Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 375

Search results for: substance use

375 W. Norris Clarke’s “Substance-In-Relation”: A Viable Model for Reconstruction of African Personalism

Authors: Aloysius Ezeoba

Abstract:

W. Norris Clarke described his personalism as “substance-in-relation” which emphasizes the equality of primordial modes of substance and relation as a solution to the dichotomy between substance and relation created in the history of metaphysics of the human person. But African personalism seems to conceive the human person as essentially relational, which is mostly expressed in the saying: “I am because we are.” The problem with African personalism is that it tends to overemphasize the relational aspect of the human person, which makes it inclined toward collectivism, that most often seems to lead to repression of the individual (substance). The aim of this article is to attempt a proposal of a reconstruction of African communal personalism using the model of Clarke's personalism by laying equal emphasis on the primordial modes of substance and relation in order to guard against such repression of the individual or substance.

Keywords: substance, relation, human person, Chi, community, African personalism

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374 The Impact of Life Satisfaction on Substance Abuse: Delinquency as a Mediator

Authors: Mahadzirah Mohamad, Morliyati Mohammad, Nor Azman Mat Ali, Zainudin Awang

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Globally, youth substance abuse has been identified as the problem that causes substantial damage not only to individuals, but also to families and communities. In addition, substance abuse youths have become unproductive resources that would play lesser roles in the nation’s development. The increasing trend of substance abuse among youths has raised a lot of concern among various quarters in Malaysia. It has also been reported that Malay youths are the majority group involved in substance abuse. However, it was noted that life satisfaction had been found to be an important mitigating factor that addressed substance abuse. The objectives of the study were twofold: firstly, to ascertain the effect of life satisfaction on substance abuse among Malay youth. Secondly, to identify the role of delinquency on the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study adopted a cross-sectional research design. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 500 Malay youths at the youth programmes using a two-step sampling technique: area sampling and systematic sampling. The research hypotheses were tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significance relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. There is a significant inverse relationship between life satisfaction and delinquency. Moreover, delinquency has a positive significant influence on substance abuse. The use of Bootstrapping analysis proved that delinquency plays a full mediating role in the relationship between life satisfaction and substance abuse. This study suggested that life satisfaction has no effect on youth substance abuse. In order to reduce substance abuse, efforts should be undertaken to reduce delinquency behaviour by increasing youth life satisfaction.

Keywords: delinquency, life satisfaction, substance abuse, youth

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373 School-Related Variables and Adolescents Substance Use

Authors: Nicolas Meylan, Eric Tardif

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Many studies have highlighted the links between substance use and school difficulties. However, most of these studies address only the consumption in terms of frequency without considering the different types of behavior (use, abuse, dependence). Moreover, little is known about the associations between substance use and variables such as school engagement and school burnout recently described as a positive state of mind and an exhaustion syndrome related to school, respectively. Through this study, we wish to describe and compare school-related variables in adolescents with different type of substance use. Our study focuses on 402 Swiss adolescents, aged between 14 and 19 years old. They responded collectively and anonymously to a set of scales assessing substance use and several school variables (social support, stress, burnout, engagement and school climate). First, results on frequency and severity of substance use are relatively close to those observed in other studies. Second, it also appears that certain dimensions of stress, burnout, engagement and school climate are associated with the frequency of alcohol and cannabis consumption. Finally, adolescents’ substance abusers show particularly high scores of burnout, cynicism and stress related to workload, which can be understand as self-medication behavior. Additional analyzes are underway to clarify these associations. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research and clinical practice in academic burnout.

Keywords: school burnout, school engagement, adolescence, substance use, self-medication

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372 The Effect of Peer Pressure and Leisure Boredom on Substance Use Among Adolescents in Low-Income Communities in Capetown

Authors: Gaironeesa Hendricks, Shazly Savahl, Maria Florence

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The aim of the study is to determine whether peer pressure and leisure boredom influence substance use among adolescents in low-income communities in Cape Town. Non-probability sampling was used to select 296 adolescents between the ages of 16–18 from schools located in two low-income communities. The measurement tools included the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test, the Resistance to Peer Influence and Leisure Boredom Scales. Multiple regression revealed that the combined influence of peer pressure and leisure boredom predicted substance use, while peer pressure emerged as a stronger predictor than leisure boredom on substance use among adolescents.

Keywords: substance use, peer pressure, leisure boredom, adolescents, multiple regression

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371 Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-Addiction Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan, Md. Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Satparkash, Md. Nozrul Islam

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Background: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the pattern of substance use and factors related to it among the hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All the patients who were admitted in a private drug de-addiction clinic in the capital city (Dhaka) of Bangladesh during 1 July-31 December, 2013 and diagnosed as a case of substance use disorder by applying Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- Clinician Version were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through face to face interview by a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Study subjects were 105 in number. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Most (90.5%) of the respondents were male. The mean age of the respondents was 28.8 (± 8.0) years. Majority (91.4%) were poly-substance users. Most (27.6%) respondents used 3 types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5%) respondents. More than three-fourth (81%) of the respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, majority (79%) used opiates group, followed by cannabinoids group (55.2%) and alcohol (41%). Curiosity, peer pressure and to have enjoyment or fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found. The study findings would help in management and prevention strategy of substance use in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, de-addiction clinic, poly-substance users, substance use disorder

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370 Exploring Factors Associated with Substance Use among Pregnant Women in a Cape Town Community

