexual and reproductive health but still effective educational intervention is required in higher secondary school to encourage more sensible and healthy behaviour.

Keywords: adolescents, higher secondary school, knowledge, sexual and reproductive health

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6628 Dynamics of Parent to Adolescent Communication on Sexual and Reproductive Health in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Barriers and Policy Implications

Authors: Douglas Nyathi, Mxolisi Sibanda, Joram Ndlovuu, Thulani Dube, Innocent T. Mahiya


Communication of sexual matters between the parents and adolescents has been seen as one of the strategies that could play a cardinal role in encouraging adolescents to be responsible and delay sexual debut or avoid unprotected sexual intercourse. The increasing rate of teenage pregnancies and new HIV/AIDS infections among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa makes the phenomenon worth analysis. The purpose of this paper is to interrogate the dynamics of parent-adolescent communication on sexual and reproductive health in Sub-Sahara. Specifically the paper focuses on barriers to communication between parents and adolescents on sexual and reproductive health and its policy implications. It emanates from the paper that communication on sexual and reproductive health at household level is triggered by death of a relative from a sexual related illness, suspicion on sexual activity, radio programmes and in some instances fliers. Literature engagement reveals that communication between parents and adolescents on sexual and reproductive health is made difficult by economic factors (poverty, lack of privacy and low self-esteem), household demographics (age, sex, class, death), socio-cultural factors (beliefs and religious values) as well as social media. We argue that there is need to use broadcast mediato come up with radio and television programmes that create family environments in which sexual and reproductive health issues are discussed. We also recommend that government departments and Non-Governmental Organisations concerned with sexuality issues need to undertake studies that can help dismantle taboos, prejudices and stereotypes that impede sexual and reproductive health communication between parents and adolescents.

Keywords: parent, adolecsent, communication, sexual and reproductive health

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6627 Stakeholders Perceptions of the Linkage between Reproductive Rights and Environmental Sustainability: Environmental Mainstreaming, Injustice and Population Reductionism

Authors: Celine Delacroix


Analyses of global emission scenarios demonstrate that slowing population growth could lead to substantial emissions reductions and play an important role to avoid dangerous climate change. For this reason, the advancement of individual reproductive rights might represent a valid climate change mitigation and adaptation option. With this focus, we reflected on population ethics and the ethical dilemmas associated with environmental degradation and climate change. We conducted a mixed-methods qualitative data study consisting of an online survey followed by in-depth interviews with stakeholders of the reproductive health and rights and environmental sustainability movements to capture the ways in which the linkages between family planning, population growth, and environmental sustainability are perceived by these actors. We found that the multi-layered marginalization of this issue resulted in two processes, the polarization of opinions and its eschewal from the public fora through population reductionism. Our results indicate that stakeholders of the reproductive rights and environmental sustainability movements find that population size and family planning influence environmental sustainability and overwhelmingly find that the reproductive health and rights ideological framework should be integrated in a wider sustainability frame reflecting environmental considerations. This position, whilst majoritarily shared by all participants, was more likely to be adopted by stakeholders of the environmental sustainability sector than those from the reproductive health and rights sector. We conclude that these processes, taken in the context of a context of a climate emergency, threaten to weaken the reproductive health and rights movement.

Keywords: environmental sustainability, family planning, population growth, population ethics, reproductive rights

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6626 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Status of Women of Reproductive Age Group in a Rural Community in Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Ayodeji Adebayo, Tolulope Soyannwo, Oluwakemi A. Sigbeku


Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a significant public health problem with adverse health consequences. There is increasing evidence of association of IPV with mental health problems. Understanding the association between IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in the rural communities in Nigeria can provide information to improve maternal health status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between experience of IPV and mental health status of women of reproductive aged group in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria. A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted using a cluster sampling technique to select 283 non-pregnant women of reproductive age group (15-49 years Mental health was assessed based on respondents’ experience of any symptoms of depression, anxiety and/or low self-esteem. IPV was assessed over a period of 12 months and the forms of IPV assessed were emotional, physical and sexual. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on experience of IPV, reproductive history and factors influencing mental health. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression at 5% level of significance. The mean age of respondents was 26.1± 7.8 with 57.1% aged 15-24years. More than half (58.0%) were married. Overall, 60.7% of respondents had mental health problems while 84.8% experienced all categories of violence. The pattern of IPV includes physical violence (10.7%), emotional violence (82.7%) and sexual violence (20.8%). Women who experienced sexual violence by a partner are most likely to suffer from all mental issues. Also, gynaecological morbidities are associated with increasing risk of mental health problems. The research demonstrates an urgent need for mental health policies to recognize the relationship between intimate partner violence, gynaecological morbidities and mental health problems in women in Nigeria.

