Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: Sarath Chandran Nair S

54 Slosh Investigations on a Spacecraft Propellant Tank for Control Stability Studies

Authors: Sarath Chandran Nair S, Srinivas Kodati, Vasudevan R, Asraff A. K

Abstract:

Spacecrafts generally employ liquid propulsion for their attitude and orbital maneuvers or raising it from geo-transfer orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Liquid propulsion systems use either mono-propellant or bi-propellants for generating thrust. These propellants are generally stored in either spherical tanks or cylindrical tanks with spherical end domes. The propellant tanks are provided with a propellant acquisition system/propellant management device along with vanes and their conical mounting structure to ensure propellant availability in the outlet for thrust generation even under a low/zero-gravity environment. Slosh is the free surface oscillations in partially filled containers under external disturbances. In a spacecraft, these can be due to control forces and due to varying acceleration. Knowledge of slosh and its effect due to internals is essential for understanding its stability through control stability studies. It is mathematically represented by a pendulum-mass model. It requires parameters such as slosh frequency, damping, sloshes mass and its location, etc. This paper enumerates various numerical and experimental methods used for evaluating the slosh parameters required for representing slosh. Numerical methods like finite element methods based on linear velocity potential theory and computational fluid dynamics based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations are used for the detailed evaluation of slosh behavior in one of the spacecraft propellant tanks used in an Indian space mission. Experimental studies carried out on a scaled-down model are also discussed. Slosh parameters evaluated by different methods matched very well and finalized their dispersion bands based on experimental studies. It is observed that the presence of internals such as propellant management devices, including conical support structure, alters slosh parameters. These internals also offers one order higher damping compared to viscous/ smooth wall damping. It is an advantage factor for the stability of slosh. These slosh parameters are given for establishing slosh margins through control stability studies and finalize the spacecraft control system design.

Keywords: control stability, propellant tanks, slosh, spacecraft, slosh spacecraft

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
53 Happiness Determinants in MBA Student Life

Authors: Vivek Nair

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The objective of this research is to find out happiness determinants in MBA student life. To figure out the factors influencing happiness in life is sorted by their personal profiles. This paper used survey method to collect data. The survey was mainly conducted among Management Students and is based on three hypothesis viz. Family relationship, Friendship and God as a source of happiness, and whether happiness is manageable and controllable. The statistics used for interpreting the results included the frequencies, percentages, and z test analysis. The findings revealed that family relationships and friendship have the same effect on individual happiness.

Keywords: happiness, family, MBA students, friends

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
52 Review of Suitable Advanced Oxidation Processes for Degradation of Organic Compounds in Produced Water during Enhanced Oil Recovery

Authors: Smita Krishnan, Krittika Chandran, Chandra Mohan Sinnathambi

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Produced water and its treatment and management are growing challenges in all producing regions. This water is generally considered as a nonrevenue product, but it can have significant value in enhanced oil recovery techniques if it meets the required quality standards. There is also an interest in the beneficial uses of produced water for agricultural and industrial applications. Advanced Oxidation Process is a chemical technology that has been growing recently in the wastewater treatment industry, and it is highly recommended for non-easily removal of organic compounds. The efficiency of AOPs is compound specific, therefore, the optimization of each process should be done based on different aspects.

Keywords: advanced oxidation process, photochemical processes, degradation, organic contaminants

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
51 Impact of CYP3A5 Polymorphism on Tacrolimus to Predict the Optimal Initial Dose Requirements in South Indian Renal Transplant Recipients

Authors: S. Sreeja, Radhakrishnan R. Nair, Noble Gracious, Sreeja S. Nair, M. Radhakrishna Pillai