Authors: Mutshinye Manguvhewa, Maria Florence, Mansoo Yu, Elize Koch, Kamal Kamaloodien

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Substance use among pregnant women is a perennial problem in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. There are many influential factors are associated with substance use among women of childbearing age. The study explored factors associated with substance use among pregnant women using a qualitative research design and the bio-ecological theoretical framework to explore and guide the researcher throughout the study. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Only participants accessed from the Department of Social Development meeting the inclusion criteria of the study were interviewed using semi structured interviews. Immediate referral for psychological intervention during the interview was available for participants who needed it. Braun and Clarke's six phases of thematic analysis were utilised to analyse the data. The study adheres to ethical guidelines for the participants' protection. Participants were informed about the study before the initiation of the interviews and the details of their voluntary participation were explained. The key findings from this study illustrate that socio-cultural factors, personal factors, emotional response and intimate relationships are the major contributing factors to substance use among pregnant women in this sample. The results outline the preventative measures that pregnant women implement. Lastly, the study reveals the positive and negative perceptions of substance use programmes that participants share. Some of the study findings are similar to the existing literature and some of the findings differed. Recommendations emanating from the study include that the stakeholders, rehabilitation centres, Department of Health and future researchers should act proactively against substance use during pregnancy.

Keywords: substance addiction, antenatal care, pregnancy, substance use

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369 Anxiety Sensitivity and Coping Motives Predict Substance Use Craving and Relapse

Authors: Ruhollah Heydari Sheikh Ahmad, Sara Alaie Khoraem

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Introduction: Substance use disorder is conceptualized as a chronic relapsing condition where relapse is usually defined as the return to problematic substance use following treatment. An issue of great importance is the identification of the predictors of relapse and the development of treatments that may help prevent relapse. One of the strongest predictors of relapse is craving. The purpose of the present study was to study the effect of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and coping motives on craving. Materials and method: Participants (n=74) were male opiate users recruited from a semi-private clinic providing de-toxification and treatment services for substance users. Anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, coping motives and craving were assessed using relevant questionnaires. The addiction severity index was used to assess addiction severity. Results: All patients were methadone maintained and one year after detoxification, 36 patients (48.64%) relapsed. Stress and anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, addiction severity and coping motives predicted craving and relapse. Anxiety sensitivity specifically predicted early relapse. Conclusion: Substance use is a severe mental disorder, with high relapse rates. Substance users high in anxiety sensitivity are particularly prone to relapse during the first six months of treatment. Addiction severity and coping motives need to be taken into account when providing interventional services for substance users. Findings imply the significance of additional psychological attention to methadone maintained patients to prevent craving and relapse.

Keywords: anxiety sensitivity, coping motives, relapse, substance use craving

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368 The Catholic Aristotle: Metaphysics and the Transubstantiation of the Eucharist

Authors: Elizabeth Latham

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Aristotle’s definition of substance from Metaphysics is relevant to the Catholic transubstantiation of the Eucharist, the idea that the actual substance of bread and wine is replaced by the substance of the body and blood of Christ. Assuming the physiological nature of the subjects do not change, the Aristotelian view on the nature of substance seems to be incompatible with this belief, since bread and wine have essential qualities different from those of flesh and blood. However, based on a theological view of the essence of the body and blood of Christ as salvation along with the essence of Eucharist, transubstantiation can fit within Aristotle’s brackets. This is one step further than theologians like Aquinas have gone in their similar discussions. Using his work as a method by which to understand the apparently impossible act of transforming food to flesh provides a logical angle on a question of faith.

Keywords: aristotle, catholicism, eucharist, metaphysics transubstantiation

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367 Identifying Factors Linking Childhood Neglect to Opiate Use

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

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The purpose of this study is to assess the relative mediating effects of impulsivity and internalizing problems in the relationship between childhood neglect and motives for opiate use. Seventy-two adolescent opiate users were recruited for the study. Participants completed assessments of childhood abuse history, distress, impulsiveness and motives for substance use as well as a socio-demographic information sheet. Findings from bootstrap mediator analyses indicated that distress, but not impulsiveness, mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and expansion and enhancement motives for substance use. The current study provides preliminary evidence that internalizing problems may function as a mechanism linking prior childhood experiences of emotional neglect to subsequent motives for substance use. Clinical implications of these findings suggest that targeting emotion dysregulation problems may be an effective adjunct in the treatment of adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment that are at risk for substance use.

Keywords: childhood neglect, impulsiveness, internalizing problems, substance use motives

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366 Family Management, Relations Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Substance Abuse in South Africa

Authors: Beatrice Wamuyu Muchiri, Monika M. L. Dos Santos

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An increasingly recognised prevention approach for substance use entails reduction in risk factors and enhancement of promotive or protective factors in individuals and the environment surrounding them during their growth and development. However, in order to enhance the effectiveness of this approach, continuous study of risk aspects targeting different cultures, social groups and mixture of society has been recommended. This study evaluated the impact of potential risk and protective factors associated with family management and relations on adolescent substance abuse in South Africa. Exploratory analysis and cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression modelling was performed on the data while controlling for demographic and socio-economic characteristics on adolescent substance use. The most intensely used substances were tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and alcohol in decreasing order of use intensity. The specific protective or risk impact of family management or relations factors varied from substance to substance. Risk factors associated with demographic and socio-economic factors included being male, younger age, being in lower education grades, coloured ethnicity, adolescents from divorced parents and unemployed or fully employed mothers. Significant family relations risk and protective factors against substance use were classified as either family functioning and conflict or family bonding and support. Several family management factors, categorised as parental monitoring, discipline, behavioural control and rewards, demonstrated either risk or protective effect on adolescent substance use. Some factors had either interactive risk or protective impact on substance use or lost significance when analysed jointly with other factors such as controlled variables. Interaction amongst risk or protective factors as well as the type of substance should be considered when further considering interventions based on these risk or protective factors. Studies in other geographical regions, institutions and with better gender balance are recommended to improve upon the representativeness of the results. Several other considerations to be made when formulating interventions, the shortcomings of this study and possible improvements as well as future studies are also suggested.

