Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1149

Search results for: bacterial cellulose

1149 Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose Membranes from Nata de Coco for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: Yanin Hosakun, Sujitra Wongkasemjit, Thanyalak Chaisuwan


Carbon dioxide removal from natural gas is an important process because the existence of carbon dioxide in natural gas contributes to pipeline corrosion, reduces the heating value, and takes up volume in the pipeline. In this study, bacterial cellulose was chosen for the CO2/CH4 gas separation membrane due to its unique structure and prominent properties. Additionally, it can simply be obtained by culturing the bacteria so called “Acetobacter xylinum” through fermentation of coconut juice. Bacterial cellulose membranes with and without silver ions were prepared and studied for the separation performance of CO2 and CH4.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, CO2, CH4 separation, membrane, nata de coco

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1148 Application of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 for Cellulase Production from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Surasak Siripornadulsil, Nutt Poomai, Wilailak Siripornadulsil


Due to a high ethanol demand, the approach for effective ethanol production is important and has been developed rapidly worldwide. Several agricultural wastes are highly abundant in celluloses and the effective cellulose enzymes do exist widely among microorganisms. Accordingly, the cellulose degradation using microbial cellulose to produce a low-cost substrate for ethanol production has attracted more attention. In this study, the cellulose producing bacterial strain has been isolated from rich straw and identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter sp. KKU44. This strain is able to grow and exhibit the cellulose activity. The optimal temperature for its growth and cellulose production is 37 °C. The optimal temperature of bacterial cellulose activity is 60 °C. The cellulose enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 is heat-tolerant enzyme. The bacterial culture of 36 h. showed highest cellulose activity at 120 U/mL when grown in LB medium containing 2% (w/v). The capability of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 to grow in cellulosic agricultural wastes as a sole carbon source and exhibiting the high cellulose activity at high temperature suggested that this strain could be potentially developed further as a cellulose degrading strain for a production of low-cost substrate used in ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulose enzyme, bagasse, rice straw, rice husk, acinetobacter sp. KKU44

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1147 Effect of Aeration on Bacterial Cellulose (BC) Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 in Batch Fermentation

Authors: Azila Adnan, Giridhar R. Nair, Mark C. Lay, Janis E. Swan


The effect of aeration on bacterial cellulose (BC) production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus DSM46604 was studied in 5-L bioreactor. Four aeration rates were applied (0.3, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 vvm) in the fermentation media at constant agitation rate, 150 rpm. One vvm enhanced BC concentration (4.4 g/L) and productivity (0.44 g/L/day) while greater agitation rate (1.5 vvm) decreased BC concentration (4.0 g/L) and productivity (0.40 g/L/day).

Keywords: aeration, bacterial cellulose, fermentation, gluconacetobacter xylinus

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1146 Design of a Recombinant Expression System for Bacterial Cellulose Production

Authors: Gizem Buldum, Alexander Bismarck, Athanasios Mantalaris


Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth and it is currently being utilised in a multitude of industrial applications. Over the last 30 years, attention has been paid to the bacterial cellulose (BC), since BC exhibits unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties when compared to plant-based cellulose, including high purity and biocompatibility. Although Acetobacter xylinum is the most efficient producer of BC, it’s long doubling time results in insufficient yields of the cellulose production. This limits widespread and continued use of BC. In this study, E. coli BL21 (DE3) or E. coli HMS cells are selected as host organisms for the expression of bacterial cellulose synthase operon (bcs) of A.xylinum. The expression system is created based on pET-Duet1 and pCDF plasmid vectors, which carry bcs operon. The results showed that all bcs genes were successfully transferred and expressed in E.coli strains. The expressions of bcs proteins were shown by SDS and Native page analyses. The functionality of the bcs operon was proved by congo red binding assay. The effect of culturing temperature and the inducer concentration (IPTG) on cell growth and plasmid stability were monitored. The percentage of plasmid harboring cells induced with 0.025 mM IPTG was obtained as 85% at 22˚C in the end of 10-hr culturing period. It was confirmed that the high output cellulose production machinery of A.xylinum can be transferred into other organisms.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, biopolymer, recombinant expression system, production

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1145 Utilization of Extracted Spirogyra sp. Media Fermented by Gluconacetobacter Xylinum for Cellulose Production as Raw Material for Paper Product