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Background: Tacrolimus is a potent immunosuppressant clinically used for the long term treatment of antirejection of transplanted organs in liver and kidney transplant recipients though dose optimization is poorly managed. However, So far no study has been carried out on the South Indian kidney transplant patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential influence of a functional polymorphism in CYP3A5*3 gene on tacrolimus physiological availability/dose ratio in South Indian renal transplant patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty five renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus were enrolled in this study. Their body weight, drug dosage, and therapeutic concentration of Tacrolimus were observed. All patients were on standard immunosuppressive regime of Tacrolimus-Mycophenolate mofetil along with steroids on a starting dose of Tac 0.1 mg/kg/day. CYP3A5 genotyping was performed by PCR followed with RFLP. Conformation of RFLP analysis and variation in the nucleotide sequence of CYP3A5*3 gene were determined by direct sequencing using a validated automated generic analyzer. Results: A significant association was found between tacrolimus per dose/kg/d and CYP3A5 gene (A6986G) polymorphism in the study population. The CYP3A5 *1/*1, *1/*3 and *3/*3 genotypes were detected in 5 (20 %), 5 (20 %) and 15 (60 %) of the 25 graft recipients, respectively. CYP3A5*3 genotypes were found to be a good predictor of tacrolimus Concentration/Dose ratio in kidney transplant recipients. Significantly higher L/D was observed among non-expressors 9.483 ng/mL(4.5- 14.1) as compared with the expressors 5.154 ng/mL (4.42-6.5 ) of CYP3A5. Acute rejection episodes were significantly higher for CYP3A5*1 homozygotes compared to patients with CYP3A5*1/*3 and CYP3A5*3/*3 genotypes (40 % versus 20 % and 13 %, respectively ). The dose normalized TAC concentration (ng/ml/mg/kg) was significantly lower in patients having CYP3A5*1/*3 polymorphism. Conclusion: This is the first study to extensively determine the effect of CYP3A5*3 genetic polymorphism on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in South Indian renal transplant recipients and also shows that majority of our patients carry mutant allele A6986G in CYP3A5*3 gene. Identification of CYP3A5 polymorphism prior to transplantation could contribute to evaluate the appropriate initial dosage of tacrolimus for each patient.

Keywords: kidney transplant patients, CYP3A5 genotype, tacrolimus, RFLP

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
50 Concept-Based Assessment in Curriculum

Authors: Nandu C. Nair, Kamal Bijlani

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This paper proposes a concept-based assessment to track the performance of the students. The idea behind this approach is to map the exam questions with the concepts learned in the course. So at the end of the course, each student will know how well he learned each concept. This system will give a self assessment for the students as well as instructor. By analyzing the score of all students, instructor can decide some concepts need to be teaching again or not. The system’s efficiency is proved using three courses from M-tech program in E-Learning technologies and results show that the concept-wise assessment improved the score in final exam of majority students on various courses.

Keywords: assessment, concept, examination, question, score

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
49 Effect of Aeration on Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation

Authors: Azila Adnan, Giridhar R. Nair, Mark C. Lay, Janis E. Swan

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The effect of aeration on bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 was studied in 5-L bioreactor. Four aeration rates were applied (0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) in the fermentation media at constant agitation rate, 150 rpm. One vvm enhanced BC concentration (4.4 g/L) and productivity (0.44 g/L/day) while greater agitation rate (1.5 vvm) decreased BC concentration (4.0 g/L) and productivity (0.40 g/L/day).

Keywords: aeration, bacterial cellulose, fermentation, gluconacetobacter xylinus

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48 Image Retrieval Based on Multi-Feature Fusion for Heterogeneous Image Databases

Authors: N. W. U. D. Chathurani, Shlomo Geva, Vinod Chandran, Proboda Rajapaksha

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Selecting an appropriate image representation is the most important factor in implementing an effective Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system. This paper presents a multi-feature fusion approach for efficient CBIR, based on the distance distribution of features and relative feature weights at the time of query processing. It is a simple yet effective approach, which is free from the effect of features' dimensions, ranges, internal feature normalization and the distance measure. This approach can easily be adopted in any feature combination to improve retrieval quality. The proposed approach is empirically evaluated using two benchmark datasets for image classification (a subset of the Corel dataset and Oliva and Torralba) and compared with existing approaches. The performance of the proposed approach is confirmed with the significantly improved performance in comparison with the independently evaluated baseline of the previously proposed feature fusion approaches.

Keywords: feature fusion, image retrieval, membership function, normalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
47 A System to Detect Inappropriate Messages in Online Social Networks

Authors: Shivani Singh, Shantanu Nakhare, Kalyani Nair, Rohan Shetty

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As social networking is growing at a rapid pace today it is vital that we work on improving its management. Research has shown that the content present in online social networks may have significant influence on impressionable minds. If such platforms are misused, it will lead to negative consequences. Detecting insults or inappropriate messages continues to be one of the most challenging aspects of Online Social Networks (OSNs) today. We address this problem through a Machine Learning Based Soft Text Classifier approach using Support Vector Machine algorithm. The proposed system acts as a screening mechanism the alerts the user about such messages. The messages are classified according to their subject matter and each comment is labeled for the presence of profanity and insults.

Keywords: machine learning, online social networks, soft text classifier, support vector machine

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46 Optimal Trailing Edge Flap Positions of Helicopter Rotor for Various Thrust Coefficient to Solidity (Ct/σ) Ratios

Authors: K. K. Saijaand, K. Prabhakaran Nair

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This study aims to determine change in optimal lo-cations of dual trailing-edge flaps for various thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratios of helicopter to achieve minimum hub vibration levels, with low penalty in terms of required trailing-edge flap control power. Polynomial response functions are used to approximate hub vibration and flap power objective functions. Single objective and multi-objective optimization is carried with the objective of minimizing hub vibration and flap power. The optimization results shows that the inboard flap location at low Ct/σ ratio move farther from the baseline value and at high Ct/σ ratio move towards the root of the blade for minimizing hub vibration.