Keywords: risk factors, protective factors, substance use, adolescents

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365 Racism in Drug Policies: A Report on United States Legislation

Authors: Frederick Monyepao

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Crack cocaine first appeared on the scene in the form of cocaine freebasing in the late 1970s. Stockbrokers, investment bankers, rock stars, Hollywood elites, and a few pro athletes were regular users of the substance. As criminogenic factors associated with substance abuse began to surface, congress passed new legislation. The laws led to the increase of health coverage insurances and the expansion of hospitals. By the mid-1980s, crack use spread into America's inner cities among impoverished African Americans and Latinos. While substance abuse increased among minority communities, legislation pertaining to substance abuse evolved. The prison industry also expanded the number of cells available. A qualitative approach was taken, drawing from a range secondary sources for contextual analysis. This paper traces out the continued marginalisation and racist undertones towards minorities as perpetuated by certain drug policies. It was discovered that the new legislation on crack was instrumental in the largest incarcerations the United States ever faced. Drug offenders increased in prisons eightfold from 1986 to 2000. The paper concludes that American drug control policies are consistently irrational and ineffective when measured by levels of substance use and abuse. On the contrary, these policies have been successful as agents of social control in maintaining the stratification patterns of racial/ethnic minorities and women. To move beyond prohibition, radical law and policy reform may require a change in narratives on substance use.

Keywords: crack, drug policy, minorities, racism, substance abuse

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364 Changing Pattern of Drug Abuse: An Outpatient Department Based Study from India

Authors: Anshu Gupta, Charu Gupta

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Background: Punjab, a border state in India has achieved notoriety world over for its drug abuse problem. People right from school kids to elderly are hooked to drugs. This pattern of substance abuse is prevalent in both cities and villages alike. Excess of younger population in India has further aggravated the situation. It is feared that the benefits of India’s economic growth may well be negated by the rising substance abuse especially in this part of the country. It is quite evident that the pattern of substance abuse tends to change over time which is an impediment in the formulation of effective strategies to tackle this issue. Aim: Purpose of the study was to ascertain the change in the pattern of drug abuse for two consecutive years in the out patient department (OPD) population. Method: The study population comprised of all the patients reporting for deaddiction to the psychiatry outpatient department over a period of twelve months for two consecutive years. All the patients were evaluated by the International Classification of Diseases; 10 criteria for substance abuse/dependence. Results: A considerably high prevalence of substance abuse was present in the Indian population. In general, there was an increase in prevalence from first to the second year, especially among the female population. Increase in prevalence of substance abuse appeared to be more prominent among the younger age group of both the sexes. A significant increase in intravenous drug abuse was observed. Peer pressure and parental imitation were the major factors fueling substance abuse. Precipitation or fear of withdrawal symptoms was the major factor preventing abstinence. Substance abuse had a significant effect on the health and interpersonal relations of these patients. Summary/Conclusion: Drug abuse and addiction are on the rise throughout India. Changing cultural values, increasing economic stress and dwindling supportive bonds appear to be leading to initiation of substance abuse. Need of the hour is to formulate a comprehensive strategy to bring about an overall reduction in the use of drugs.

Keywords: deaddiction, peer pressure, parental imitation, substance abuse/dependance

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363 A Comparative Study of Substance Abusers and Non-Abusers on Peer Pressure, Tendency to Risk Taking Behavior and Anxiety

Authors: Musarrat Jabeen Khan, Uzma Azam, Kainat Umar, Jazba Amber Satti, Aiman Shehzadi, Nimo Omer

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This study aimed to examine the comparison between substance abusers and non-abusers on anxiety, peer pressure, and risk-taking behavior among young adults. The sample consisted of 138 individuals including 64 female and 71 males, age range from 17-35 years, drawn from non-clinical population through convenient sampling. Questionnaire technique was used for the information assortment and the scales were susceptibility to peer pressure (Dieman, Pamella, Shope & Butchart, 1987), Zung self-rating anxiety scale (Zung, 1971), and risk-taking questionnaire (Gullone, Moore, Moss & Boyd, 2000) having alpha reliability of .54, .88, and .80 respectively. Results showed that anxiety negatively correlates with the risk-taking behavior. High level of anxiety stops an individual to involve himself in risk taking activities. Peer pressure have positive correlation with risk-taking behavior. Females are more susceptible to peer pressure irrespective of being abusers or non-abusers as compared to male abusers and non-abusers. Substance abusers have less anxiety as compared to non-abusers but are more susceptible to peer pressure and risk-taking behaviors.