Keywords: intimate partner violence, mental health, reproductive age group, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
6625 Reproductive Health of Women After Taking Chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

Authors: Ezeh Chukwunonso Peter Excel, Akruti Vg


Aim/Background: To show that even after undergoing 1-5 courses of chemotherapy for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) reproductive health of women is intact and they conceive successfully after it. Method: Retrospective cohort analysis using data from the Lugansk regional maternity hospital database of years 1993-2013, which shows n=18 females had GTD and underwent 1-5 courses of chemotherapy. Results and Discussion: Frequency of GTD was rare. All 18 patients (pts) belong to age group of 17-39 years, covering wide range of reproductive age. Out of 18 pts, 15 had hydatidiform mole (HM) while other 3 had choriocarcinoma (CC). In anamnesis, among CC pts, 1 had early pre-eclampsia at 24 weeks and 1 had 4th week of late postpartum (PP) bleeding, while all HM pts had genital inflammatory diseases, 1 pt of HM during follow-up had High hCG and 3 times curettage in 5 months. 18 women became pregnant for 25 times after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy was given under indication of either high level of HCG, luteal cyst >6cm or path-morphological results of curettage. CC 3 pts had (2 spontaneous abortions (SA), 2 term cesarean section (CS), 1 preterm CS). HM 15 pts had (3 artificial abortion, 2 SA, 7CS (5 term and 2 preterm), 8 vaginal deliveries (7 term and 1 preterm)). Conclusion: During our research we got 22.2% preterm deliveries and 55.6% CS which is higher than the normal cases, but still all the 18 women were able to have kids successfully after chemotherapy. So we can conclude that chemotherapy for GTD was successful in keeping the reproductive health of women intact.

Keywords: reproductive health, chemotherapy, gestational trophoblastic disease, women

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6624 Gendered Narratives of ‘Respectability’: Migrant Garo Women and Their Access to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

Authors: A. Drong, K. S. Kerkhoff


Migration affects women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper reports on the social constructs of gender, and livelihood pursuits as beauty parlours workers amongst the young Garo women in Bangladesh, and studies changes in their accessibility to the healthcare services due to migration and livelihood. The paper is based on in-depth interviews and participant-led group discussions with 30 women working in various beauty parlours across the city. The data indicate that social perceptions of ‘good’, ‘bad’ and ‘respectable’ determine the expression of sexuality, and often dictates sexual and reproductive practices for these women. This study also reveals that unregulated work conditions, and the current cost of local healthcare services, have a strong impact on the women’s accessibility to the healthcare services; thus often limiting their choices to only customary and/or unqualified practitioners for abortions and child-births. Development programmes on migrant indigenous women’s health must, therefore, take the contextual gender norms and livelihood choices into account.

Keywords: gender, indigenous women, reproductive rights, sexual rights, Garo, migration, livelihood, healthcare

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
6623 Analysis of Subordination: The Reproductive Sphere

Authors: Aneesa Shafi


Reproduction is a complex term in a setting where it is continuously being shaped by epistemological shifts in knowledge. It denotes not just fertility, birth and childcare related practices but also the ideas that shape those practices. These ideas and practices figure into understandings of social and cultural renewal. Patriarchy continues to be a dominating force in the formation of these ideas and practices. Contemporary times are characterized by the resurgence of the whims of patriarchal politics in delineating the margins of women’s health care. This has further emboldened the struggle for reproductive rights on the global stage. The paper examines the subordination of the right to bodily autonomy of women within the ambit of their reproductive rights. Reproductive rights are recognized human rights and women’s rights. Why these rights of women face stiff opposition is established, as is the structure that creates hurdles to their enjoyment. The negotiation of this structure in the everyday life through women’s agency is also established. The reproductive sphere includes not just the process of reproduction but also social reproduction- domestic work, spheres of production and reproduction, population and birth (control) issues.

Keywords: patriarchy, women, reproduction, gender

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6622 Poz and Play: Exploring the Effectiveness of the Online Teleserye 'Mga Batang Poz' in Influencing the Reproductive Health Practices of Filipino Teenagers

Authors: Arlan Jay Jondonero


The study explores the potential of teleseryes in improving the reproductive health practices of its Filipino teenage viewers. This includes the identification of the elements of teleseryes and the conditions that make it suitable for teleseryes to influence the practices of its viewers, as well as the assessment of how the Sabido methodology was applied in other countries to see if it can be applied in the Philippine context. It discusses the historical context of teleseryes in the Philippines, which are now in the online digital media platform. The study recognizes the role of the social cognitive theory and dramatic theory in a viewer’s acquisition of better reproductive health practices and evaluates if these theories can be applied in the Philippine context. Using the quasi-experimental approach, the study aims to determine if there is a causal relationship between how the online teleserye “Mga Batang Poz” is perceived by the Filipino teenage audience through its characters and storylines and the development of the audience’s knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors surrounding HIV/AIDS. The study looked into the components of the teleserye that made it relatable to the Filipino youth, as well as factors that should be taken into consideration to significantly influence the reproductive health practices of the Filipino youth.