Keywords: helicopter rotor, trailing-edge flap, thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratio, optimization

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45 Runoff Estimation Using NRCS-CN Method

Authors: E. K. Naseela, B. M. Dodamani, Chaithra Chandran

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The GIS and remote sensing techniques facilitate accurate estimation of surface runoff from watershed. In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the applicability of Natural Resources Service Curve Number method using GIS and Remote sensing technique in the upper Krishna basin (69,425 Sq.km). Landsat 7 (with resolution 30 m) satellite data for the year 2012 has been used for the preparation of land use land cover (LU/LC) map. The hydrologic soil group is mapped using GIS platform. The weighted curve numbers (CN) for all the 5 subcatchments calculated on the basis of LU/LC type and hydrologic soil class in the area by considering antecedent moisture condition. Monthly rainfall data was available for 58 raingauge stations. Overlay technique is adopted for generating weighted curve number. Results of the study show that land use changes determined from satellite images are useful in studying the runoff response of the basin. The results showed that there is no significant difference between observed and estimated runoff depths. For each subcatchment, statistically positive correlations were detected between observed and estimated runoff depth (0.6Keywords: curve number, GIS, remote sensing, runoff

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44 Second Language Skill through M-Learning

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran, A. Geetha

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This paper addresses three issues: how to prepare the instructional design for imparting English language skill from inter-disciplinary self-learning material; how the disadvantaged students are benefited from such kind of language skill imparted through m-learning; and how do m-learners perform better than the other learners. This paper examines these issues through an experimental study conducted among the distance learners enrolled in a preparatory program for bachelor’s degree. This program is designed for the disadvantaged learners especially for the school drop-outs to qualify to pursue graduate program through distant education. It also explains how mobile learning helps them to enhance their capacity in learning despite their rural background and other disadvantages. In India, nearly half of the students enrolled in schools do not complete their study. The pursuance of higher education is very low when compared with developed countries. This study finds a significant increase in their learning capacity and mobile learning seems to be a viable alternative where the conventional system could not reach the disadvantaged learners. Improving the English language skill is one of the reasons for such kind of performance. Exercises framed from the relevant self-learning material for enhancing English language skill not only improves language skill but also widens the subject-knowledge. This paper explains these issues out of the study conducted among the disadvantaged learners.

Keywords: English language skill, disadvantaged learners, distance education, m-learning

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43 Imparting Second Language Skill through M-Learning

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran, A. Geetha

Abstract:

This paper addresses three issues: how to prepare instructional design for imparting English language skill from inter-disciplinary self-learning material; how the disadvantaged students are benefited from such kind of language skill imparted through m-learning; and how do the m-learners perform better than the other learners. This paper examines these issues through an experimental study conducted among the distance learners enrolled in preparatory program for bachelor’s degree. This program is designed for the disadvantage learners especially for the school drop-outs to qualify to pursue graduate program through distant education. It also explains how mobile learning helps them to enhance their capacity in learning despite their rural background and other disadvantages. In India nearly half of the students enrolled in schools do not complete their study. The pursuance of higher education is very low when compared with developed countries. This study finds a significant increase in their learning capacity and mobile learning seems to be a viable alternative where conventional system could not reach the disadvantaged learners. Improving the English language skill is one of the reasons for such kind of performance. Exercises framed from the relevant self-learning material for enhancing English language skill not only improves language skill but also widens the subject-knowledge. This paper explains these issues out of the study conducted among the disadvantaged learners.

Keywords: English language skill, disadvantaged learners, distance education, m-learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 561
42 Development, Characterization and Properties of Novel Quaternary Rubber Nanocomposites

Authors: Kumar Sankaran, Santanu Chattopadhyay, Golok Behari Nando, Sujith Nair, Sreejesh Arayambath, Unnikrishnan Govindan

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Rubber nanocomposites based on Bromobutyl rubber (BIIR), Polyepichlorohydrin rubber (CO), Carbon black (CB) and organically modified montmorillonite clay (NC) were prepared via melt compounding technique. The developed quaternary nanocomposites were characterized analytically and their properties were compared against the standard BIIR compound. BIIR-CO nanocomposites showed improved physico-mechanical properties as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound. Hybrid microstructure (NC-CB) development, clay exfoliation and better filler dispersion in the quaternary nanocomposite significantly contributed to the overall enhancement of properties. Introduction of CO in the system increased the specific gravity and hardness of the compound as compared to that of the standard compound. XRD analysis, AFM imaging and HR-TEM measurements confirmed exfoliation and a good level of dispersion of the NC in the composites. Permeability of developed BIIR-CO nanocomposites decreases significantly as compared to that of the standard BIIR compound.