Keywords: substance, substance abuse, anxiety, peer pressure, risk-taking behavior

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362 Influence of Rational Emotive Therapy on Substance Abuse Among Secondary School Students in Benue State

Authors: Justina I. Reamen

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The study examined the influence of rational emotive therapy on the treatment of substance abuse among Senior Secondary School Students in Makurdi metropolis Benue State Nigeria. This research adopted youth self report scale which was distributed to 1,690 SSS Students drawn from Government day Secondary School Makurdi and Government Model College Makurdi. Afterwards, 200 who were identified to indulge in substance abuse were selected for the study, 100 each from the two schools. 100 were taken as the control group and 100 as the experimental group, (50 of each group from each school). The Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) intervention program was presented to the experimental group for seven (7) weeks. The students were taught how to apply REBT’s cognitive, Emotive and Behavioral techniques on their problems. After which post test was conducted to find out the impact of REBT on the treatment of adolescent students with substance abuse problem. GLM repeated measures of ANOVA were used to analyze the data from the study. The study reveals that REBT has positive impact on the treatment of adolescent students that abuse substances in the study area. Between pretest to post-test scores, a significant difference was observed (F=26.939; P=000) in substance abuse where a decrease of 1.12 (pre-10.91, post-9.79) scores was noticed irrespective of the groups. However, when the decrease in substance abuse were analyzed group wise, (experimental control) again significant F value (F=38.782; P=000) was obtained. From the mean scores it is evident that experimental group decreased it means by 2.56 (Pre-10.04 - Post-8.83) scores compared to control group, which changed its scores by only 0.32 scores (pre 11.04 - Post 11.36). Recommendations were made based on the findings of the research.

Keywords: abuse, influence, substance, therapy, treatment

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361 Emotion Dysregulation as Mediator between Child Abuse and Opiate Use Motives

Authors: Usha Barahmand, Ali Khazaee, Goudarz Sadeghi Hashjin

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Coping motives are considered to be indicators of problematic substance use. The present investigation examined a model with emotional abuse as an antecedent and emotional dysregulation as a mediator leading to substance use. The intent of this study was to examine the associations between various types of childhood maltreatment and motives for substance use. The sample consisted of 72 male opiate users recruited from those enrolled for Methadone Maintenance treatment. Participants responded to measures of childhood maltreatment, emotion dysregulation, and motives for opiate use. All data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and bootstrap analysis of mediation. Results supported the hypothesis that the experience of emotional abuse in childhood is associated with problems in regulating emotions which in turn correlates with opiate use as a way to cope with negative affect, to enhance positive effect or to obtain social rewards. Bootstrap analysis confirmed the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Findings support the potential utility of further research into emotion dysregulation and motives as antecedents of problematic opiate use.

Keywords: childhood abuse, emotion dysregulation, motives, substance use

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360 The Effect of Meta-Cognitive Therapy on Meta-Cognitive Defects and Emotional Regulation in Substance Dependence Patients

Authors: Sahra Setorg

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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of meta-cognitive therapy on meta-cognitive defects and emotional regulation in industrial substance dependence patients. This quasi-experimental research was conducted with post-test and two-month follow-up design with control and experimental groups. The statistical population consisted of all industrial Substance dependence patients refer to addictive withdrawal clinics in Esfahan city, in Iran in 2013. 45 patients were selected from three clinics through the convenience sampling method and were randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 crack dependences, 15 amphetamine dependences) and one control group (n=15). The meta-cognitive questionnaire (MCQ) and difficulties in emotional regulation questionnaire (DERS) were used as pre-test measures and the experimental groups (crack and amphetamine) received 8 MC therapy sessions in groups. The data were analyzed via multivariate covariance statistic method by spss-18. The results showed that MCT had a significant effect in improving the meta-cognitive defects in crack and amphetamine dependences. Also, this therapy can increase the emotional regulation in both groups (p<0/05).The effect of this therapy is confirmed in two months followup. According to these findings, met-cognitive is as an interface and important variable in prevention, control, and treatment of the new industrial substance dependences.

Keywords: meta-cognitive therapy, meta-cognitive defects, emotional regulation, substance dependence disorder

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359 Stress, Coping, and Substance Use Among College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Eli Goldstein, David Moore

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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought substantial changes to the lives of college students, impacting them negatively. A consequence of these impacts has led to a significant increase in the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress, as well as substance use. The present study investigated the relationship between substance use (alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, benzodiazepines, psychedelics, and opioids) among college students from March 2020 to March 2021 and the negative emotional states of depression, anxiety, and stress caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the relationship between certain personality traits and substance use. Participants (N = 85) answered three questionnaires that measured their expressed symptoms of each negative emotional state, their frequency of substance use, and their levels of five specific personality traits. Investigators predicted that individuals experiencing symptoms of stress and anxiety from the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as individuals showing higher levels of neuroticism and low levels of conscientiousness, would use more depressants (alcohol and benzodiazepines) and opioids to cope with their negative emotional states. Investigators also predicted that individuals who expressed high levels of openness to experience would be more likely to use psychedelics and cannabis to cope with symptoms of depression. Significant correlations showed that individuals primarily used depressants to cope with symptoms of anxiety, as well as cannabis and psychedelics to cope with symptoms of depression. It was also revealed that individuals with higher levels of openness to experience used cannabis and psychedelics, and those with high levels of neuroticism were more likely to use depressants. Two unexpected outcomes appeared for alcohol and depression and depressants and extraversion. Possible explanations for these outcomes are later discussed.