Keywords: entertainment-education, HIV, quasi-experimental, Sabido methodology, teleserye

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6621 Unveiling the Truth of Female Reproductive Health: The Tied Shackles of Authoritative Knowledge and Domestic Violence: An Ethnographic Study on an Urban Slum of Dhaka City

Authors: Saba Nuzhat


The present ethnographic study examines how domestic violence and authoritative knowledge affect the reproductive health of females; in terms of contraceptive behavior and induced abortion. This qualitative study has been conducted by collecting in depth informal interviews and case studies of 12 female respondents living in an urban slum of Keraniganj, located Dhaka city. The study depicts how multivariable factors are linked to a woman’s ability to contracept and make abortion decisions in a cultural context where being a wife infers to submission, limited mobility, sexual availability, and restricted autonomy on her own reproduction health. This study shows how violence is being normalized and socially acceptable, every time women do not adhere to go through expected gender roles. The study primarily explores the subjective experiences and perceptions of the females about contraceptive behavior as well as abortions from a medical anthropological perspective. A number of salient examples are highlighted into this paper where women who go through abortion or adopt various measures of contraceptives get highly influenced by authoritative knowledge or under the pressure of male dominance. The lack of female autonomy or prevalence of domestic violence challenges the gender equality of Bangladeshi society and female sovereignty in accessing sexual or reproductive rights. This paper remarks the significance of medical anthropological research that helps to understand the intricate interrelationship between authoritative knowledge and male dominance with female reproductive health in order to reduce women’s risk of experiencing domestic violence and to promote reproductive health autonomy for themselves for espousing contraceptive behaviors and abortion decisions.

Keywords: abortion, authoritative knowledge, contraception, domestic violence, reproductive health

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6620 Youth Friendly Health Services for Rural Thai Teenagers

Authors: C. Sridawruang


Young people today has sexual activities differing from those of earlier generations, in that teenagers are likely to have multiple partners, and are frequently in short-term relationships or with partners that are not well known to them. The proportion of teenage mothers in Thailand has increased. Young people were not specifically addressed during the overall very successful HIV-prevention campaigns. Because of this missed opportunity, they are still unaware of the risk of unsafe sexual behavior. Aims: To describe the reproductive health care services in perspectives of rural Thai teenagers Methods: This survey was one part of a mixed method approach taken using survey and focus groups with 439 teenagers aged 12-18 years in 5 villages, Udon Thani, Thailand. The standard questionnaire survey had been used for collecting data. The numeric data was checked and analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Results: Most teenager respondents stated that they do not know where sexual reproductive health services provided for them. Most teenagers felt difficult to access and talk with health staff about sexual related issues. They stated that discussing, or consulting with health providers might not be safe. Teenagers might lose opportunities to access and get advice from health care services. The mean knowledge score of contraception and condom reproductive was 6.34 from a total score 11. Most teenagers especially girls expressed a need for counseling services and reported a need for telephone services. Conclusions: The need of appropriate information focusing on sexual relationships and contraception should be designed to help young people make wise decisions and there should be set health care services for Thai teenagers to make sure that teenagers could access easily. Health care providers need to be trained to improve their knowledge, attitudes and skills in reproductive health care practices for Thai teenagers.

Keywords: youth friendly health services, rural, Thai, teenagers

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6619 Initiating the Provision of Adolescent Reproductive Health Information and Services (ARHIS) to Communities in Quezon City, Beginning with District 2

Authors: Erickson Bernardo, Caridad Pineda


The project Adolescent Reproductive Health Information and Services (ARHIS) is a nine-month pilot project which intends to bridge the existing gap between reproductive health information and services, particularly with regard to family planning and HIV, among adolescent boys and girls aged 10-19 years in the 2nd Congressional District of Quezon City, in the Philippines. It aims to increase adolescents' and young people's awareness about their reproductive health concerns and at the same time make a wide range of reproductive health (RH) services accessible and available to them. A number of methodologies were utilized in the implementation of the project. At the onset, a baseline survey was conducted by community mobilizers to gather a situational analysis of adolescents' and young people's issues and concerns. The results of this survey were then presented in a multi-stakeholders' meeting to gather community support and foster their involvement. Further, interactive learning sessions (ILS) on a variety of reproductive health topics, among young people, parents and community leaders based on the results of the baseline survey was conducted. With regard to reproductive health service provision, both facility-based delivery and conduct of outreach activities were employed. In the span of nine months, the project was able to yield the following results: • A total of 521 adolescents and youth (AY) were reached by ILS on puberty, responsible relationships, teenage pregnancy, family planning, as well as HIV & AIDS. • A total of 218 parents and community leaders were informed of AY RH-related issues and concerns. • More than 350 AYs availed of a wide range of FP services including pills – both combined oral and progestin-only, and progestin-only injectables and implants. • More than 380 AYs availed of condoms as means of STI and HIV prevention. A noble initiative of the project is the utilization of a "condom distributor", a youth leader who has been educated about STI and HIV prevention as well as correct condom use, as the focal point for condom access in the community. • A total of 25 young people, parents, and community leaders were identified as ARHIS champions who have been instrumental in the achievement of project deliverables through their dedication and commitment to support the project. The concept of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) remains to be a major challenge in the Philippine context. This is due to the fact that majority of Filipinos are still not keen on discussing issues and concerns related to ASRH, albeit the alarming number of teenage pregnancies and the rapid increase of HIV cases among 15- 24 year olds. In addition, Republic Act 10354 or the Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act of 2012, requires minor adolescents to present a written parental consent prior to accessing RH services. However, with the involvement and support of parents and key community stakeholders, these barriers may be addressed. The project has demonstrated how adolescents and young people yearn for reproductive health information and services.