Keywords: rubber nanocomposites, morphology, permeability, BIIR

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
41 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Journal Bearing Operating With Nanolubricants

Authors: R. Hariprakash, K. Prabhakaran Nair

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In this paper, the static and dynamic characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings operating under nano lubricants are presented. Hydrodynamic journal bearings are used in turbo machines of power plants to support heavy load. In power plants, bearings are getting failure because of its inability to support the heavy load due to various reasons. Failures of bearings make the power plant to be shutdown. The load carrying capacity of journal bearing mainly depends upon the viscosity of the lubricants. The addition of nano particles on commercially available lubricant may enhance the viscosity of lubricant and in turn, change the performance characteristics. In the literature, though many studies have been carried out for the hydrodynamic bearing operating under Newtonian and non-Newtonian lubricants, studies on hydrodynamic bearings operating under nano lubricants is scarce. Thus, it is felt that there is a need to recompute the performance characteristics of journal bearings operating under nano lubricants.

Keywords: hydrodynamic, journal, bearing, analysis

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40 Mapping of Textile Waste Generation across the Value Chains Operating in the Textile Industry

Authors: Veena Nair, Srikanth Prakash, Mayuri Wijayasundara

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Globally, the textile industry is a key contributor to the generation of solid waste which gets landfilled. Textile waste generation generally occurs in three stages, namely: producer waste, pre-consumer waste, and post-consumer waste. However, the different processes adopted in textile material extraction, manufacturing, and use have their respective impact in terms of the quantity of waste being diverted to landfills. The study is focused on assessing the value chains of the two most common textile fibres: cotton and polyester, catering to a broad categories of apparel products. This study attempts to identify and evaluate the key processes adopted by the textile industry at each of the stages in their value chain in terms of waste generation. The different processes identified in each of the stages in the textile value chains are mapped to their respective contribution in generating fibre waste which eventually gets diverted to landfill. The results of the study are beneficial for the overall industry in terms of improving the traceability of waste in the value chains and the selection of processes and behaviours facilitating the reduction of environmental impacts associated with landfills.

Keywords: textile waste, textile value chains, landfill waste, waste mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
39 Improving Perceptual Reasoning in School Children through Chess Training

Authors: Ebenezer Joseph, Veena Easvaradoss, S. Sundar Manoharan, David Chandran, Sumathi Chandrasekaran, T. R. Uma

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Perceptual reasoning is the ability that incorporates fluid reasoning, spatial processing, and visual motor integration. Several theories of cognitive functioning emphasize the importance of fluid reasoning. The ability to manipulate abstractions and rules and to generalize is required for reasoning tasks. This study, funded by the Cognitive Science Research Initiative, Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, analyzed the effect of 1-year chess training on the perceptual reasoning of children. A pretest–posttest with control group design was used, with 43 (28 boys, 15 girls) children in the experimental group and 42 (26 boys, 16 girls) children in the control group. The sample was selected from children studying in two private schools from South India (grades 3 to 9), which included both the genders. The experimental group underwent weekly 1-hour chess training for 1 year. Perceptual reasoning was measured by three subtests of WISC-IV INDIA. Pre-equivalence of means was established. Further statistical analyses revealed that the experimental group had shown statistically significant improvement in perceptual reasoning compared to the control group. The present study clearly establishes a correlation between chess learning and perceptual reasoning. If perceptual reasoning can be enhanced in children, it could possibly result in the improvement of executive functions as well as the scholastic performance of the child.

Keywords: chess, cognition, intelligence, perceptual reasoning

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
38 A Study on Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Rural Development

Authors: N. Amruth Raj, Suja S. Nair

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The last six decades have borne witness to a radical change in the private sectors relationship with both the state and civil society. Firms have been increasingly called upon to adopt strategies beyond the financial aspects of their operations and consider the social and environmental impact of their business activities. In this context, many companies have modified their policies and activities and engaged into Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) especially on Rural development in India. At the firm level, CSR is implemented through various practices, which aim to enhance the company’s social and environmental performance and may cover various topics. Examples of CSR practices are abundant in Andhra Pradesh relevant literature. For instance, in India especially at Andhra Pradesh companies like Amara Raaja requires from its suppliers to prohibit child labour, Nagarjuna Cements applies a series of programs for reducing its CO2 emissions, LANCO group of Industries addresses health and safety issues in the workplace whereas GVK works limited has adopted a series of policies for addressing human rights and environmental abuse related to its operations.