Authors: T. S. Desak Ketut, A.n. Isna, A.a. Ayu, D. P. Ririn, Suharjono Hadiatullah


The requirement of paper from year to year rise rapidly. The raising of cellulose requirement in paper production caused increasing of wood requirement with the effect that limited forest areal because of deforestation. Alternative cellulose that can be used for making paper is microbial cellulose. The objective of this research are to know the effectivity fermentation media Spirogyra sp. by Gluconacetobacter xylinum for cellulose production as material for the making of paper and to know effect composition bacterial cellulose composite product of Gluconacetobacter xylinum in Spirogyra sp. The method, was used, is as follow, 1) the effect assay from variation composition of fermentation media to bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinum. 2) The effect assay of composition bacterial cellulose fermentation producted by Gluconacetobacter xylinum in extracted Spirogyra media to paper quality. The result of this research is variation fermentation media Spirogyra sp. affect to production of cellulose by Gluconacetobacter xylinum. Thus, result showed by the highest value and significantly different in thickness parameter, dry weight and wet weight of nata in sucrose concentration 7,5 % and urea 0,75 %. Composition composite of bacterial cellulose from fermentation product by Gluconacetobacter xylinum in media Spirogyra sp. affect to paper quality from wet nata and dry nata. Parameters thickness, weight, water absorpsion, density and gramatur showed highest result in sucrose concentration 7,5 % and urea concentration 0,75 %, except paper density from dry nata had highest result in sucrose and urea concentration 0%.

Keywords: cellulose, fermentation media, , Gluconacetobacter xylinum, paper, Spirogyra sp.

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1144 Bacterial Cellulose/Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Composites for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Adrian Ionut Nicoara, Denisa Ionela Ene, Alina Maria Holban, Cristina Busuioc


At present, the development of materials with biomedical applications is a domain of interest that will produce a full series of benefits in engineering and medicine. In this sense, it is required to use a natural material, and this paper is focused on the development of a composite material based on bacterial cellulose – hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles with applications in hard tissue. Bacterial cellulose own features like biocompatibility, non-toxicity character and flexibility. Moreover, the bacterial cellulose can be conjugated with different forms of active silver to possess antimicrobial activity. Hydroxyapatite is well known that can mimic at a significant level the activity of the initial bone. The material was synthesized by using an ultrasound probe and finally characterized by several methods. Thereby, the morphological properties were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Because the synthesized material has medical application in restore the tissue and to fight against microbial invasion, the samples were tested from the biological point of view by evaluating the biodegradability in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and simulated body fluid (SBF) and moreover the antimicrobial effect was performed on Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and fungi Candida albicans. The results reveal that the obtained material has specific characteristics for bone regeneration.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, biomaterials, hydroxyapatite, scaffolds materials

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1143 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman


Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1142 Cellulose Extraction from Pomelo Peel: Synthesis of Carboxymethyl Cellulose

Authors: Jitlada Chumee, Drenpen Seeburin


The cellulose was extracted from pomelo peel and an etherification reaction used for converting cellulose to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). The pomelo peel was refluxed with 0.5 M HCl and 1 M NaOH solution at 90°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The cellulose was bleached with calcium hypochlorite and used as precursor. The precursor was soaked in mixed solution between isopropyl alcohol and 40%w/v NaOH for 12 h. After that, chloroacetic acid was added and reacted at 55°C for 6 h. The optimum condition was 5 g of cellulose: 0.25 mole of NaOH : 0.07 mole of ClCH2COOH with 78.00% of yield. Moreover, the product had 0.54 of degree of substitution (DS).

Keywords: pomelo peel, carboxymethyl cellulose, bioplastic, extraction

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1141 Rheological Properties of Cellulose/TBAF/DMSO Solutions and Their Application to Fabrication of Cellulose Hydrogel

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Jae Eun Nam, Young Hoon Roh, Chul Soo Shin


The development of hydrogels with a high mechanical strength is important for numerous applications of hydrogels. As a material for tough hydrogels, cellulose has attracted much interest. However, cellulose cannot be melted and is very difficult to be dissolved in most solvents. Therefore, its dissolution in tetrabutylammonium fluoride/dimethyl sulfoxide (TBAF/DMSO) solvents has attracted researchers for chemical processing of cellulose. For this reason, studies about rheological properties of cellulose/TBAF/DMSO solution will provide useful information. In this study, viscosities of cellulose solutions prepared using different amounts of cellulose and TBAF in DMSO were measured. As expected, the viscosity of cellulose solution decreased with respect to the increasing volume of DMSO. The most viscose cellulose solution was achieved at a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF regardless of their contents in DMSO. At a 1:1 mass ratio of cellulose to TBAF, the formation of cellulose nanoparticles (467 nm) resulted in a dramatic increase in the viscosity, which led to the fabrication of 3D cellulose hydrogels.