Keywords: adolescent sexual reproductive health, barriers to access, reproductive health information and services, teenage pregnancies

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6618 Taking Risks to Get Pleasure: Reproductive Health Behaviour of Early Adolescents in Pantura Line, Indonesia

Authors: Juariah Salam Suryadi


North coast (Pantura) line is known as a high-risk area related to reproductive health. This is because along the line, there are many food stalls and entertainment industries that at night the function changed to be sexual transaction areas. This business line also facilitate circulation and transaction of drug and substance abuse. The environment conditions can influence adolescents who live in this area. It is because of adolescence characteristics that has high curiosity and looking for their identities. Therefore, purposes of this study were to explore reproductive health behaviour of early adolescents who lived in Pantura line and to suggest intervention based on the adolescents reproductive health conditions. This study was conducted in November 2016 among the seventh-grade students of Pusakajaya Junior High School 1 and 2, Subang District. Number of respondents were 269 students (Male=135, Female=134). The students were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Some teachers also interviewed to complement the data. The quantitative data was analyzed with univariate analysis, while content analysis was used for the qualitative data. Findings of this study showed that 85,2% of male students were smoker. Most of them started smoking at elementary school. Male students who often drunk alcohol were about 25,2% and all of them initiated to drink at elementary school. There were about 21,5% of male students ever used drug and substance abuse. There were 54,6% of the students that confessed having a lover. Most of them were female students. Sexual behaviour that ever done with their lovers were: holding hands (37,4%), kissing (4%) and embracing (6,8%). Although all of the students claimed to have never had sexual intercourse, but 5,9% of them said that they had friends who have had sexual intercourse. Most of the students also had friends with negative characteristics. Their friends were smoker (82,2%), drinker (53,2%) and drug abuse (42%). Most of the students recognized that they took the risks behaviour to get pleasure with their peers. Information from the teachers indicated that most problem of male students were smoking and drug and substance abuse; while sexuality including unwanted pregnancies were reproductive problems of many female students. Therefore, It is recommended to enhance understanding of the adolescents about risks of unhealthy behaviour through continuing reproductive health education, both in school and out of school. Policy support to create positive social environment and adolescents friendly is also suggested.

Keywords: reproductive health, behaviour, early adolescents, pantura line

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6617 Reproductive Behavior of Caspian Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus Maral) in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari

Authors: Behrang Ekrami, Amin Tamadon


Caspian red deer or maral (Cervus elaphus maral) is a ruminant from the family of Cervidae. Maintenance and protection of maral requires knowing the behavioral, physiological, environmental characteristics and factors harmful to this species. In this article, reproductive and behavioral traits of this species in both sexes are presented based on observations and the available records of protected deer in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari (one of the sites that preserve the maral in the Free Zones of Hyrcanian forest) from 2006 to 2011. Hart characteristics including sexual behavior, apparent changes during reproductive season and reproductive physiology; and hind characteristics including of ovulation, reproductive cycle, mating, pregnancy and parturition, have been evaluated. Identification of maral reproductive characteristics in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari is one of the most important information requirements to preserve and breed this species and will open up new routes for performing new methods of reproduction of this species in Iran wildlife parks or other refuge areas.

Keywords: caspian red deer, reproduction, behavior, Iran

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6616 Women with Disabilities: A Study of Contributions of Sexual and Reproductive Rights for Theology

Authors: Luciana Steffen


People with disabilities are often neglected in the exercise of their sexuality, facing several prejudices and discrimination in this area. For women with disabilities, the negligence is even major. Studies that relate sexual and reproductive rights with the experience of women with disabilities are rare, and in the field of Theology, practically nonexistent in Brazil. The aim of this work is to reflect on the relationship between women with disabilities, sexual and reproductive rights and Theology, according to a feminist perspective. The work is a literature review and involves the areas of Gender Studies, Disability Studies, Feminist Studies and Theology. In the article it will be addressed the relations between disability, sexual and reproductive rights, feminism, as well as the relations with the area of Theology, reflecting on these themes toward a fairer and more inclusive understanding of feminism, sexuality and women with disabilities. To reflect on sexual and reproductive rights of women with disabilities, it is important to reflect on religious concepts about the body, sexuality, reproduction and gender roles, because they are all connected. So, a critical analysis of traditional theological values taking into consideration the dimensions of sexuality and women with disability is important for a more liberating and inclusive understand about sexual and reproductive rights of women with disabilities. Theology should help the other areas in the understanding that all people have the right to live their lives with completeness, dignity and respect, so women with disabilities must have the opportunity of making their own choices on the fields of sexuality and reproduction.

Keywords: gender, disability, sexual and reproductive rights, theology

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6615 Effects of Some Factors Affecting Optimum Reproductive Capacity of Local Breeds of Sheep in Nigeria