Keywords: substance use, mental health, personality traits, coping strategies

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358 Development of International Entry-Level Nursing Competencies to Address the Continuum of Substance Use

Authors: Cheyenne Johnson, Samantha Robinson, Christina Chant, Ann M. Mitchell, Carol Price, Carmel Clancy, Adam Searby, Deborah S. Finnell

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Introduction: Substance use along the continuum from at-risk use to a substance use disorder (SUD) contributes substantially to the burden of disease and related harms worldwide. There is a growing body of literature that highlights the lack of substance use related content in nursing curricula. Furthermore, there is also a lack of consensus on key competencies necessary for entry-level nurses. Globally, there is a lack of established nursing competencies related to prevention, health promotion, harm reduction and treatment of at-risk substance use and SUDs. At a critical time in public health, this gap in nursing curricula contributes to a lack of preparation for entry-level nurses to support people along the continuum of substance use. Thus, in practice, early opportunities for screening, support, and interventions may be missed. To address this gap, an international committee was convened to develop international entry-level nursing competencies specifying the knowledge, skills, and abilities that all nurses should possess in order to address the continuum of substance use. Methodology: An international steering committee, including representation from Canada, United States, United Kingdom, and Australia was established to lead this work over a one-year time period. The steering committee conducted a scoping review, undertaken to examine nursing competency frameworks, and to inform a competency structure that would guide this work. The next steps were to outline key competency areas and establish leaders for working groups to develop the competencies. In addition, a larger international committee was gathered to contribute to competency working groups, review the collective work and concur on the final document. Findings: A comprehensive framework was developed with competencies covering a wide spectrum of substance use across the lifespan and in the context of prevention, health promotion, harm reduction and treatment, including special populations. The development of this competency-based framework meets an identified need to provide guidance for universities, health authorities, policy makers, nursing regulators and other organizations that provide and support nursing education which focuses on care for patients and families with at-risk substance use and SUDs. Conclusion: Utilizing these global competencies as expected outcomes of an educational and skill building curricula for entry-level nurses holds great promise for incorporating evidence-informed training in the care and management of people across the continuum of substance use.

Keywords: addiction nursing, addiction nursing curriculum, competencies, substance use

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357 Heroic Villains: An Exploration of the Use of Narrative Plotlines and Emerging Identities within Recovery Stories of Former Substance Abusers

Authors: Tria Moore Aimee Walker-Clarke

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The purpose of the study was to develop a deeper understanding of how self-identity is negotiated and reconstructed by people in recovery from substance abuse. The approach draws on the notion that self-identity is constructed through stories. Specifically, dominant narratives of substance abuse involve the 'addict identity' in which the meaning of being an addict is constructed though social interaction and informed by broader social meanings of substance misuse, which are considered deviant. The addict is typically understood as out of control, weak and feckless. Users may unconsciously embody this addict identity which makes recovery less likely. Typical approaches to treatment employ the notion that recovery is much more likely when users change the way they think and feel about themselves by assembling a new identity. Recovery, therefore, involves a reconstruction of the self in a new light, which may mean rejecting a part of the self (the addict identity). One limitation is that previous research on this topic has been quantitative which, while useful, tells us little about how this process is best managed. Should one, for example, reject the past addict identity completely and move on to the new identity, or, is it more effective to accept the past identity and use this in the formation of the new non-user identity? The purpose of this research, then, is to explore how addicts in recovery have managed the transition between their past and current selves and whether this may inform therapeutic practice. Using a narrative approach, data were analyzed from five in-depth interviews with former addicts who had been abstinent for at least a year, and who were in some form of volunteering role at substance treatment services in the UK. Although participants' identified with a previous ‘addict identity,’ and made efforts to disassociate themselves from this, they also recognized that acceptance was an important part of reconstructing their new identity. The participants' narratives used familiar plot lines to structure their stories, in which they positioned themselves as the heroes in their own stories, rather than as victim of circumstance. Instead of rejecting their former addict identity, which would mean rejecting a part of the self, participants used their experience in a reconstructive and restorative way. The findings suggest that encouraging people to tell their story and accept their addict identity are important factors in successful recovery.

Keywords: addiction, identity, narrative, recovery, substance abuse

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356 Blogging Towards Recovery: The Benefits of Blogging about Recovery

Authors: Jayme R. Swanke

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This study examined the benefits of maintaining public blogs about substance use disorder recovery. The data analyzed for this study included statements about the benefits derived by individuals who blogged about their recovery. The researcher developed classifications of statements that expressed what these individuals gained from blogging into common themes and developed an emerging theory based on these patterns. The findings indicate that these individuals in recovery benefit from blogging by developing connections, processing emotions, remaining accountable, as well as enjoying.

Keywords: substance use disorder recovery, connection, blogging, accountability, processing emotions

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355 Advocating in the Criminal Justice System for Individuals Who Use Drugs: Advice from Advocates in the Greater Vancouver Area

Authors: Haley Hrymak

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For decades drug addiction has been understood to be a health problem and not a social problem. While research has advanced to allow for a more comprehensive understanding of the factors affecting addiction, the justice system has lagged behind. Given all that is known about addiction as a health issue and the need for effective rehabilitation to prevent further involvement with crime, there is a need for a dramatic shift in order to ensure individual's human right to health is being upheld within the Canadian criminal justice system. This research employs the qualitative methodology to interview advocates who work with substance users within the Greater Vancouver area to explore best practices for representing individuals with substance abuse issues within the Canadian justice system. The research shows that treatment, not punishment, is what is needed in order for recidivism to be reduced for individuals with substance abuse issues. The creative options that advocates employ to work within the current system are intended to provide a guide for lawyers working within the current criminal justice system.