Keywords: cellulose, TBAF/DMSO, viscosity, hydrogel

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1140 Physicochemical Characterization of Mercerized Cellulose-Supported Nickel-Oxide

Authors: Sherif M. A. S. Keshk, Hisham S. M. Abd-Rabboh, Mohamed S. Hamdy, Ibrahim H. A. Badr


Microwave radiation was applied to synthesize nanoparticles of nickel oxide supported on pretreated cellulose with metal acetate in the presence of NaOH. Optimization, in terms of irradiation time and metal concentration, was investigated. FT-IR spectrum of cellulose/NiO spectrum shows a band at 445 cm^-1 that is related to the Ni–O stretching vibration of NiO6 octahedral in the cubic NiO structure. cellulose/NiO showed similar XRD pattern of cellulose I and exhibited sharpened reflection peak at 2q = 29.8°, corresponding to (111) plane of NiO, with two weak broad peaks at 48.5°, and 49.2°, representing (222) planes of NiO. XPS spectrum of mercerized cellulose/NiO composite showed did not show any peaks corresponding to Na ion.

Keywords: cellulose, mercerized cellulose, cellulose/zinc and nickeloxides composite, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, Raman spectrum

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1139 Mechanical Properties of Organic Polymer and Exfoliated Graphite Reinforced Bacteria Cellulose Paper

Authors: T. Thompson, E. F. Zegeye


Bacterial Cellulose (BC) is a structural organic compound produced in the anaerobic process. This material can be a useful eco-friendly substitute for commercial textiles that are used in industries today. BC is easily and sustainably produced and has the capabilities to be used as a replacement in textiles. However, BC is extremely fragile when it completely dries. This research was conducted to improve the mechanical properties of the BC by reinforcing with an organic polymer and exfoliated graphite (EG). The BC films were grown over a period of weeks in a green tea and kombucha solution at 30 °C, then cleaned and added to an enhancing solution. The enhancing solutions were a mixture of 2.5 wt% polymer and 2.5 wt% latex solution, a 5 wt% polymer solution, a 0.20 wt% graphite solution and were each allowed to sit in a furnace for 48 h at 50 °C. Tensile test samples were prepared and tested until fracture at a strain rate of 8 mm/min. From the research with the addition of a 5 wt% polymer solution, the flexibility of the BC has significantly improved with the maximum strain significantly larger than that of the base sample. The addition of EG has also increased the modulus of elasticity of the BC by about 25%.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, exfoliated graphite, kombucha scoby, tensile test

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1138 Identification of Cellulose-Hydrolytic Thermophiles Isolated from Sg. Klah Hot Spring Based on 16S rDNA Gene Sequence

Authors: M. J. Norashirene, Y. Zakiah, S. Nurdiana, I. Nur Hilwani, M. H. Siti Khairiyah, M. J. Muhamad Arif


In this study, six bacterial isolates of a slightly thermophilic organism from the Sg. Klah hot spring, Malaysia were successfully isolated and designated as M7T55D1, M7T55D2, M7T55D3, M7T53D1, M7T53D2 and M7T53D3 respectively. The bacterial isolates were screened for their cellulose hydrolytic ability on Carboxymethlycellulose agar medium. The isolated bacterial strains were identified morphologically, biochemically and molecularly with the aid of 16S rDNA sequencing. All of the bacteria showed their optimum growth at a slightly alkaline pH of 7.5 with a temperature of 55°C. All strains were Gram-negative, non-spore forming type, strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive with the ability to produce thermostable cellulase. Based on BLASTn results, bacterial isolates of M7T55D2 and M7T53D1 gave the highest homology (97%) with similarity to Tepidimonas ignava while isolates M7T55D1, M7T55D3, M7T53D2 and M7T53D3 showed their closest homology (97%-98%) with Tepidimonas thermarum. These cellulolytic thermophiles might have a commercial potential to produce valuable thermostable cellulase.