Authors: D. Zahraddeen, N. M. Lemu, P. P. Barje, I. S. R. Butswat


This study was conducted to investigate some of the factors affecting the optimum reproductive capacity of the indigenous breeds of sheep in Nigeria. A total of 767 sheep of different breeds were investigated. The reproductive indices considered were birth/weaning weights, litter size, parity, mortality, reproductive problems/disorders, body condition score (BCS), as well as growth traits. The results showed that litter size, parity, and BCS had significant (p < 0.05) effects on birth/weaning weights, mortality rates and growth traits of the sheep breeds studied. Similarly, the rearing method/system significantly (p < 0.05) influenced other reproductive traits such as birth/weaning weights, mortality, growth performance of lambs. However, the major reproductive problems/disorders in the ewes were dystocia (30.94%), retained placenta (16.91%), mastitis (15.83), pregnancy toxaemia (11.51%), uterine prolapse (6.48%) and vaginal prolapse (3.24%). In the rams, the incidence of reproductive problems included cryptorchidism (1.08%), orchitis (2.87%) and scrotal dermatophilosis (1.79%), among others. This study concludes that the four breeds of sheep (Balami, Yankasa, Uda, and West African Dwarf sheep) and their crosses exhibited varied genetic make-up and potentials. However, the large number of sheep farmers practicing the extensive production system might be responsible for the low reproductive performance of this species in the country. It is, therefore, recommended that significant improvement could be achieved through enhanced management practices of these animals.

Keywords: sheep, breeds, reproduction, disorders

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6614 Morphometry of Female Reproductive Tract in Small Ruminants Using Ultrasonography

Authors: R. Jannat, N. S. Juyena, F. Y. Bari, M. N. Islam


Understanding anatomy of female reproductive organs is very much important to identify any variation in disease condition. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the morphometry of female reproductive tract in small ruminant using ultrasonography. The reproductive tracts of 2l does and 20 ewes were collected, and both gross and ultrasonographic image measurements were performed to study morphometry of cervix, body of uterus, horn of uterus and ovary. Water bath ultrasonography technique was used with trans-abdominal linear probe for image measurements. Results revealed significant (P<0.001) variation among gross and image measurements of cervix, body of uterus and ovaries in does whereas, significant (P<0.001) variation existed between gross and image measurements of ovaries diameter in ewes. Gross measurements were proportionately higher than image measurements in both species. The mean length and width were found higher in right ovaries than those of left ovaries. In addition, the diameter of right ovaries was higher than those of left ovaries in both species. Pearson's correlation revealed a positive relation between two measurements. Moreover, it was found that echogenicity varied with reproductive organs. This is a model study. This study may help to identify female reproductive structures by trans-abdominal ultrasonography.

Keywords: female reproductive tract, morphometry, small ruminants, ultrasonography

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6613 An Anthropological Insight into Cultural Beliefs, Perceptions and Taboos Associated with Reproductive Tract Infections among Women of Village Junga Village, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: A. Ratika Thakur, B. A. K. Sinha , C. R. K. Pathak


Reproductive Tract Infections are recognized as a serious global health problem with direct impact on women. In the developing countries, prevalence of RTI is much higher relative to other health problems. Women of the reproductive age group are socially, mentally and physically more vulnerable to infections. Also, it is a well established fact that RTI has prolonged complications in women rather than men. It causes ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases, miscarriage and infertility in the long course. Women perspective about infections is less studied. In this view the study was carried out with an aim to determine knowledge, perception and belief of married women towards reproductive tract infection. The study was conducted in Junga village, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. 48 women were interviewed regarding awareness, beliefs and taboos related to reproductive tract infection. Other aspects like fertility history were also taken into account. The data were collected using interviews with the help of interview schedule and interview guide. Data were recorded in the form of narratives and case studies. The analysis was done using quantitative and qualitative analysis. It was found that a majority of women were not aware about the reasons of infection. Moreover cultural beliefs, perceptions and taboos made them more vulnerable and exposed to RTI. Economic dependency upon men, lack of control in barrier methods were some of the factors that contributed to delayed treatment of women. It was found that a majority of women suffering from RTIs were silently bearing the burden and underwent treatment when the case would not rest in their hands.

Keywords: belief, infection, perception, taboo, women

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6612 Reproductive Governmentality in Mexico: Production, Control and Regulation of Contraceptive Practices in a Public Hospital

Authors: Ivan Orozco


Introduction: Forced contraception constitutes part of an effort to control the life and reproductive capacity of women through public health institutions. This phenomenon has affected many Mexican women historically and still persists nowadays. The notion of reproductive governmentality refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of social actors (state institutions, churches, donor agents, NGOs, etc.) use legislative controls, economic incentives, moral mandates, direct coercion, and ethical incitements, to produce, monitor and control reproductive behaviors and practices. This research focuses on the use of these mechanisms by the Mexican State to control women's contraceptive practices in a public hospital. Method: An Institutional Ethnography was carried out, with the objective of knowing women's experiences from their own perspective, as they occur in their daily lives, but at the same time, discovering the structural elements that shape the discourses that promote women's contraception, even against their will. The fieldwork consisted in an observation of the dynamics between different participants within a public hospital and the conduction of interviews with the medical and nursing staff in charge of family planning services, as well as women attending the family planning office. Results: Public health institutions in Mexico are state tools to control and regulate reproduction. There are several strategies that are used for this purpose, for example, health personnel provide insufficient or misleading information to ensure that women agree to use contraceptives; health institutions provide economic incentives to the members of the health staff who reach certain goals in terms of contraceptive placement; young women are forced to go to the family planning service, regardless of the reason they went to the clinic; health campaigns are carried out, consisting of the application of contraceptives outside the health facilities, directly in the communities of people who visit the hospital less frequently. All these mechanisms seek for women to use contraceptives, from the women’s perspective; however, the reception of these discourses is ambiguous. While, for some women, the strategies become coercive mechanisms to use contraceptives against their will, for others, they represent an opportunity to take control over their reproductive lives. Conclusion: Since 1974, the Mexican government has implemented campaigns for the promotion of family planning methods as a means to control population growth. Although it is established in several legislations that the counselling must be carried out with a gender and human rights perspective, always respecting the autonomy of people, these research testify that health personnel uses different strategies to force some women to use contraceptive methods, thereby violating their reproductive rights.