Keywords: CSR, limitations, need, objectives, rural development

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37 Use of Beta Blockers in Patients with Reactive Airway Disease and Concomitant Hypertension or Ischemic Heart Disease

Authors: Bharti Chogtu Magazine, Dhanya Soodana Mohan, Shruti Nair, Tanwi Trushna

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The study was undertaken to analyse the cardiovascular drugs being prescribed in patients with concomitant reactive airway disease and hypertension or ischemic heart diseases (IHD). Also, the effect of beta-blockers on respiratory symptoms in these patients was recorded. Data was collected from medical records of patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD. It included demographic details of the patients, diagnosis, drugs prescribed and the patient outcome regarding the exacerbation of asthma symptoms with intake of beta blockers. Medical records of 250 patients were analysed.13% of patients were prescribed beta-blockers. 12% of hypertensive patients, 16.6% of IHD patients and 20% of patients with concomitant hypertension and IHD were prescribed beta blockers. Of the 33 (13%) patients who were on beta-blockers, only 3 patients had an exacerbation of bronchial asthma symptoms. Cardioselective beta-blockers under supervision appear to be safe in patients with reactive airway disease and concomitant hypertension and IHD.

Keywords: beta blockers, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, asthma

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
36 Magnetic Structure and Transitions in 45% Mn Substituted HoFeO₃: A Neutron Diffraction Study

Authors: Karthika Chandran, Pulkit Prakash, Amitabh Das, Santhosh P. N.

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Rare earth orthoferrites (RFeO₃) exhibit interesting and useful magnetic properties like multiferroicity, magnetodielectric coupling, spin reorientation (SR) and exchange bias. B site doped RFeO₃ are attracting attention due to the complex and tuneable magnetic transitions. In this work, 45% Mn-doped HoFeO₃ polycrystalline sample (HoFe₀.₅₅Mn₀.₄₅O₃) was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The magnetic structure and transitions were studied by magnetization measurements and neutron powder diffraction methods. The neutron diffraction patterns were taken at 13 different temperatures from 7°K to 300°K (7°K and 25°K to 300°K in 25°K intervals). The Rietveld refinement was carried out by using a FULLPROF suite. The magnetic space groups and the irreducible representations were obtained by SARAh module. The room temperature neutron diffraction refinement results indicate that the sample crystallizes in an orthorhombic perovskite structure with Pnma space group with lattice parameters a = 5.6626(3) Ǻ, b = 7.5241(3) Ǻ and c = 5.2704(2) Ǻ. The temperature dependent magnetization (M-T) studies indicate the presence of two magnetic transitions in the system ( TN Fe/Mn~330°K and TSR Fe/Mn ~290°K). The inverse susceptibility vs. temperature curve shows a linear behavior above 330°K. The Curie-Weiss fit in this region gives negative Curie constant (-34.9°K) indicating the antiferromagnetic nature of the transition. The neutron diffraction refinement results indicate the presence of mixed magnetic phases Γ₄(AₓFᵧG

Keywords: neutron powder diffraction, rare earth orthoferrites, Rietveld analysis, spin reorientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
35 Feasibility of Deployable Encasing for a CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) in Commercial Aircraft

Authors: Vishnu Nair, Rohan Kapoor

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Recent commercial aircraft crashes demand a paradigm shift in how the CVDRs are located and recovered, particularly if the aircraft crashes in the sea. CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) is most vital component out of the entire wreckage that can be obtained in order to investigate the sequence of events leading to the crash. It has been a taxing and exorbitantly expensive process locating and retrieving the same in the massive water bodies as it was seen in the air crashes in the recent past, taking the unfortunate Malaysia airlines MH-370 crash into account. The study aims to provide an aid to the persisting problem by improving the buoyant as-well-as the aerodynamic properties of the proposed CVDR encasing. Alongside this the placement of the deployable CVDR on the surface of the aircraft and floatability in case of water submersion are key factors which are taken into consideration for a better resolution to the problem. All of which results into the Deployable-CVDR emerging to the surface of the water-body. Also the whole system is designed such that it can be seamlessly integrated with the current crop of commercial aircraft. The work is supported by carrying out a computational study with the help Ansys-Fluent combination.