Keywords: cellulase, cellulolytic, thermophiles, 16S rDNA gene

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1137 Microcrystalline Cellulose (MCC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fiber via Simultaneous Ultrasonic and Alkali Treatment

Authors: Ridzuan Ramli, Norhafzan Junadi, Mohammad D.H. Beg, Rosli M. Yunus


In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) cellulose which was earlier isolated from oil palm EFB fibre. In order to isolate the cellulose, the chlorination method was carried out. Then, the MCC was prepared by simultaneous ultrasonic and alkali treatment from the isolated α-cellulose. Based on mass balance calculation, the yields for MCC obtained from EFB was 44%. For fiber characterization, it is observed that the chemical composition of the hemicellulose and lignin for all samples decreased while composition for cellulose increased. The structural property of the MCC was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and the result shows that the MCC produced is a cellulose-I polymorph, with 73% crystallinity.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, microcrystalline cellulose, ultrasonic, alkali treatment, x-ray diffraction

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1136 Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl Cellulose from Rice Stubble Cellulose

Authors: Rungsinee Sothornvit, Pattrathip Rodsamran


Rice stubble consists of a high content of cellulose and can be synthesized as a cellulose derivative such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to value added products from agricultural waste. Therefore, the synthesis conditions and characterization the properties of CMC from rice stubble (CMCr) were investigated. Hemicellulose and lignin were first removed from the rice stubble using 10% NaOH at 55 C for 3 h and 5% NaOCl at 75 C for 15 min, respectively. Rice stubble cellulose was swollen in 30% NaOH and isopropanol as a solvent. The content of chloroacetic acid (5–7 g in 5 g of alkali cellulose), reaction temperature (50 and 70 C) and time (180, 270 and 360 min) were explored to obtain CMC. It was found that synthesis conditions did not affect significantly on moisture content and pH of CMCr. The best quality of CMCr was synthesized by using 7 g of chloroacetic acid and reacted at 50 C for 180 min based on 5 g of rice stubble cellulose. Degree of substitution (DS), viscosity and purity of CMCr were 0.64, 36.03 cP and 90.18 %, respectively. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl substituents. CMCr was categorized in commercial scale as a low viscosity material and it can be used as film forming packaging materials for food and pharmaceutical product applications.

Keywords: rice stubble, cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose, degree of substitution, purity

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1135 Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Noridah Abdullah, Mimi Sakinah


Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, castor shell, cellulose, biowaste

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1134 Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Ag/ZnO Sub-Microparticles Deposited on Various Cellulose Surfaces

Authors: Lukas Munster, Pavel Bazant, Ivo Kuritka


Zinc oxide sub-micro particles and metallic silver nano particles (Ag/ZnO) were deposited on micro crystalline cellulose surface by a fast, simple and environmentally friendly one-pot microwave assisted solvo thermal synthesis in an open vessel system equipped with an external reflux cooler. In order to increase the interaction between the surface of cellulose and the precipitated Ag/ZnO particles, oxidized form of cellulose (cellulose dialdehyde, DAC) prepared by periodate oxidation of micro crystalline cellulose was added to the reaction mixture of Ag/ZnO particle precursors and untreated micro crystalline cellulose. The structure and morphology of prepared hybrid powder materials were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive analysis (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen absorption method (BET). Microscopic analysis of the prepared materials treated by ultra-sonication showed that Ag/ZnO particles deposited on the cellulose/DAC sample exhibit increased adhesion to the surface of the cellulose substrate which can be explained by the DAC adhesive effect in comparison with the material prepared without DAC addition.

Keywords: microcrystalline cellulose, microwave synthesis, silver nanoparticles, zinc oxide sub-microparticles, cellulose dialdehyde

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1133 Biocellulose as Platform for the Development of Multifunctional Materials

Authors: Junkal Gutierrez, Hernane S. Barud, Sidney J. L. Ribeiro, Agnieszka Tercjak