Keywords: addiction, criminal law, right to health, rehabilitation

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354 Perceived Criticism, Anxiety Disorders, Substance Use Disorders in Women with Borderline Personality Disorders

Authors: Ipek Sensu

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Comorbid Axis I disorders are highly common for suicidal borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, especially substance use disorder and anxiety disorders. Since interpersonal dysfunction is one of the core symptoms in BPD, the purpose of the current study is to examine perceived criticism and anxiety disorders and also substance abuse disorders (SUD) for women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who attempt suicide at least once in their lifetime. In the current study, it was suggested that the perceived criticism from others and being upset by criticism differ between suicidal women with BPD with comorbidity of anxiety disorders and SUD (separately) and suicidal women with BPD without anxiety disorders and without SUD (separately). The participants in this study included ninety-nine women who have already been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and also have had at least two episodes of deliberate self-harm, in other words, suicide attempts and/or non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the last five years and at least one episode in the 8-week period before joining the research study and at least one suicide attempt in the previous year. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) and Social History Interview (SHI) were conducted to determine the comorbid axis I disorders and level of perceived criticism. As a result of the independent sample t-tests, the first hypothesis was rejected, in other words, women with BPD and a comorbid anxiety disorder did not show significantly higher levels of ‘criticized by others’, compared to women with BPD alone. However, the levels of ‘upset at criticism’ were significantly different between suicidal women with BPD with or without any anxiety disorders, which is the second hypothesis. In addition, the third hypothesis was also accepted; this means, women with BPD who had any substance use dependence would show significantly higher levels of 'criticized by others' compared to women with BPD alone. Finally, the fourth hypothesis was partly accepted: that is, women with BPD with alcohol dependence had significantly higher levels of ‘how upset when they expose to criticism’, compared to those without alcohol dependence. Limitations, implications, and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: anxiety disorders, borderline personality disorders, perceived criticism, substance use disorders

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353 Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal

Authors: Nidesh Sapkota, Garima Pudasaini, Dikshya Agrawal, Binav Baral, Umesh Bhagat, Dharanidhar Baral

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Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.

Keywords: alcohol, cannabis, dependence, depression, medical students

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352 Victimization in Schizophrenia: A Cross-Sectional Prospective Study

Authors: Mehmet Budak, Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

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Objectives: In this research, we studied the extent of exposure to physical violence and committing violence in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in comparison to a control group consisting of patients with psychiatric diseases other than psychotic and mood disorders. Method: Between August 2019 and October 2019, a total of 100 hospitalized patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (clinically in remission, Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale < 30) were sequentially studied while undergoing inpatient treatment at Erenkoy Mental Health Training and Research Hospital. From the outpatient clinic, 50 patients with psychiatric disorders other than psychotic disorders or mood disorders were consecutively included as a control group. All participants were evaluated by the sociodemographic data that also questions the history of violence, physical examination, bilateral comparative hand, and forearm anterior-posterior and lateral radiography. Results: While 59% of patients with schizophrenia and 28% of the control group stated that they were exposed to physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p < 0,001); a defensive wound or fracture was detected in 29% of patients with schizophrenia and 2% of the control group (p < 0.001). On the other hand, 61% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and 32% of the control group expressed that they committed physical violence at least once in a lifetime (p: 0.001). A self-destructive wound or fracture was detected in 53% of the patients with schizophrenia and 24% of the control group (p: 0,001). In the schizophrenia group, the rate of committing physical violence is higher in those with substance use compared to those without substance use (p:0.049). Also, wounds and bone fractures (boxer’s fracture) resulting from self-injury are more common in schizophrenia patients with substance use (p:0,002). In the schizophrenia group, defensive wounds and parry fractures (which are located in the hand, forearm, and arm usually occur as a result of a trial to shield the face against an aggressive attack and are known to be the indicators of interpersonal violence) are higher in those with substance use compared to those who do not (p:0,007). Conclusion: This study shows that exposure to physical violence and the rate of violence is higher in patients with schizophrenia compared to the control group. It is observed that schizophrenia patients who are stigmatized as being aggressive are more exposed to violence. Substance use in schizophrenia patients increases both exposure to physical violence and the use of physical violence. Physical examination and anamnesis that question violence are important tools to reveal the exposure to violence in patients. Furthermore, some specific bone fractures and wounds could be used to detect victimization even after plenty of time passes.