Keywords: encasing, buoyancy, deployable CVDR, floatability, water submersion

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
34 The Board Structure of Public and Private Sector Companies and Its Impact on Firm Performance: A Study of Fortune 500 Indian Companies from 2006 to 2015

Authors: Gayathri P. Nair

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The focus of this study is to identify whether the board structure has any significant impact on the firm performance and finding out any evidence of being listed in the Fortune 500 list compiled and published by the American business magazine, Fortune and published globally by Time Inc., as the world’s wealthiest companies. The list has been released based on the ranking obtained for the total revenues for the respective fiscal year which has ended on or before March 31st. The study has been conducted on the Indian companies that were listed in the Fortune 500 list for the past 10 years. This study employs a logical regression between the variables, firm performance and board composition as mentioned in the clause 49 of companies act 1956 and 2013. For getting the firm performance, ROA has selected as the key performance metric, as it focuses the management attention on the assets required to run the business. The highlight of the study is that the tools had been applied between public and private sector firms so that, it reveals whether the board composition is helping out to maintain the position in the list. In addition, the findings reveal that apart from independent directors, all other variables have significant impact on firm performance.

Keywords: board structure, Fortune 500 company, firm performance, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
33 NR/PEO Block Copolymer: A Chelating Exchanger for Metal Ions

Authors: M. S. Mrudula, M. R. Gopinathan Nair

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In order to utilize the natural rubber for developing new green polymeric materials for specialty applications, we have prepared natural rubber and polyethylene oxide based polymeric networks by two shot method. The polymeric networks thus formed have been used as chelating exchanger for metal ion binding. Chelating exchangers are, in general, coordinating copolymers containing one or more electron donor atoms such as N, S, O, and P that can form coordinate bonds with metals. Hydrogels are water- swollen network of hydrophilic homopolymer or copolymers. They acquire a great interest due to the facility of the incorporation of different chelating groups into the polymeric networks. Such polymeric hydrogels are promising materials in the field of hydrometallurgical applications and water purification due to their chemical stability. The current study discusses the swelling response of the polymeric networks as a function of time, temperature, pH and [NaCl] and sorption studies. Equilibrium swelling has been observed to depend on both structural aspects of the polymers and environmental factors. Metal ion sorption shows that these polymeric networks can be used for removal, separation, and enrichment of metal ions from aqueous solutions and can play an important role for environmental remediation of municipal and industrial wastewater.

Keywords: block copolymer, adsorption, chelating exchanger, swelling study, polymer, metal complexes

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
32 Double Fortified Salt-An Effective Measure to Prevent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Indian Pregnant Women

Authors: Kejal Joshi Reddy, Sirimavo Nair

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Micronutrient malnutrition affects pregnant women and children extremely with reference to growth manifestations in gestation as well as after birth. Early fetal development affected by iodine and iron deficiency leads to poor life quality. Various researchers have found interesting interrelations between iron and iodine. A few studies on impact assessment of DFS supplementation during pregnancy have been reported in India. Aim To provide meaningful contribution by assessing the efficacy of DFS supplementation on iodine and iron status of pregnant women. Design An interventional study. Setting A semi government hospital of urban Vadodara. Subjects Pregnant women (n=150) enrolled during first trimester (< 12 weeks) and followed up till the end of gestation, n=75 were divided in experimental (DFS supplemented) and control (Non supplemented) group. Results Impact on iron and iodine status was assessed by Hb concentration and UIE respectively. Mean Hb improved significantly (p < 0.001) (+0.42 g/dl) in experimental group and reduced non significantly (-0.20 g/dl) in control group at the end, since DFS provided additional 93 mg of iron within 6 months. Median UIE improved non significantly (278.6 to 299.01µg/L) in experimental group and decreased significantly (p < 0.05) (376.59 to 288.66 µg/L) in control group. Conclusion DFS could improve iron and iodine status of experimental group compared to control group. It is an effective measure to control two essential micronutrient deficiencies together.

Keywords: DFS supplementation, anemia, pregnancy, iodine deficiency, iron

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31 Cultural Boundaries and Mental Health Stigma: A Systemic Review of Interventions to Reduce Opposition of Mental Health Services in Asian American Families

Authors: Tanya L. Patimeteeporn, Murali D. Nair

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There is a wide range of literature that suggests the factors that prevent Asian American families from utilizing mental health services. These factors arise from a combination of cultural perceptions of mental illness, and methods of treating them without the use of a mental health professional. Due to the increased awareness of Asian Americans’ stigmatization to mental health, there has been an effort to create culturally competent interventions for Asian American families that would reduce opposition to mental health services. Assessment of the effectiveness of these interventions reveals practices that integrate traditional healing methods with psychoeducation are more likely to promote receptiveness of mental health services by Asian American families. The documentary in this review, demonstrates these traditional healing methods from various ethnic enclaves in Los Angeles. In addition, mental health professionals who provide these interventions to Asian American families need to consider culture-bound syndromes and the various Asian health philosophies and belief systems in order to provide a culturally sensitive holistic treatment for their clients. However, because the literature on these interventions is limited, there is a need for a larger body of evidence to accurately assess the effectiveness of these culturally competent psychoeducation interventions.