Nowadays the interest on green nanocomposites and on the development of more environmental friendly products has been increased. Bacterial cellulose has been recently investigated as an attractive environmentally friendly material for the preparation of low-cost nanocomposites. The formation of cellulose by laboratory bacterial cultures is an interesting and attractive biomimetic access to obtain pure cellulose with excellent properties. Additionally, properties as molar mass, molar mass distribution, and the supramolecular structure could be control using different bacterial strain, culture mediums and conditions, including the incorporation of different additives. This kind of cellulose is a natural nanomaterial, and therefore, it has a high surface-to-volume ratio which is highly advantageous in composites production. Such property combined with good biocompatibility, high tensile strength, and high crystallinity makes bacterial cellulose a potential material for applications in different fields. The aim of this investigation work was the fabrication of novel hybrid inorganic-organic composites based on bacterial cellulose, cultivated in our laboratory, as a template. This kind of biohybrid nanocomposites gathers together excellent properties of bacterial cellulose with the ones displayed by typical inorganic nanoparticles like optical, magnetic and electrical properties, luminescence, ionic conductivity and selectivity, as well as chemical or biochemical activity. In addition, the functionalization of cellulose with inorganic materials opens new pathways for the fabrication of novel multifunctional hybrid materials with promising properties for a wide range of applications namely electronic paper, flexible displays, solar cells, sensors, among others. In this work, different pathways for fabrication of multifunctional biohybrid nanopapers with tunable properties based on BC modified with amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) (EPE) block copolymer, sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (titanium, vanadium and a mixture of both oxides) and functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles will be presented. In situ (biosynthesized) and ex situ (at post-production level) approaches were successfully used to modify BC membranes. Bacterial cellulose based biocomposites modified with different EPE block copolymer contents were developed by in situ technique. Thus, BC growth conditions were manipulated to fabricate EPE/BC nanocomposite during the biosynthesis. Additionally, hybrid inorganic/organic nanocomposites based on BC membranes and inorganic nanoparticles were designed via ex-situ method, by immersion of never-dried BC membranes into different nanoparticle solutions. On the one hand, sol-gel synthesized nanoparticles (titanium, vanadium and a mixture of both oxides) and on the other hand superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), Fe2O3-PEO solution. The morphology of designed novel bionanocomposites hybrid materials was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to characterized obtained materials from the point of view of future applications different techniques were employed. On the one hand, optical properties were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy and spectrofluorimetry and on the other hand electrical properties were studied at nano and macroscale using electric force microscopy (EFM), tunneling atomic force microscopy (TUNA) and Keithley semiconductor analyzer, respectively. Magnetic properties were measured by means of magnetic force microscopy (MFM). Additionally, mechanical properties were also analyzed.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, block copolymer, advanced characterization techniques, nanoparticles

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1132 Production and Characterization of Nanofibrillated Cellulose from Kenaf Core (Hibiscus cannabinus) via Ultrasonic

Authors: R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan, M. A. Ainun Zuriyati


This study focuses on production and characterizations of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from kenaf core. NFC was produced by employing ultrasonic treatments in aqueous solution. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used to study the size and morphology structure. The chemical and characteristics of the cellulose and NFC were studied using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and viscometer. Degrees of polymerization (DP) of cellulose and NFC were obtained via viscosity value. Results showed that 5 to 47 nm diameters of fibrils were measured. Moreover, the thermal stability of the NFC was increased as compared to the cellulose that confirmed by TGA analysis. It was also found that NFC had higher crystallinity and lower viscosity than the cellulose which were measured by XRD and viscometer, respectively. The NFC characteristics have enormous prospect related to bio-nanocomposite.

Keywords: crystallinity, kenaf core, nanofibrillated cellulose, ultrasonic

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1131 Prevention of Cellulose and Hemicellulose Degradation on Fungal Pretreatment of Water Hyacinth Using Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

Authors: Eka Sari


Potential degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the fungal pretreatment of lignocellulose has led to fermentable sugar yield will be low. This potential is even greater if the pretreatment of lignocellulosic that have low lignin such as water hyacinth. In order to prepare lignocellulose that have low lignin content, especially water hyacinth efforts are needed to prevent the degradation of cellulose and cellulose. One attempt to prevent the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose is to replace the substrate needed by the addition of a simple carbon compounds such as glucose. Glucose sources used in this study is molasses. The purpose of this research to get the right of concentration of molasses to reduce the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment process and obtain fermentable sugar yields on high. The results showed that the addition of molasses with a concentration of 2% is able to reduce the degradation of cellulose from 25.53% to 10% and hemicellulose degradation of 20.12% to 10.89%. Fermentable sugar yields produced only reached 43.91%. To improve the yield of glucose is then performed additional combonation of molasses of 2% molasses and co-factor Mn2+ 0.5%. Fermentable sugar yield increased to 67.66% and the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose decreased to 2.44% and 2.71%, respectively.