Keywords: fracture, physical violence, schizophrenia, substance use

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351 Pregnant Women in Substance Abuse: Transition of Characteristics and Mining of Association from Teds-a 2011 to 2018

Authors: Md Tareq Ferdous Khan, Shrabanti Mazumder, MB Rao

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Background: Substance use during pregnancy is a longstanding public health problem that results in severe consequences for pregnant women and fetuses. Methods: Eight (2011-2018) datasets on pregnant women’s admissions are extracted from TEDS-A. Distributions of sociodemographic, substance abuse behaviors, and clinical characteristics are constructed and compared over the years for trends by the Cochran-Armitage test. Market basket analysis is used in mining the association among polysubstance abuse. Results: Over the years, pregnant woman admissions as the percentage of total and female admissions remain stable, where total annual admissions range from 1.54 to about 2 million with the female share of 33.30% to 35.61%. Pregnant women aged 21-29, 12 or more years of education, white race, unemployed, holding independent living status are among the most vulnerable. Concerns prevail on a significant number of polysubstance users, young age at first use, frequency of daily users, and records of prior admissions (60%). Trends of abused primary substances show a significant rise in heroin (66%) and methamphetamine (46%) over the years, although the latest year shows a considerable downturn. On the other hand, significant decreasing patterns are evident for alcohol (43%), marijuana or hashish (24%), cocaine or crack (23%), other opiates or synthetics (36%), and benzodiazepines (29%). Basket analysis reveals some patterns of co-occurrence of substances consistent over the years. Conclusions: This comprehensive study can work as a reference to identify the most vulnerable groups based on their characteristics and deal with the most hazardous substances from their evidence of co-occurrence.

Keywords: basket analysis, pregnant women, substance abuse, trend analysis

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350 Modern Tragic Substance in O’Neill’s Desire under the Elms and Mourning Becomes Electra

Authors: Azza Taha Zaki

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The position Eugene O’Neill occupies in the history of American drama is undisputable. Critics have agreed that the American theatre was waiting for O’Neill to give it substance, character, and value. The American dramatist continues to be considered as a major influence on the body of dramatic repertoire across the globe. The American theatre before O’Neill knew playwrights who were mostly viewed as entertainers. The serious drama had to wait until O’Neill started his career with expressionistic and social drama. His breakthrough, however, came in 1925 when he published Desire Under the Elms, described as the first important tragedy to be written in America. Mourning Becomes Electra, published in 1931, further reinforced the reputation of Eugene O’Neill and was described as his 'magnum opus'. Aspiring to portray the essence of life and man’s innermost conflicts, O’Neill turned to the classical model, rather than to social realistic drama, to create modern tragedies with the aid of the then-new science of psychology. The present paper aims to undertake an in-depth study of how overtones from classical tragedies by the classical masters Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides resonate through O’Neill’s two plays. The paper shows how leaning on classical themes and concepts interpreted in terms of psychological forces have added depth and tragic substance to a modern milieu and produced masterpieces of dramaturgy.

Keywords: classical, drama, O'Neill, modern, tragic

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349 Development of a Framework for Family Therapy for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Perspective from India

Authors: Tanya Anand, Arun Kandasamy, L. N. Suman

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Family based therapy for adolescent substance abuse has been studied to be effective in the West. Whereas, based on literature review, family therapy and interventions for adolescent substance abuse is still in its nascent stages in India. A multidimensional perspective to treatment has been indicated consistently in the Indian literature, but standardized therapy which addresses early substance abuse, from a social-ecological perspective has not been developed and studied for Indian population. While numerous researches have been conducted in India on the need of engaging the family in therapy for the purpose of symptom reduction, long-term maintenance of gains, and reducing family burnout, distress and dysfunction; a family based model in the Indian context has not been developed and tried, to the best of our knowledge. Hence, from the aim of building a model to treat adolescent substance abuse within the family context, experts in the area of mental health and deaddiction were interviewed to inform upon the clinical difficulties, challenges, uniqueness that Indian families present with. The integration of indigenous techniques that would be helpful in engaging families of young individuals with difficulties were also explored. Eight experts' who were interviewed, have 10-30 years of experience in working with families and substance users. An open-ended interview was conducted with the experts individually and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed and subjected to qualitative analysis for building a framework and treatment guideline. Additionally, interviews with patients and their parents were conducted to elicit ‘felt needs’. The results of the analysis revealed culture-specific issues widely experienced within Indian families by adolescents and young adults, centering around the theme of Individuation versus collective identity and living. Substance abuse, in this framework, was found to be perceived as one of the maladaptive ways of the youth to disengage from the family and attempt at individuation and the responsibilities that are considered entitlements in the culture. On the other hand, interviews with family members revealed them to be engaging in inconsistent patterns of care and parenting. This was experienced and observed in terms of fostering interdependence within the family, sometimes within adverse socio-economic and societal conditions, where enacted and perceived stigma kept the individual and family members in a vicious loop of maladaptive coping patterns, dysfunctional family arrangements, and often leading to burnout with poor help seeking. The paper inform upon a framework that lays down the foundation for assessments, planning, case management and therapist competencies, required to address alcohol and drug issues in an Indian family context with such etiological factors at its heart. This paper will cover qualitative results of the interviews and present a model that may guide mental health professionals for treatment of adolescent substance use and family therapy.