Keywords: Asian American, cultural boundaries, intervention, mental health stigma, psychoeducation, traditional healing

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30 Comparative Analysis of Medical Tourism Industry among Key Nations in Southeast Asia

Authors: Nur A. Azmi, Suseela D. Chandran, Fadilah Puteh, Azizan Zainuddin

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Medical tourism has been associated as a global phenomenon in developed and developing countries in the 21st century. Medical tourism is defined as an activity in which individuals who travel from one country to another country to seek or receive medical healthcare. Based on the global trend, the number of medical tourists is increasing annually, especially in the Southeast Asia (SEA) region. Since the establishment of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967, the SEA nations have worked towards regional integration in medical tourism. The medical tourism in the SEA has become the third-largest sector that contributes towards economic development. Previous research has demonstrated several factors that affect the development of medical tourism. However, despite the already published literature on SEA's medical tourism in the last ten years there continues to be a scarcity of research on niche areas each of the SEA countries. Hence, this paper is significant in enriching the literature in the field of medical tourism particularly in showcasing the niche market of medical tourism among the SEA best players namely Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia. This paper also contributes in offering a comparative analysis between the said nations whether they are complementing or competing with each other in the medical tourism sector. This then, will increase the availability of information in SEA region on medical tourism. The data was collected through an in-depth interview with various stakeholders and private hospitals. The data was then analyzed using two approaches namely thematic analysis (interview data) and document analysis (secondary data). The paper concludes by arguing that the ASEAN countries have specific niche market to promote their medical tourism industry. This paper also concludes that these key nations complement each other in the industry. In addition, the medical tourism sector in SEA region offers greater prospects for market development and expansion that witnessed the emerging of new key players from other nations.

Keywords: healthcare services, medical tourism, medical tourists, SEA region, comparative analysis

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29 Understanding of Corporate Social Responsibility and Non-Governmental Organizations

Authors: Abdul Ghafar, Malini Nair

Abstract:

Non-governmental organizations have been seemed to struggle the battle of balancing many concerns with corporates which may impact on their financial solvency. Some of these concerns relates to uphold the relationship where weighing up the impacts of their involvement with corporates takes priority over the main purpose of creating valuable impacts for communities. To some extent, it can be argued that NGOs are influenced by corporates’ power to tackle contemporary issues rather than eradicating the root causes of such issues and transform the results into more sustainable manner. NGOs spend massive amount of energy, time and resources in order to move some corporates to embrace their social responsibilities. It has become a norm, where an active NGO that is becoming more successful on building partnerships with corporates is perceived to be more socially responsible. In contrast to this, as some researchers argue that the social responsibility for NGOs is not a voluntary act; they must exhibit the core values in all their practices require much attention to address. This article stresses the need of understanding ‘Social Responsibility’ of NGOs that stem from an argument that NGOs tend to act on narrow mandate rather than considering broader outcomes of their CSR initiatives. This paper argues that NGOs must focus on building capabilities of the recipients from CSR initiatives which should serve as a core value of partnerships mandate between NGOs, Corporates and Governments. We argue that SEN’s Capabilities Approach can further enhance the mainstream CSR agenda of NGOs which seems to incline more towards providing palliative solutions to social issues.

Keywords: non-profit organization, corporate social responsibility, partnerships, capabilities approach

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28 Human-factor and Ergonomics in Bottling Lines

Authors: Parameshwaran Nair

Abstract:

Filling and packaging lines for bottling of beverages into glass, PET or aluminum containers require specialized expertise and a different configuration of equipment like – Filler, Warmer, Labeller, Crater/Recrater, Shrink Packer, Carton Erector, Carton Sealer, Date Coder, Palletizer, etc. Over the period of time, the packaging industry has evolved from manually operated single station machines to highly automized high-speed lines. Human factor and ergonomics have gained significant consideration in this course of transformation. A pre-requisite for such bottling lines, irrespective of the container type and size, is to be suitable for multi-format applications. It should also be able to handle format changeovers with minimal adjustment. It should have variable capacity and speeds, for providing great flexibility of use in managing accumulation times as a function of production characteristics. In terms of layout as well, it should demonstrate flexibility for operator movement and access to machine areas for maintenance. Packaging technology during the past few decades has risen to these challenges by a series of major breakthroughs interspersed with periods of refinement and improvement. The milestones are many and varied and are described briefly in this paper. In order to have a brief understanding of the human factor and ergonomics in the modern packaging lines, this paper, highlights the various technologies, design considerations and statutory requirements in packaging equipment for different types of containers used in India.