Keywords: water hyacinth, cellulose, hemicelulose, degradation, pretreatment, fungus

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1130 Development of Kenaf Cellulose CNT Paper for Electrical Conductive Paper

Authors: A. W. Fareezal, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, M. Z. Shazana, I. Rushdan


Kenaf cellulose CNT paper production was for lightweight, high strength and excellent flexibility electrical purposes. Aqueous dispersions of kenaf cellulose and varied weight percentage of CNT were combined with the assistance of PEI solution by using ultrasonic probe. The solution was dried using vacuum filter continued with air drying in condition room for 2 days. Circle shape conductive paper was characterized with Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and therma gravimetric analysis (TGA).

Keywords: cellulose, CNT paper, PEI solution, electrical conductive paper

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1129 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Nanocomposite from Nanofibrillated Cellulose

Authors: M. Z. Shazana, R. Rosazley, M. A. Izzati, A. W. Fareezal, I. Rushdan, A. B. Suriani, S. Zakaria


There is an increasing interest in the development of flexible energy storage for application of Carbon Nanotubes and nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). In this study, nanocomposite is consisting of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) mixed with suspension of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB). The use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT) as additive nanocomposite was improved the conductivity and mechanical properties of nanocomposite from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). The nanocomposite were characterized for electrical conductivity and mechanical properties in uniaxial tension, which were tensile to measure the bond of fibers in nanocomposite. The processing route is environmental friendly which leads to well-mixed structures and good results as well.

Keywords: carbon nanotube (CNT), nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), mechanical properties, electrical conductivity

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1128 Effect of Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Polymer on the Release Profile of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release Pellets

Authors: Shahana Sharmin


In the present study, the effect of cellulose polymers Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose was evaluated on the release profile of drug from sustained release pellet. Diltiazem Hydrochloride, an antihypertensive, cardio-protective agent and slow channel blocker were used as a model drug to evaluate its release characteristics from different pellets formulations. Diltiazem Hydrochloride sustained release pellets were prepared by drug loading (drug binder suspension) on neutral pellets followed by different percentages of spraying, i.e. 2%,4%, 6%, 8% and 10% coating suspension using ethyl cellulose and hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose polymer in a fixed 85:15 ratios respectively. The in vitro dissolution studies of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from these sustained release pellets were carried out in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hrs using USP-I method. Statistically, significant differences were found among the drug release profile from different formulations. Polymer content with the highest concentration of Ethyl cellulose on the pellets shows the highest release retarding rate of the drug. The retarding capacity decreases with the decreased concentration of ethyl cellulose. The release mechanism was explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s equations. Finally, the study showed that the profile and kinetics of drug release were functions of polymer type, polymer concentration & the physico-chemical properties of the drug.

Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride, ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, release kinetics, sustained release pellets

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1127 Bacterial Cellulose: A New Generation Antimicrobial Wound Dressing Biomaterial

Authors: Bhavana V. Mohite, Satish V. Patil


Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative for plant cellulose (PC) that prevents global warming leads to preservation of nature. Although PC and BC have the same chemical structure, BC is superior with its properties like its size, purity, porosity, degree of polymerization, crystallinity and water holding capacity, thermal stability etc. On this background the present study focus production and applications of BC as antimicrobial wound dressing material. BC was produced by Gluconoacetobacter hansenii (strain NCIM 2529) under shaking condition and statistically enhanced upto 7.2 g/l from 3.0 g/l. BC was analyzed for its physico mechanical, structural and thermal characteristics. BC produced at shaking condition exhibits more suitable properties in support to its high performance applications. The potential of nano silver impregnated BC was determined for sustained release modern antimicrobial wound dressing material by swelling ratio, mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. BC in nanocomposite form with other synthetic polymer like PVA shows improvement in its properties such as swelling ratio (757% to 979%) and sustainable release of antibacterial agent. The high drug loading and release potential of BC was evidenced in support to its nature as antimicrobial wound dressing material. The nontoxic biocompatible nature of BC was confirmed by MTT assay on human epidermal cells with 90% cell viability that allows its application as a regenerative biomaterial. Thus, BC as a promising new generation antimicrobial wound dressing material was projected.