Keywords: feminist research, forced contraception, institutional ethnography, reproductive. governmentality

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6611 The Uptake of Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Healthcare in Gonji Kolela, Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Exploration of What Is on the Ground and What Could Be Helpful

Authors: Yan Ding, Fei Yan, Ji Liang, Hong Jiang, Xiaoguang Yang, Xu Qian


The health status of GonjiKolela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia is below its national average, and a sub-project of China UK Global Health Support Programme (GHSP) is expected to increase the uptake of a suite of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions there. To explore what is on the ground and what could be helpful for the uptake of RMNCH services in GonjiKolela, a qualitative study was performed as part of the baseline assessment before the implementation of the project. Nine key informants from GonjiKolela were interviewed with self-designed interview guides and they were from the district Health Office, health centers, health posts, women health development army (community volunteer groups), mothers of newborns, and also a gynecologist from the maternal and child health center which is the referral center for pregnant women for this project. The interview were transcribed into words and sorted with qualitative analysis software MAXqda. Content analysis was mainly used to analyze the data. The district health office, the health centers and the health posts all had focal persons taking care of the management and provision of RMNCH services, and RMNCH related indicators were recorded and reported at each level routinely. In addition, district government and administration at community/administrative village level kept a close eye on the reduction of maternal, neonatal and child mortality. Women Health Development Amy at household level supported health workers at community/administrative village level (called health extension workers) in tracing, recording and reporting pregnant women, newborn and under-five children,organizing events for health education, demonstrating and leading health promotion activities, and stimulating the utilization of RMNCH.

Keywords: Reproductive Maternal Newborn and Child Health, Health Care Utilization, Qualitative Study, Ethiopia

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6610 Non-Governmental Organisations and Human Development in Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Sadeeq Launi


NGOs, the world over, have been recognized as part of the institutions that complement government activities in providing services to the people, particularly in respect of human development. This study examined the role played by the NGOs in human development in Bauchi State, Nigeria, between 2004 and 2013. The emphasis was on reproductive health and access to education role of the selected NGOs. All the research questions, objectives and hypotheses were stated in line with these variables. The theoretical framework that guided the study was the participatory development approach. Being a survey research, data were generated from both primary and secondary sources with questionnaires and interviews as the instruments for generating the primary data. The population of the study was made up of the staff of the selected NGOs, beneficiaries, health staff and school teachers in Bauchi State. The sample drawn from these categories were 90, 107 and 148 units respectively. Stratified random and simple random sampling techniques were adopted for NGOs staff, and Health staff and school teachers data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively and hypotheses were tested using Pearson Chi-square test through SPSS computer statistical package. The study revealed that despite the challenges facing NGOs operations in the study area, NGOs rendered services in the areas of health and education This research recommends among others that, both government and people should be more cooperative to NGOs to enable them provide more efficient and effective services. Governments at all levels should be more dedicated to increasing accessibility and affordability of basic education and reproductive health care facilities and services in Bauchi state through committing more resources to the Health and Education sectors, this would support and facilitate the complementary role of NGOs in providing teaching facilities, drugs, and other reproductive health services in the States. More enlightenment campaigns should be carried out by governments to sensitize the public, particularly women on the need to embrace immunization programmes for their children and antenatal care services being provided by both the government and NGOs.

Keywords: access to education, human development, NGOs, reproductive health

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6609 Surveying Adolescent Males in India Regarding Mobile Phone Use and Sexual and Reproductive Health Education