Keywords: human-factor, ergonomics, bottling lines, automized high-speed lines

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27 Prevalent Affective-Cognitive Functioning of Intimate Partner Offenders: A study with Inmates

Authors: Alexandra Serra, Nair Torrão, Rui G. Serôdio, José A. Lima

Abstract:

The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence and the prevalence of domestic violence legitimatory beliefs, emotional regulation difficulties and, early maladaptive schemas regarding intimidate partner violence in a sample of 50 Portuguese inmates. As expected, results show high levels of legitimatory beliefs, significant difficulties of emotional regulation and a set of high levels of early maladaptive schemas that clearly compromise the inmates affective-cognitive functioning. The most prevalent set of maladaptive schemas are associated with depression, anxiety, hostility, reduced ability to empathize and, dependence on the approval of others, which, combined, may trigger aggressive responses towards the intimate’s partner. Being victimized in their childhood and having committing murder are not differentiating factors on the measures we analyzed, but alcohol consumption may be associated with an intensification of domestic violence legitimatory beliefs. In the discussion of our findings, we compare the pattern of the psychosocial measures we used with the equivalent results obtained with convicted individuals that attend a community compulsory program, specifically designed for domestic violence perpetrators. We also highlight the importance of implementing specialized interventions in prison settings focusing on an evidence-based-practice.

Keywords: domestic violence, intimate partner offenders, incidence and prevalence of legitimatory beliefs, Portuguese inmates

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26 Beyond the White Cube: A Study on the Site Specific Curatorial Practice of Kochi Muziris Biennale

Authors: Girish Chandran, Milu Tigi

Abstract:

Brian O'Doherty's seminal essay, Inside the white Cube theorized and named the dominant mode of display and exhibition of Modern Art museums. Ever since the advent of Biennales and other site-specific public art projects we have seen a departure from the white cube mode of exhibition. The physicality, materiality and context within which an artwork is framed has a role in the production of meaning of public art. Equally, artworks contribute to the meaning and identity of a place. This to and fro relationship between the site and artwork and its influence on the sense of place and production of meaning is being explored in this paper in the context of Kochi Muziris Biennale (KMB). Known as the Peoples biennale with over 5 lakh visitors, it is India's first Biennale and its largest art exhibition of contemporary art. The paper employs place theory and contemporary curatorial theories to present the case. The KMB has an interesting mix of exhibition spaces which includes existing galleries and halls, site-specific projects in public spaces, infill developments and adaptive reuse of heritage and other unused architecture. The biennale was envisioned as an event connecting to the history, socio-political peculiarities of the cultural landscape of Kerala and more specifically Kochi. The paper explains the role of spatial elements in forming a curatorial narrative connected to the above mentioned ambitions.The site-specific nature of exhibition and its use of unused architecture helps in the formation of exhibition spaces unique in type and materiality. The paper argues how this helps in the creation of an 'archeology of the place'. The research elucidates how a composite nature of experience helps connect with the thematic ambitions of the Biennale and how it brings about an aesthetics distinct to KMB.

Keywords: public art, curatorial practice, architecture, place, contemporary art, site specificity

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25 Sizing and Thermal Analysis of Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop Thermal Control Technique for Small Satellite Scientific Applications

Authors: Shanmugasundaram Selvadurai, Amal Chandran

Abstract:

Small satellites have become an alternative low-cost solution for several missions to accomplish specific missions such as Earth imaging, Technology demonstration, Education, and other commercial purposes. Small satellite missions focusing on Infrared imaging applications require lower temperature for scientific instruments and such low temperature can be achieved only using external cryocoolers but the disadvantage is that they generate a large amount of waste heat. Existing passive thermal control techniques are not capable to handle such large thermal loads and hence one of the traditional active Thermal Control System (TCS) is studied for a small satellite configuration. This work aims to downscale the existing Mechanically Pumped Fluid Loop (MPFL) TCS to a 27U CubeSat platform for an imaginary scientific instrument. The temperature-sensitive detector in the instrument considered to be maintained between 130K and 150K to reduce dark current noise and increase the data quality. A Single-Phase fluid based MPFL is chosen for this system-level study and this TCS consists of a microfluid pump, a micro-cryocooler, a fluid accumulator, external heaters, flow regulators, and sensors. This work also explains the thermal control system architecture with a conceptual design, arrangement of all the components, and thermal analysis for different low orbit conditions. Sizing and extensive trade studies for the components are conducted and the results have shown that the Single-phase MPFL system is able to handle the given thermal loads and maintain the satellite’s interface temperature within the desired limit.

Keywords: active thermal control system, satellite thermal, mechanically pumped fluid loop system, cryogenics, cryocooler

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