Keywords: agitated culture, biopolymer, gluconoacetobacter hansenii, nanocomposite

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1126 Optimizing Fermented Paper Production Using Spyrogira sp. Interpolating with Banana Pulp

Authors: Hadiatullah, T. S. D. Desak Ketut, A. A. Ayu, A. N. Isna, D. P. Ririn


Spirogyra sp. is genus of microalgae which has a high carbohydrate content that used as a best medium for bacterial fermentation to produce cellulose. This study objective to determine the effect of pulp banana in the fermented paper production process using Spirogyra sp. and characterizing of the paper product. The method includes the production of bacterial cellulose, assay of the effect fermented paper interpolating with banana pulp using Spirogyra sp., and the assay of paper characteristics include gram-mage paper, water assay absorption, thickness, power assay of tensile resistance, assay of tear resistance, density, and organoleptic assay. Experiments were carried out with completely randomized design with a variation of the concentration of sewage treatment in the fermented paper production interpolating banana pulp using Spirogyra sp. Each parameter data to be analyzed by Anova variance that continued by real difference test with an error rate of 5% using the SPSS. Nata production results indicate that different carbon sources (glucose and sugar) did not show any significant differences from cellulose parameters assay. Significantly different results only indicated for the control treatment. Although not significantly different from the addition of a carbon source, sugar showed higher potency to produce high cellulose. Based on characteristic assay of the fermented paper showed that the paper gram-mage indicated that the control treatment without interpolation of a carbon source and a banana pulp have better result than banana pulp interpolation. Results of control gram-mage is 260 gsm that show optimized by cardboard. While on paper gram-mage produced with the banana pulp interpolation is about 120-200 gsm that show optimized by magazine paper and art paper. Based on the density, weight, water absorption assays, and organoleptic assay of paper showing the highest results in the treatment of pulp banana interpolation with sugar source as carbon is 14.28 g/m2, 0.02 g and 0.041 g/cm2.minutes. The conclusion found that paper with nata material interpolating with sugar and banana pulp has the potential formulation to produce super-quality paper.

Keywords: cellulose, fermentation, grammage, paper, Spirogyra sp.

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1125 Effect of Dietary Cellulose Levels on the Growth Parameters of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: Keri Alhadi Ighwela, Aziz Bin Ahmad, A. B. Abol-Munafi


Three purified diets were formulated using fish meal, soya bean, wheat flour, palm oil, minerals and maltose. The carbohydrate in the diets was increased from 5 to 15% by changing the cellulose content to study the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on the growth parameters of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.The protein and the lipid contents were kept constant in all the diets. The results showed that, weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilisation and hepatosomatic index of fish fed the diet containing 15% cellulose were the lowest among all groups. Addition, the fish fed the diet containing 5% cellulose had the best specific growth rate, and food conversion ratio. While, there was no effect of the dietary cellulose levels on condition factor and survival rate. These results indicate that Nile tilapia fingerlings are able to utilize dietary cellulose does not exceed 10% in their feed for optimum growth.

Keywords: dietary cellulose, growth parameters, oreochromis niloticus, purified diets

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1124 Khaya Cellulose Supported Copper Nanoparticles for Chemo Selective Aza-Michael Reactions

Authors: M. Shaheen Sarkar, M. Lutfor Rahman, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff


We prepared a highly active Khaya cellulose supported poly(hydroxamic acid) copper nanoparticles by the surface modification of Khaya cellulose through graft co-polymerization and subsequently amidoximation. The Cu-nanoparticle (0.05 mol% to 50 mol ppm) was selectively promoted Aza-Michael reaction of aliphatic amines to give the corresponding alkylated products at room temperature in methanol. The supported nanoparticle was easy to recover and reused seven times without significance loss of its activity.