Authors: Rohan M. Dalal, Elena Pirondini, Shanu Somvanshi


Introduction: The current state of reproductive health outcomes in lower-income countries is poor, with inadequate knowledge and culture among adolescent boys. Moreover, boys have traditionally not been a priority target. To explore the opportunity to educate adolescent boys in the developing world regarding accurate reproductive health information, the purpose of this study is to investigate how adolescent boys in the developing world engage and use technology, utilizing cell phones. This electronic survey and video interview study were conducted to determine the feasibility of a mobile phone platform for an educational video game specifically designed for boys that will improve health knowledge, influence behavior, and change health outcomes, namely teen pregnancies. Methods: With the assistance of Plan India, a subsidiary of Plan International, informed consent was obtained from parents of adolescent males who participated in an electronic survey and video interviews via Microsoft Teams. An electronic survey was created with 27 questions, including topics of mobile phone usage, gaming preferences, and sexual and reproductive health, with a sample size of 181 adolescents, ages 11-25, near New Delhi, India. The interview questions were written to explore more in-depth topics after the completion of the electronic survey. Eight boys, aged 15, were interviewed for 40 minutes about gaming and usage of mobile phones as well as sexual and reproductive health. Data/Results. 154 boys and 27 girls completed the survey. They rated their English fluency as relatively high. 97% of boys (149/154) had access to mobile phones. The majority of phones were smartphones (97%, 143/148). 48% (71/149) of boys borrowed cell phones. The most popular phone platform was Samsung (22%, 33/148). 36% (54/148) of adolescent males looked at their phones 1-10 times per day for 1-2 hours. 55% (81/149) of the boys had parental restrictions. 51% (76/148) had 32 GB of storage on their phone. 78% (117/150) of the boys had wifi access. 80% (120/150) of respondents reported ease in downloading apps. 97% (145/150) of male adolescents had social media, including WhatsApp, Facebook, and YouTube. 58% (87/150) played video games. Favorite video games included Free Fire, PubG, and other shooting games. In the video interviews, the boys revealed what made games fun and engaging, including customized avatars, progression to higher levels, realistic interactive platforms, shooting/guns, the ability to perform multiple actions, and a variety of worlds/settings/adventures. Ideas to improve engagement in sexual and reproductive health classes included open discussions in the community, enhanced access to information, and posting on social media. Conclusion: This study involving an electronic survey and video interviews provides an initial foray into understanding mobile phone usage among adolescent males and understanding sexual and reproductive health education in New Delhi, India. The data gathered from this study support using mobile phone platforms, and this will be used to create a serious video game to educate adolescent males about sexual and reproductive health in an attempt to lower the rate of unwanted pregnancies in the world.

Keywords: adolescent males, India, mobile phone, sexual and reproductive health

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6608 Factors Affecting Reproductive Behaviour of Married Women in Sudan: Acase of Shendi Town

Authors: Mohamed Hamed


Population studies, essentially deals with the size, growth, and distribution of the population in a given area. Size, growth, and distribution are determined by three major factors, which are reproduction, mortality, and migration. Of these factors, reproduction is a potent socio-demographic force in vital process of population growth. It is a major component of population growth, and has crucial role in population dynamic, because it measures the rate at which a population increased. In fact the most striking feature of human reproduction is its variation. Its levels are vary widely among nations, countries, geographic regions, ethnic. The variations of reproductive behaviour among married women have been empirically documented in a large numbers of countries. For instance, many researchers in developing and developed countries investigated the differential of reproductive behaviour among married women. Most of these studies found that reproductive behaviour is strongly influenced by the socioeconomic and biological factors.Such as education, income, employment of women, marriage pattern, age at marriage, contraceptive use, education, and employment. However, the above socioeconomic and biological factors are determined by cultural factors surrounded by married women. So, this study is going to find out the effect of culture on reproductive behaviour among married women in Sudan, a case of Shendi town.

Keywords: fertilty pattern, sudan, shendi town, factors affecting reproductive behaviour, married women

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6607 Sexual Health And Male Fertility: Improving Sperm Health With Focus On Technology

Authors: Diana Peninger


Over 10% of couples in the U.S. have infertility problems, with roughly 40% traceable to the male partner. Yet, little attention has been given to improving men’s contribution to the conception process. One solution that is showing promise in increasing conception rates for IVF and other assisted reproductive technology treatments is a first-of-its-kind semen collection that has been engineered to mitigate sperm damage caused by traditional collection methods. Patients are able to collect semen at home and deliver to clinics within 48 hours for use in fertility analysis and treatment, with less stress and improved specimen viability. This abstract will share these findings along with expert insight and tips to help attendees understand the key role sperm collection plays in addressing and treating reproductive issues, while helping to improve patient outcomes and success. Our research was to determine if male reproductive outcomes can be increased by improving sperm specimen health with a focus on technology. We utilized a redesigned semen collection cup (patented as the Device for Improved Semen Collection/DISC—U.S. Patent 6864046 – known commercially as a ProteX) that met a series of physiological parameters. Previous research demonstrated significant improvement in semen perimeters (motility forward, progression, viability, and longevity) and overall sperm biochemistry when the DISC is used for collection. Animal studies have also shown dramatic increases in pregnancy rates. Our current study compares samples collected in the DISC, next-generation DISC (DISCng), and a standard specimen cup (SSC), dry, with the 1 mL measured amount of media and media in excess ( 5mL). Both human and animal testing will be included. With sperm counts declining at alarming rates due to environmental, lifestyle, and other health factors, accurate evaluations of sperm health are critical to understanding reproductive health, origins, and treatments of infertility. An increase in the health of the sperm as measured by extensive semen parameter analysis and improved semen parameters stable for 48 hours, expanding the processing time from 1 hour to 48 hours were also demonstrated.