Keywords: Indian families, family therapy, de-addiction, adolescent, youth, substance abuse, behavioral issues, felt needs, culture, etiology, model building, framework development, interviews

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348 Feasibility and Efficacy of Matrix Model in Arabic Countries

Authors: Yasin Ibrahim, Hisham Almohandes, Chia Hsu, Regina Baronia, Jesse Worsham, Sara Abdelgawad, Mansour Shawky, Mohammed Abdelfattah, Nesif Alhemiary

Abstract:

Background: The matrix model (MM) is an evidence-based program for treating substance use disorders. Since first translated into Arabic in 2010, the MM has been gaining popularity in Arabic countries. However, there is no published data as pertains to its efficacy and feasibility in Arabic communities. Here we aimed at exploring providers’ perspectives on its feasibility and efficacy. Methods: Eight addiction treatment centers from four Arabic countries, namely Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Iraq, were contacted via email. They were asked to fill in a 21-item questionnaire. Results: Matrix model continues to be utilized in 6 out of the 8 contacted programs. One center in Egypt has discontinued the MM as the providers felt it was not suitable for substance disorders other than stimulants, which are not common in Egypt. Baghdad University Medical Center has substituted MM with Colombo Program as there have been more training opportunities available for it. Data showed wide variability in regards to number of clients treated with the MM (from 300 to 2500). The Arabic version was utilized for training providers in 5 out of the 8 centers while the providers of the other 3 have been trained in the United States. All providers reported that MM made their job significantly easier, and seven providers believed that MM has favorably affected the relapse rate. In all of the six centers, MM is being utilized for many substance use disorders in addition to stimulant use disorders. Reported challenges included the acceptability of patients and their families, difficulty understanding some concepts, and high drop rates in some centers. Conclusion: Matrix model seems to be a valuable modality for the treatment of substance use disorders in Arabic countries. It has its own challenges and limitations that call for more culturally adapted versions.

Keywords: addiction, Arabic countries, developing countries, matrix model

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347 Characterization of Penicillin V Acid and Its Related Compounds by HPLC

Authors: Bahdja Guerfi, N. Hadhoum, I. Azouz, M. Bendoumia, S. Bouafia, F. Z. Hadjadj Aoul

Abstract:

Background: 'Penicillin V' is a narrow, bactericidal antibiotic of the beta-lactam family of the naturally occurring penicillin group. It is limited to infections due to the germs defined as sensitive. The objective of this work was to identify and to characterize Penicillin V acid and its related compounds by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: Firstly phenoxymethylpenicillin was identified by an infrared absorption. The organoleptic characteristics, pH, and determination of water content were also studied. The dosage of Penicillin V acid active substance and the determination of its related compounds were carried on waters HPLC, equipped with a UV detector at 254 nm and Discovery HS C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm X 5 µm) which is maintained at room temperature. The flow rate was about 1 ml per min. A mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (65:35:01) was used as mobile phase for phenoxyacetic acid ‘impurity B' and a mixture of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (650:150:5.75) for the assay and 4-hydroxypenicillin V 'impurity D'. Results: The identification of Penicillin V acid active substance and the evaluation of its chemical quality showed conformity with USP 35th edition. The Penicillin V acid content in the raw material is equal to 1692.22 UI/mg. The percentage content of phenoxyacetic acid and 4-hydroxypenicillin V was respectively: 0.035% and 0.323%. Conclusion: Through these results, we can conclude that the Penicillin V acid active substance tested is of good physicochemical quality.

Keywords: characterization, HPLC, Penicillin V acid, related substances

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346 Teen Insights into Drugs, Alcohol, and Nicotine: A National Survey of Adolescent Attitudes toward Addictive Substances

Authors: Linda Richter

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Background and Significance: The influence of parents on their children’s attitudes and behaviors is immense, even as children grow out of what one might assume to be their most impressionable years and into teenagers. This study specifically examines the potential that parents have to prevent or reduce the risk of adolescent substance use, even in the face of considerable environmental influences to use nicotine, alcohol, or drugs. Methodology: The findings presented are based on a nationally representative survey of 1,014 teens aged 12-17 living in the United States. Data were collected using an online platform in early 2018. About half the sample was female (51%), 49% was aged 12-14, and 51% was aged 15-17. The margin of error was +/- 3.5%. Demographic data on the teens and their families were available through the survey platform. Survey items explored adolescent respondents’ exposure to addictive substances; the extent to which their sources of information about these substances are reliable or credible; friends’ and peers’ substance use; their own intentions to try substances in the future; and their relationship with their parents. Key Findings: Exposure to nicotine, alcohol, or other drugs and misinformation about these substances were associated with a greater likelihood that adolescents have friends who use drugs and that they have intentions to try substances in the future, which are known to directly predict actual teen substance use. In addition, teens who reported a positive relationship with their parents and having parents who are involved in their lives had a lower likelihood of having friends who use drugs and of having intentions to try substances in the future. This relationship appears to be mediated by parents’ ability to reduce the extent to which their children are exposed to substances in their environment and to misinformation about them. Indeed, the findings indicated that teens who reported a good relationship with their parents and those who reported higher levels of parental monitoring had significantly higher odds of reporting a lower number of risk factors than teens with a less positive relationship with parents or less monitoring. There also were significantly greater risk factors associated with substance use among older teens relative to younger teens. This shift appears to coincide directly with the tendency of parents to pull back in their monitoring and their involvement in their adolescent children’s lives. Conclusion: The survey findings underscore the importance of resisting the urge to completely pull back as teens age and demand more independence since that is exactly when the risks for teen substance use spike and young people need their parents and other trusted adults to be involved more than ever. Particularly through the cultivation of a healthy, positive, and open relationship, parents can help teens receive accurate and credible information about substance use and also monitor their whereabouts and exposure to addictive substances. These findings, which come directly from teens themselves, demonstrate the importance of continued parental engagement throughout children’s lives, regardless of their age and the disincentives to remaining involved and connected.

Keywords: adolescent, parental monitoring, prevention, substance use

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