Keywords: Aza-Michael, copper, cellulose, nanoparticles, poly(hydroxamic acid)

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1123 Synthesis of NiNW/ Cellulose Nano Hybrid via Liquid-Phase Reduction

Authors: Siti Rahmah Shamsuri, Eiichiro Matsubara, Shohei Shiomi


The 1D nanomaterial is far surpassed the 0D nanomaterial. It does not just offer most of the benefit of the 0D nanomaterial such as the large surface area, a great number of active site and an efficient interfacial charge transfer but also can assemble into free-standing and flexible electrode due to their high aspect ratio. Thus, it is essential to develop a simple and ease synthesis of this 1D nanomaterial for the practical application. Here, nickel nanowire/cellulose hybrid has been successfully fabricated via a simple liquid-phase method with the assist of the magnetic field. A finer nickel nanowire was heterogeneously nucleated on the surface of the cellulose fiber, which demonstrated the effect of the hydroxyl group on the cellulose structure. The result of the nickel nanowire size was found to vary from 66-114 nm. A detailed discussion on the mechanism of the nickel nanowire/ cellulose hybrid formation is also shown in this paper.

Keywords: cellulose nanofiber, liquid-phase reduction, metal nanowire, nano hybrid material

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1122 Pretreatment of Cattail (Typha domingensis) Fibers to Obtain Cellulose Nanocrystals

Authors: Marivane Turim Koschevic, Maycon dos Santos, Marcello Lima Bertuci, Farayde Matta Fakhouri, Silvia Maria Martelli


Natural fibers are rich raw materials in cellulose and abundant in the world, its use for the cellulose nanocrystals extraction is promising as an example cited is the cattail, macrophyte native weed in South America. This study deals with the pre-treatment cattail of crushed fibers, at six different methods of mercerization, followed by the use of bleaching. As a result, have found The positive effects of treating fibers by means of optical microscopy and spectroscopy, Fourier transform (FTIR). The sample selected for future testing of cellulose nanocrystals extraction was treated in 2.5% NaOH for 2 h, 60 °C in the first stage and 30vol H2O2, NaOH 5% in the proportion 30/70% (v/v) for 1 hour 60 °C, followed by treatment at 50/50% (v/v) 15 minutes, 50°C, with the same constituents of the solution.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystal, chemical treatment, mercerization, natural fibers

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1121 Microstructure Study of NanoCrystalline Cellulose Obtained from Cotton Linter

Authors: Farid Amidi-Fazli


Problems and disadvantages of using conventional plastics are more apparent in recent years and have attracted researchers' attention. Polymers from natural resources or bio polymers represent a suitable replacement to overcome to the disadvantages of plastics. But due to the some flaws of bio polymers, using suitable filler almost seems necessary. Nanocrystalline cellulose with low cost and availability can be applied as appropriate filler. In this study nanocrystalline cellulose was produced from cotton Linter and was characterized. The cotton Linter was hydrolyzed in sulfuric acid then neutralized by the two different concentrations of NaOH. The resulted suspension was treated by ultrasound waves. Process efficiency was determined as 90%. The final product was studied using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction technique. The obtained diagram of XRD experiment confirmed that the produced material was nanocrystalline cellulose. Also percentage of crystallinity was calculated as 84% in the obtained material as well as the size of crystals. It can be said that the applied method is a rapid and easy method for the production of nanocrystalline cellulose.

Keywords: nanocrystalline cellulose, crystallinity, XRD, cotton linter

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1120 Synthesis of Ni/Mesopore Silica-Alumina Catalyst for Hydrocracking of Pyrolyzed α-Cellulose

Authors: Wega Trisunaryanti, Hesty Kusumastuti, Iip Izul Falah, Muhammad Fajar Marsuki, Rahmad Nuryanto


Synthesis of Ni supported on mesopore silica-alumina (MSA) for hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose had been carried out. The silica and alumina were extracted from Sidoarjo mud. Gelatin from catfish bone was used as a template for the mesopore design. The MSA was synthesized by using hydrothermal method at 100 °C for 24 h and calcined at 550 °C for 4 h then characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD) and Nitrogen Gas Sorption Analyzer (GAS). The Ni metal was loaded to the MSA by wet impregnation method. The catalytic activity in the hydrocracking reaction of pyrolyzed α-cellulose was carried out at 450 °C for 2 h. The MSA synthesized in this work is an amorphous material with specific surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of 212.29 m²/g, 1.29 cm³/g, and 20.05 nm, respectively. The Ni/MSA catalyst produced 73.02 wt.% of liquid product in hydrocracking of pyrolyzed α-cellulose.

Keywords: catalyst, gelatin, hydrocracking, mesopore silica-alumina, α-cellulose

Procedia PDF Downloads 47