Keywords: reprodutive, sperm, male, infertility

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6606 Effectiveness of Peer Reproductive Health Education Program in Improving Knowledge, Attitude, and Use Health Service of High School Adolescent Girls in Eritrea in 2014

Authors: Ghidey Ghebreyohanes, Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil, Zemenfes Tsighe, Faiza Ali


Background: reproductive health (RH) is a state of physical, mental and social well-being in all matters relating to the reproductive system at all stages of life. In East Africa including Eritrea, adolescents comprise more than a quarter of the population. The region holds the highest rates of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, unwanted pregnancy and unsafe abortion with its complications. Young girls carry the highest burden of reproductive health problems due to their risk taking behavior, lack of knowledge, peer pressure, physiologic immaturity and low socioeconomic status. Design: this was a Community-based, randomized, case-controlled and pre-test-post-test intervention study. Setting: Zoba Debub was randomly selected out of the six zobas in Eritrea. The four high schools out of the 26 in Zoba Debub were randomly selected as study target schools. Over three quarter of the people live on farming. The target population was female students attending grade nine with majority of these girls live in the distant villages and walk to school. The study participants were randomly selected (n=165) from each school. Furthermore, the 1 intervention and 3 controls for the study arms were assigned randomly. Objectives: this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of peer reproductive health education in improving knowledge, attitude, and health service use of high school adolescent girls in Eritrea Methods: the protocol was reviewed and approved by the Scientific and Ethics Committees of Faculty of Nursing Sciences, University of Khartoum. Data was collected using pre-designed and pretested questionnaire emphasizing on reproductive health knowledge, attitude and practice. Sample size was calculated using proportion formula (α 0.01; power of 95%). Measures used were scores and proportions. Descriptive and inferential statistics, t-test and chi square at (α .01), 99% confidence interval were used to compare changes of pre and post-intervention scores using SPSS soft ware. Seventeen students were selected for peer educators by the school principals and other teachers based on inclusion criteria that include: good academic performance and acceptable behavior. One peer educator educated one group composed of 8-10 students for two months. One faculty member was selected to supervise peer educators. The principal investigator conducted the training of trainers and provided supervision and discussion to peer educators every two weeks until the end of intervention. Results: following informed consent, 627 students [164 in intervention and 463 in the control group] with a ratio of 1 to 3, were enrolled in the study. The mean age for the total study population was 15.4±1.0 years. The intervention group mean age was 15.3±1.0 year; while the control group had a mean age of 15.4±1.0. The mean ages for the study arms were similar (p= 0.4). The majority (96 %) of the study participants are from Tigrigna ethnic group. Reproductive knowledge scores which was calculated out of a total 61 grade points: intervention group (pretest 6.7 %, post-test 33.6 %; p= 0.0001); control group (pretest 7.3 %, posttest 7.3 %, p= 0.92). Proportion difference in attitude calculated out of 100%: intervention group (pretest 42.3 % post test 54.7% p= 0.001); controls group (pretest 45%, post test 44.8 p= 0.7). Proportion difference in Practice calculated out of 100 %: intervention group (pretest 15.4%, post test 80.4 % p= 0.0001); control group (pretest 16.8%, posttest 16.9 % p= 0.8). Mothers were quoted as major (> 90 %) source of reproductive health information. All focus group discussants and most of survey participants agreed on the urgent need of reproductive health information and services for adolescent girls. Conclusion: reproductive health knowledge and use of facilities is poor among adolescent girls in sub-urban Eretria. School-based peer reproductive health education is effective and is the best strategy to improve reproductive health knowledge and attitudes.

Keywords: reproductive health, adolescent girls, eretria, health education

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6605 Nurses as Being Participants of Sexual Health of Women

Authors: Malika Turganova, Aigul Abduldayeva


Modern conditions require nursing innovations at the primary ambulatory stage in the health system of Kazakhstan. There is a growing need for nurses involved in before-doctor attendance for preventive interview with a female population about reproductive health. We conducted questionnaire survey of the population of Astana in 2015. Questionnaires were drawn up according to the criteria of sexual health of World Health Organization. 3593 respondents out of 8000 questionnaires agreed to answer the questions anonymously, mM=±2,1. The average age of women comprised 37,4±11,2, Ме=31,7 years of age. Analysis of awareness about marriage hygiene revealed that 72,7% of respondents did not receive information about marriage hygiene and 89,1% respondents consider it more advisable before marriage. 45,9% of respondents specified the internet as a source of information on marriage hygiene issues, 24,5% of respondents pointed out friends, and 21,5% specified doctor. Comparing female age groups under and after 40 years old we see that proportion of cases when parents provide information about marriage hygiene issues comprises 4.3% (χ2 =9.8, p<0.05). The most important factor of preservation of women reproductive health is handling a problem of unwanted pregnancy. The responsibility lies equally in men and women. Data analysis of contraceptive methods by ranking showed three most frequently used methods: contraception sheath – 29.3%, then coitus interruptus – 18.7% and hormonal preparations – 16.9%. The most important factor of women's reproductive health preservation is a solving of the problem of unwanted pregnancy, and in this respect, the responsibility lies equally in men and women. Analyzing obtained data on contraceptive methods by ranking three of the most frequently used methods are condoms – 29,3%, then coitus interruptus – 18,7% and hormonal preparations – 16,9%. Additional oral survey of the population showed a low level of informational support of female population by family physicians, health care professionals of educational organizations (schools, universities, and colleges) about hormonal contraceptive. Females of both age groups used to think that hormonal contraceptives cause collateral damage such as blastoma, cancer, increased body weight, varix dilatation of lower limbs. Satisfaction with the frequency of sexual relations of the respondents comprised 57,6%. At that, women under 40 years of age are the most satisfied women among age groups (χ2 =5,8, p<0,05).

Keywords: nurse, public health service of Kazakhstan, reproductive and sexual health, trust of population

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